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by FRANKLIN EDGE RT ON, Sterling Professor of 
Sanskrit and Comparative Philology, Yale University 



Delhi Varanasi Patna Madras 

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By arrangement with Yale University Press , New Haven 

First Edition: New Haven, 1953 
Reprint : Delhi, 1970, 1972, 1977, 1985 

ISBN : 0-89581-180-4 

Printed in India by Shantilal Jain at Shri Jainendra Press 
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Narendra Prakash Jain for Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi 1 10 007. 


a-, an-, negative prefix: (1) prefixed to finite verbs, 
as rarely in Skt. (Renou p. 175) but rather often in Pali 
(CPD s.v., 7);"' here not common: apasyanti SP 324.2; 
anatikramamo Mv ii.80.8; anicchiyati (?) Mv iii.295.18; 
see § 23.17; (2) in sense described for Pali in CPD s.v. 2, 
a cpd. in a- following the same word without a-, and 
preceding a form of kr: samitim asamitim krtva Divy 
41.10, lit. making the assembly no assembly , i. e. quitting 
the assembly; tasya vacanam avacanam krtva Divy 41.28, 
disregarding his advice. See an-a-. 

1 amsa, m., (1) (= Pali amsa, only in comp.) (part, 
and so) time (as past, present, future): Mv i. 160.8, 9 
(prose) atite amse . . . anagate amse . . . pratyutpanne 
am$e (in sense of usual adhvani, see adhvan, which is 
used in Sutral. xx-xxi.57 and Mvy 151-153 in parallel 
to this passage, on the 18 avenika buddha-dharma); 
atite am£e Mv i.161.6; atltamsagata ( = Pali atltamsa-) 
Mvy 6438; (2) portion, in maitra amsa portion of affection , 
virtually = love (so Pali cpd. mettamsa, It. 22.4, not adj. 
with PTSD but noun love, °so sabbabhutesu veram tassa 
na kenaci, he has love for all creatures, has no enmity with 
anyone); maitrenamsena sphuritva, having suffused with 
love Divy 60.24 (so with mss.); 61.12 (here mss. and ed. 
maitreyamsena, a corruption due to repeated occurrence 
of name Maitreya in the context); 66.18 (here kept in 
ed. with mss.); see sphurati; a variant form, in comp, 
with maitra or maitra, seems to occur in maitrasa-J:a, 
q.v. — See astamsa. 

[2 amsa-dhatri, see amsa-]. 

-amsika (cf. 1 amsa, 2), ifc., belonging to the part 
of; pertaining to; sometimes with vrddhi of first syllable 
of prior member of cpd.: maranamsika Mvy 5345, upa- 
pattyamsika 5346, belonging to ( the part of) death, birth; 
Tib. char gtogs pa, included in the division of (Das); aupa- 
pattyarasika = upa° Siks 226.7 ft. (Sal 87.10 IT.); 253.3, 
5. Equivalent to -amsika are -antika in maranantika 
Siks 226.7 ff. (same passage Sal) and -arigika in aupa- 
pattyahgika Lank 277.6 (said of citta). It is natural to 
suspect that- corruption of tradition is responsible for 
one or two of these. But (1) all can be plausibly explained 
as of independent origin; (2) -amsika is well authenticated, 
while -antika is supported by Pali (maranantika Miln. 

amsu (= Skt. amsuka), cloth , or garment (less prob- 
ably thread, a meaning recorded for Skt. amsu and for 
Pali amsu): -kasikamSu-ksomakadyah Divy 316.27. 

amsa-dhatri, also written am6a-, and in mss. atsa-, 
lit. * shoulder nurse 9 , one who carries a baby; usual sub- 
stitute for anka-dh°, q.v.: Divy 3.13; 26.9; 58.11; 99.25; 
271.18; 441.22; MSY i.132.20; iii.134.7; Av i.15.11 and 
often. App. secondary to anka-, yet supported by MSV 
iii.l 34.12 dhatry-amsa-gato nisanno. 

alfana, adj. (= Pali id., see kana, niskana), free from 
the red coating under the husk (of rice): (Sali) Mv i.342.1, 7; 

akanaka = prec. : -Salim akanakam Divy— 120.2. 
Akantaka, nt., n. of a Buddhaksetra: Mv i. 123.12. 
akati-gatha (cf. Pkt. akai, unnumbered , infinite ), 
having numberless (a-kati) verses , or an infinitely numerous) 
verse; of the savitrl stanza, Divy 638.2. In an examination 
on Vedic lore: pathatu bhavan savitrlm. (Answer:) 

akatigatha. — katyaksara savitrl, katiganda, katipada. 
(Answer:) caturvimsatyaksara, triganda, astaksarapada. 

akanistha (= Pali akanittha; see also aghanistha), 
( 1) n. of the fifth and highest class of the Suddhavasakayika 
gods (see deva), and (2) sg., n. of the region where they 
live (Bbh 61.4 yavad akanisthad; but more normally 
yavad akanisthabhavanam, Divy 162.16, or the like). 
They dwell brahmaloke SP 359.1. Often mentioned alone 
as the highest of the ‘form’ (rupavacara) gods, as also 
in the lists of classes of gods: Mvy 3106; Dharmas 128; 
LV 47.1; 150.11; 227.2; 266.8; 342.18; Mv i.266.3, 7; 

ii. 314.3, 9; 319.7; 349.2; iii.139.3; Divy 68.17; 367.14; 
Av i.5.4; ii.105.11; RP 6.16; Mmk 19.10; 69.7; Bbh 69.19; 
360.26; Sukh 64.11. Sometimes in sg. of a single member 
of the class, LV 44.13. 

akanisthika (prec. plus -ika), adj. with deva, be- 
longing to the akanistha class : °ikadibhir devaih Karmav 

Akampitasagara, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.3. 
akampiya, adj. ( = Pali id., Skt. °pya), unshakable : 
Gv 25.21 (vs). 

Akampya, m., so read with v.l. in Mironov for 
Akampya, n. of a Bodhisattva-samadhi: Mvy 739; Tib. 
mi (b)sgul pa — a-kampya. 

Akampyanetra, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.8. 
Akardama, nt., n. of a Buddhaksetra: Mv i.124.1. 
akalpika, adj. (Pali akappiya), improper; cf. kalpika, 
and next: MSV i.234.5; -dana, gift of something that is 
improper, Siks 271.7; Bbh 123.8; -pradana Karmav 

a-kalpya, adj. (= prec., and Pali akappiya; not in 
Skt., nor is kalpya, q.v., there recorded in a corresponding 
sense), improper: Lank 249.13, of mamsarudhirahara. 

akalmasa, adj. (== Pali akammasa), pure (lit. not 
variegated; in this sense once in SB., otherwise in Skt. 
only as n. pr.): Mv i.211.11 — ii.15.10, along with parisud- 
dha, of brahmacarya; i. 239. 5-6, of ceto-pranidhana; 

iii. 343.2, of Buddha’s voice. 

akakolina, ?(said of water): °ne jatlkusumanarn 
panlye juhuyat Mmk 313.26; °ne paniyakumbharn nive- 
dayet 320.1, he shall offer a far of water in (water that is?) 
ak°; possibly free from (the plant) kdkoli (?). 

akaca, adj. (— Pali id.; etym. uncertain; PTSD not 
glass, originally of jewels; it is once applied to jewels, 
along with vimala and suddha, in DN ii.244.10 = Jat. 
ii.418.20; another theory in Senart i note 508), free from 
blemish or impurity: achidram akacam avranam anaSravam 
te caranam Mv i.164.7. 

akamaka, adj. (= Pali id.; Skt. akama), unwilling; 
in spite of ( adverse ) desire: °kanam matapitrnam Mv 
ii.68.20 and 117.18; °ka(h) iii.92.6; °kena Siks‘l9.21. 

a-kamakamin, adj. (== Pali id.; Skt. kama°, BhG. 
2.70), not lusting after lusts : sthitalapa (see this) °nas ca 
bhavanti Mv i.134.10 (wrongly Senart); °mi-tva, state of 
being ak°, Mv i. 153. 11. 

akamam, adv., whether he likes or not, (even) un- 
willingly, willy-nilly : Prat 496.14. 

akayika (or °ka, n. pi. °ka), a kind of toy (Index 
wrongly a game): krldapanikani bhavanti, tad yatha, 
akayika . . . Divy 475.18 (cf. sakayikS). 
akaryopaka, see upaka. 




a-kala (m.?, neg. of 2 kala 1, day, q.v.; cf. Skt. 
vikala), night : akalat kallbhutam Divy 336.14, from night 
it became day ; akalibhutam, it became night , Divy 335.17; 
337.11 (kalad aka°). 

akalaka, (1) nt. (from akala), food ( delicacies ) suitable 
for eating at other than meal times (= akalakhadyaka, 
q.v.): salinam odanavidhim akalakam (so Senart em., mss. 
odanam viditakalakam, or °karakam) anekavyanjana-m- 
upetam Mv i. 306.13 (vs; otherwise Senart); tair °kani 
sajjikrtani Divy 130.22; (2) adj. (cf. Pali akala-civara), 
of monks’ robes, provided at extraordinary times: (aka)la- 
kai£ civaraih MPS -40.54. 

akala- kaumudi, an irregular festival , i. e. one not 
held at any fixed time: punyani kriyatam °mudi ca kriya- 
tam Divy 514.17 ff. 

akalakhadyaka, nt. (cf. khadyaka) = akalaka (i), 
q.v.: °kani sighram sajjikuruteti Divy 130.21 (consisting of 
ghrta-guda-Sarkara-panakani, 1 30.20). 

Akaladarsana, n. of a mountain: Kv 91.17. 
akalika, adj. (= Pali id.; ep. of dhamma; also BHS 
ak°, q.v.), immediate , not dependent on lapse, of time (said 
of dharma-vinaya) : Mv iii.200.10, see s.v. ehipaSyika. 

akilantaka, adj. (for a-klantaka), unwearied : °ka 
LV 359.20 (vs), voc. .sg., m.c. ; to Buddha. 

a-kilasi-ta (to next), non-indolence , non-weariness: 
°taya, without weariness , AsP 104.21. 

a-kilasin, adj. (Pali akilasu; see kilasin), unwearied, 
not indolent : (of a kalyanamitra) pratisamkhyanabahulah 
°sl . . . dharmadeSanayai Bbh 238.11; samharsaka^ ca °si 
(m.c. for °si) nityam SP 204.10 (vs). 

a- kisara- labhin, adj., and °bhi-ta, abstr. ; also in 
Skt. form as a-krcchra°, ( state of) obtaining without 
difficulty: akrcchra-labhl (n. sg.) Mvy 2432 = dkah pa 
med par thob pa, and akisara-l° 2433 — tshegs med par°, 
or, nan non ma yin par°; akrcchrakisaralabhi-ta Bbh 
388.13 = (acc. to note) Tib. nan non ma yin par thob pa 
dan tshegs med par thob pa. The three Tib. translations 
are synonymous; it is striking that both the M Indie and 
the Sktized forms are recorded together in both Mvy and 
Bbh. Pali has both akasiralabhi(n) and akiccha 0 ; other- 
wise the cpd. is not recorded. Even akrcchra is not recorded 
in Skt. except for akrcchra-langhya in pw 5.240 (from 
Rajat. ; perhaps due to Buddhist influence?). See kisara; 
it appears that in Pali, too, lcasira and kiccha, both histori- 
cally from krcchra, came to be understood as different 
words. This suggests that BHS a-krcchra-labhin may be a 
Sktization of an older Mlndic a-kiccha° (— Pali and Pkt. 
id.), specificalty, and not of BHS kisara, which maintained 
an independent existence for a time, tho ultimately it was 
crowded out by the Sktized krcchra. 

Akutobhaya, n. of a former Buddha: Mv iii.237.10. 
-akumbha, best of its kind (lit. no pot , no commonplace 
thing), ifc. : avatamsakrtakumbham kretum icchati kah 
kumbham Jm 101.14 (vs; with word-play), who wants to 
buy this far which is a no-jar made into a crown ?; 186.16, 
see s.v. satman. 

Akulika, n. of a naga king: Mmk 18.10. Follows (in 
a list of naga kings) immediately after Kulika (Skt.), and 
evidently fashioned on that. 

? akulejyesthapacayaka, m.: Divy 293.26 °kaih, 
not honoring the elders of the family; neg. of kulajyestha 0 , 
see s.v. apacayaka; prob. read akula°, tho a loc. in a 
tatpurusa cpd. kulejyestha would not be impossible 
(eldest in the family). 

akusala, nt. (= Pali °sala), sin, evil; ten (3 of body, 
4 of speech, 3 of thought): Mvy 1681-4 (not named); 
Dharmas 56 (named; opposites of the 10 ku^ala, q.v.). 

aku&alamula, nt. (= Pali akus°), root of demerit , opp. 
of ku&alaxnula: three (lobha, moha, dvesa, as in Pali 
which has dosa for dvesa): Dharmas 139. 

a-kuSIda-vartin, adj, (cf. kuslda), not living sloth- 


fully: Mv i.357.13 °varti, n. sg. m., in same vs as Pali Sn 68 

a-kuhaka, see kuhaka. 
a-krcchra-labhin, see a- kisara 0 . 
akrtaka, adj. (see krtaka; cf. Pali akata as ep. of 
nibbana, and akrtajfia 1), not created, unfashioned, in 
tangible, immaterial, in Lank standardly as epithet ol 
akasa, nirvana, nifodha. Often mistranslated as if active 
by Suzuki, no doer, not working, or the like: Lank 60.6; 
72.5; 77.1, etc. Also more generally: sarvam . . . krtakam, 
or sarvam . . . akrtakam Lank 176.11 and 13, all is created 
or all is uncreated, as doctrines of two materialistic schools ; 
the question is raised Lank 187.9 whether the Tathagata 
is uncreated (akrtakah) or created (krtakah). 

akrtajfia (in mg. 1 = Pali akatannu), (1) adj., 
knowing the uncreated (i. e. nirvana; cf. akrtaka) : Ud 
xxix.33 = Pali Dhp. 97; (2) (Skt., also Pali akatafinu, 
adj., ungrateful) n. of a prince, brother of Krtajfia: RP 

akrpanam, adv., not poorly, very well: SP 79.12 
(Skt. krpanam and Pali kapanam are used as adverbs, 

akoti or °tl, see bhfitakoti. 

akopya, adj. (= Pali akuppa, used with cetovimutti; 
cf. avikopita), immovable , steadfast, fixed, sure; not to be 
violated (of a command): cetovimukti or cetomukti LV 
418.17; Mv ii.139.6; iii.333.13, 16; dharina LV 426.20 
(akopyadharma-desaka); Mv iii. 200.15; Divy 617.13 
(akopya-dharma, said of a bhiksunl); (dharma-)cakra LV 
422.17; ajna (Sastur) Divy 185.8. 
akausidya, see kausidya. 

akrudhyana-ta (a plus krudhyana = Pali kujjhana, 
°na; to Skt. krudhyati with -ana, -ana, plus -ta), state of 
not being angry: °taya Siks 35.9. 
aklantaka, see akilantaka. 

Aklinnagatra, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.141.9. 
a-klista, see kli&yati. 

aksana, m. ornt. (= Pali akkhana), inopportune birin, 
birth under such circumstances that one cannot learn from 
a Buddha. There are eight such in Pali, DN iii.287.12 ff. ; 
AN iv.225.19 ff. (9 in DN iii.263.31 ff.), viz. : (at a time when 
a Buddha is living) one is born (1) in a hell, (2) as an 
animal, (3) as a preta, (4) as one of the ‘long-lived gods’, 
(5) in border countries or barbarian regions, (6) with 
perverted, heretical mentality, (7) dull, stupid, incapable 
of distinguishing the gospel from what is inconsistent with 
it; or (8) he is born capable of profiting from the gospel 
but at a time when no Buddha exists to teach it. (DN 
iii.263 fl. adds as 9th, after No. 3, birth as an asura.) 
These same 8, transposing 6 and 7, are brifefly listed Mvy 
2299-2306: (1) narakah, (2) tiryancah, (3) pretah, (4) 
dlrghayuso devah, (5) pratyantajanapadam, (6) indriyavai- 
kalyam, (7) mithyadarSanam, (8) tathagatanam anutpadah. 
In Dharmas 134 No. 5 is put before 4, otherwise 1-7 as 
in Mvy, but 8 (obviously by a secondary change) is wholly 
different: (1) narakopapattis, (2) tiryagupapattir, (3) 
yamalokopapattih, (4) pratyantajanapadopapattir, (5) 
dirghayusadevopapattir, (6) indriyavikalata, (7) mithya- 
drsti£, (8) cittotpadaviragitata (seems to be a different 
version of 6, which corresponds to Pali 7, while 8 of the 
others is omitted). As opposed to these there is only one 
ksana, opportune birth; see s.v. Eight aksana Mv ii.363.3; 
LV 412.14; Siks 2.4; 114.14; Gv 116.16; Suv 41.13. The 
word never means misfortune In general, but only un- 
favorable birth, and in most cases clearly in just the sense 
described above. So Siks 147.14 aksanagatim na gacchaty 
anyatra sattvaparipakat, (a Bodhisattva) is not born in 
an inopportune birth, except to mature creatures (the transl. 
misunderstands); LV 278.22 aksanani pithitany abhuvan, 
and 279.19 aksanah pithitah, are explained by Gv 112.19 
sarvaksanadvarakapatani pithayisyati (or with text 




pithapayis®, see Chap. 43, s.v.) he will close the door-panels 
( opening into ) all the inopportune births. The aksana are 
sodhita, purified , LV 53.6; 357.5, or made sunya, empty, 
LV 358.13. Others: LV 12.3; 34.22; 275.21; 327.13; 364.7; 
Mv ii.358.5 ; 371.12; 392.5 = Siks 306.1; Av i.291.12; 
RP 35.19; Siks 69.5; Sukh 23.9; Gv 54.9 (preta-tiryan- 
narakaksane-gatah) ; cf. Levi, Sutral. 17.26. On SP 163.8 
aksanah samvrta cf. Senart’s note Mv i.405 f. ; it is (as 
Senart says) certainly secondary, the original being agha(h) 
aghasamvrta(h), miseries, surrounded by miseries (in ap- 
position with lokantarika, q.v., sc. narakah or nirayah); 
aksanah in SP was, in my opinion as in Senart’s (if I under- 
stand him), a noun and a near-synonym of agha(h), 
(constituting) unfavorable births, see agha (2). Perhaps 
aksanasamvrta(h) was originally read after it(?). In Dbh.g. 
7(343). 4 read probably aksanah for text aksalah: sarve ti 
papapatita ’ksalah (text) prabhonti. 

aksana-vedha, the art of piercing the target (un- 
erringly); first member hyper-Skt. for Pali akkhana 
(-vedhin; see aksana- vedhin), which really derives from 
Skt. akhana, target, see BR 5 App. s.v., and Coomaraswamy, 
Ars Islamica X (1943). 109, n. 9. Cf. sabda-vedha, vala- 
vedhin. The mss. in Divy read aksuna-, or aksuna-; ed. 
always aksunna-: (read) aksanavedhe Divy 58.27; 100.12; 
442.8, in lists of martial arts; °vedhah Mvy 4994 (text 
aksunna 0 , v.l. aksuna 0 ; Mironov 217.22 aksuna 0 by em.). 

aksanavedhi-tva, nt., state or art of being an aksana- 
vedhin: °tve LV 156.13, where text aksunna 0 , most mss. 
aksuna 0 ; none apparently have the correct aksana 0 . 

aksana- vedhin (= Pali akkhana 0 ), having the art 
of hitting the bull’s-eye , aksana-vedha, q.v. Implied in 
LV 181.7, where text kalaksunnadharmavedhi ; best ms. 
°ksana°; read valaksana 0 , an archer-in-religion who can 
split a hair as target, cf. valavedhin. 

Aksatabuddhi, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i. 138.4. 

a-ksamana, see ksamana. 

aksamatra, reaching up to the axle (of a chariot); 
with dhara, as deep as a chariot’s axle (from the ground ): 
Mv ii.349.17 °matrahi dharahi huddhaksetram phall, (the 
gods) filled this Buddha-feld with streams (of flowers rained 
down) to the depth of a chariot’s axle; Mvy 7151 °matrabhir 
dharabhih (same phrase, Sktized); °matrabhir varidhara- 
bhir MSV i.40.4. 

aksaya (1) a high number, m. in Mvy 7793, nt. in 
Gv 134.2 and Mvy 7922 (cited from Gv); gender ambiguous 
(°asya, gen.) Gv 106.5, 18, in both of which read sattvak- 
saya- for sattva-ksaya-; (2) m., n. of a samadhi: Mvy 
547; SsP 1418.15. ' 

Aksayakaranda (in Mvy var. °daka), m., n. of a 
samadhi: Mvy 60*3; SsP 1424.12. 

Aksayakaranda, n. of a Bodhisattva-dharani : Mvy 


aksayanikil (printed so, with n; cf. Skt. -ksayana), in 
°ka-dana Bbh 233.26, gift of something inexhaustible (acc. 
to Chin., wealth: Tib. zad mi $es pa [= aksaya, Das] can). 

Aksayabuddhavam6anirde§a, n. of a lokadhatu: 
Gv 15.18. 

AksayabuddhavamSavyuha, n. of a samadhi: Gv 

Aksayamati, n. of a Bodhisattva: SP 3.8; 438.2 ff. ; 
Mvy 702; RP 2.1; Mmk 311.14; 312.5; 461.6. 

Aksayamati-nirdeSa, n. of a work: Mvy 1344; 
(°^a-mahayanasutra) Siks 278.4; cf. °mati-sutra. 

Aksayamati- pariprccha, n. of a work, apparently 
not the same as prec. : Mvy 1400. 

Aksayamati- sutra, n. of a work, = °mati-nirde§a: 
§iks 11.8 and often (on 190.4 Transl. Ksayamati°I). 

aksayamukta, n. of a high number: Gv 106.5 (°tasya, 

Ak§arapagata, m., n. of a samadhi: Mvy 572; SsP 

[aksala: Dbh.g. 7(343). 4 ’ksalah; read probably 
(a)ksanah; see aksana.] 

[aksuna, aksunna, wrong readings for aksana 
(-vedha, -vedhin, qq.v.).] 

[aksunna(-vyakarana), wrong reading for aksuna, 


a-ksudra, not mean, not petty, i. e. excellent, superior. 
In aksudravakaSa, q.v. ; also aksudravacara (see ibidem) ; 
and aksudranulepana, having fine ointments , Mv ii.102.2; 
104.13; for LV 23.12 see next. 

aksudravakasa (= Pali akkhuddavakasa), of fine 
(not inferior) appearance. Almost always follows prasadika 
and darsanlya; all virtual synonyms, applied to women 
and less often to men and children: Mv i.196.20; 352.15; 
ii.422.1, 7 (boy); 432.14; iii.35.18 (man); 153.16 (here 
prasadika is lacking); 218.11; 377.12; 404.17 (an infant 
boy). In Mv i.197.16 (not accompanied by the other adj.) 
said of the family (kulam) in which a Bodhisattva is 
born; but perhaps this is an erroneous reading, or if cor- 
rect means rather possessing no small scope, range, sphere 
of activity or opportunity (with the meaning of avaka^a 
normal in Skt., Pali, and BLIS). This latter, at least, is 
clearly meant by Mv ii.1.7, a parallel passage, which 
reads aksudravacaram instead of this. A third parallel, 
LV 23.12, reads aksudranupaghati, which surely means 
not petty and not injurious (so Tib., phran tshegs med cin 
gnod par byed pa med pa yin), not ne frappe pas ceux 
qui ne sont pas mechants (Foucaux). 

a-ksuna, adj. (neg. of ksuna, q.v.), not faulty: 
(kayasamdarSanam) aksunam avandhyam ca sattvapari- 
pakavinayaya Dbh 69.10; for Mvy 6463, text aksunna- 
vyakarana, read with v.l. of Index and Mironov (by em., 
245.61) aksuna- (confirmed by ksuna-vyakarana, see 
ksuna). On the other hand, the em. aksuna-vedhah in 
Mironov 217.22, for Mvy 4994 aksunna 0 , v.i. aksuna 0 , is 
not correct; read aksana-vedha, q.v. 

aksobhinl (= Pali akkhohinl), a high number: LV 
151.4 (vs). Cf. aksobhya 3, the usual term in BHS, but 
not recorded in Pali. 

Aksobhya, (1) m., of a Buddha; the 2d of the 5 
(Transcendent’) Buddhas: Dharmas 3; Mvy 83; Sadh 
16.9; (2) m., n. of a Buddha dwelling in an eastern region: 
SP 184.7; Suv 7.11; 120.5; Sukh 97.1; his lokadhatu is 
Abhirati, SP loc. cit., and (direction unspecified) Gv 
82.9; AsP 366.14; see also Aksobhyarsija; direction un- 
specified, in some cases at least doubtless the same person- 
age, Mv i.139.5; Suv 152.15; RP 58.1; Siks 14.13 ff.; see 
P. Mus, Barabudur, p. 578 ff. ; (3) nt. (or m.), a high number 
(cf. aksobhinl): in LV 147.22 = Mvy 7959, a hundred 
vivaras or vimvaras; other, or unspecified, values SP 
409.6; Mvy 8008 (here masc.); Sukh 31.1; Mmk 262.13. 

AksobhyarSja, n. of a Buddha, probably = Akso- 
bhya (2): Suv 2.4 (in the east, like Aksobhya); LV 172.11. 

aksobhyendriya, a kind of perfume: Gv 153.17 

akhanda-carin (cf. Pali akhanda-kari), of perfect 
(unbroken) conduct: LV 223.13, of the Bodhisattva. 

a-khalita, see 2 khalita. 

a-khinna-vacana (cf. Pali a-khina-vacana, see GPD; 
somewhat problematic; the two words are probably con- 
nected, one being a distortion of the other; cf. §§ 3.2, 4a), 
unwearied in speech: Mv i.134.8 °nah, of Bodhisattvas. 

1 akhila (opp. of, and perh. back-formation from, 
1 sakhila, q.v.), ungentle, = parusa, of speech: Mv 
i.202.7 = ii.6.4, read both times: akhilavacanac ca narapati 
viramami tathaiva paisunyat; same line i. 145.10 has 
parusa 0 for akhila 0 , and in the next line anrtavacanac ca, 
which should be read in i.202.8 and ii.6.5 instead of 
parusa 0 (which duplicates akhila 0 , and leaves ‘lying’ un- 

2 a-khila (= Pali id.), free from harshness, hardness 

1 * 

aganamya 4 agra 

(of mind, khila): Mv iii.124.12 samvakpramuktam akhilam 

aganamya, nt., a high number: Gv 134.10; — 
aganeya, q.v. 

aganamya- parivarta, nt., square of the preceding: 
Gv 134.11; = aganeya-pari°, q.v. 

aganiya (= Skt. aganya), incalculable : SP 192.7 (vs), 
aganeya (in Skt. as adj., BR s.v. ganeya), nt., a 
high number: Gv 106.23; Mvy 7810 and (cited from Gv) 
7942; = aganamya, which is read in Gv 134.10, the 
passage from which Mvy usually cites. 

aganeya- parivarta, m., square of the preceding: 
Gv 106.23; Mvy 7811; 7943. 

aganya (cf. aganiya), a high number: Sukh 31.2. 
a-gatika, not subject to passing away , see gatika. 
[?agalita, fluent , of voice; see galita.] 
agava, nt., var. for arava, q.v. Also: Gv 133.25, in 
lieu of magava, q.v. ; in position corresponds to kamara, 

agasti- harltakl, a kind of plant or tree: Mvy 5781; 
Tib. a-gas (partial transliteration). In Mironov agasti and 
haritaki are presented as separate items, perhaps cor- 
rectly; agasti is recorded as n. of a plant or tree in Skt. 
But the Kyoto ed. interprets Agasti- in the cpd. as the 

agara, nt., a high number: Mvy 7705 = Tib. yid yal, 
which also renders agara, q.v. 

agarastha, adj. (= AMg. agarattha; not in Pali), 
dwelling in houses (before retiring from the. world): Mv 
i. 104.8 (prose). 

a-gaha, see gaha. 

a- guru (= Pali agaru), not offensive, not troublesome : 
yadi te aguru Av i.94.3 (Pali sace te agaru); saced . . . 
asty aguru i.229.6 and 230.1, 9; saced . . . (gen. of person) 
aguru, ii. 90.12, if you don’t mind. 

agocara (= Pali id.), improper behavior ; underlies 
agocari-karoti acts improperly , does wrong, and -bhavati, 
wrong behavior takes place : nagarajau yadi Surparakarp 
nagaram agamisyato ’gocarikarisyatah Divy 50.23; 
samanvaharata nagendrau Surparakarp nagaram ma 
’gocaribhavisyati 51.1-2, take heed for the city of S. that 
no wrong behavior (i. e. injury to the inhabitants, 51.3-5) 
takes place. 

Agni, n. of a yaksa leader: May 236.17. 
agni-karsu, or °su (cf. Pali angara-kasu, °su), fire- 
pit: sarpasiro-’gnikarsu-sadrsah (kamah) LV 329.9 (vs); 
'Tib. me mur, according to Jaschke and Das = me mdag, 
burning embers; ye kama varjenti yathagnikarsfirn Siks 
193.7 (vs, cited from Samadh). 

agni-khada (see s.v. -khada), fire-pit: Mvy 6622 == 
Tib. me mur gyi hobs, oven, fire-pit , or doh, pit; SP 448.5 
°khadaya (loc.); LV 174.1; Av i.220.13; 264.1; Suv 157.4; 
RP 19.11 (text °khadham, read °khadam); Kv 9.21; 10.12; 
37.4 (in Kv associated with hells); Gv 116.14; 184.21 
(°dayam api prapatito na dahyate); Dbh 33.17; Bbh 
337.1 (sacen mahatyam °dayam atmanam praksipasi). 

Agnighata, n. of a hell: Kv 18.13 (misprinted °vata); 
98.2; pi. Kv 66.17. Not likely to be a Mlpdic corruption 
of agnikhada (altho this is associated with hells in Kv), 
which occurs Kv 98.5 just after agnighata. 
agnijuha(?), see s.v. agnihuta. 

Agnidatta, n. of a king: Divy 620.13; (the same? 
at Vairambhya) MSV i.25.16 ff. 

agninya, distorted Sktization of Pali agganria, 
primeval (derived from Skt. agra, perhaps with -jna?), 
see CPD and Senart Mv i note 617: Mv i. 340.17 (tarn evaj 
pauranam aksaram °nyam upanipate, artham casya na 
vibhavayetsuh; similarly 341.10; 342.6, 16; iii.206.13; 
always epithet of aksara, and in all but the last associated 
with paurana; Pali also combines porana and aggahna 
as ep. of akkhara, ancient primeval formula, in similar 

phrase; in BHS always subject of upanipate, came in, 
occurred, was mentioned (in Pali the phrase is object of 
anupatanti or anupadanti, they repeat ; CPD s.v. akkhara 2). 

Agniprabha, n. of a ‘gandharva maid’: Kv 5.15. 

agni-bala(-ratna), n. of a jewel: Mvy 5962; cited 
under one heading with agnivarna-ratna, and both trans- 
lated literally in Tib. Mironov reads only agnivarna, 
without v.l. 

Agnibhanda, n. of a people, among whom Buddha 
made a ‘descent from the gods’; this event is otherwise 
always located at Samkasya, q.v., which is mentioned 
two lines above in Mmk but seems to be definitely not 
the place meant here: (bahutirthayatanam sthanam 
sarnpratosya tada punah,) Agnibhande jane itrtva deva- 
vataranam subham Mmk 582.(25-)26. 

Agnimalin (Pali Aggimali), n. of a mythical sea: 
Jm 91.14. 

Agnimukha, n. of a naga: Divy 119.26; 122.27. 

Agniraksitika, n. of a pisaci: May 239.23. 

agni-varna(-ratna), n. of a jewel: Mvy 5962; see 
s.v. agni-bala. 

?agnivaluka(-bhayatah): May 248.6, in a list of 
dangers from which freedom is sought: nirmukta garuda- 
bhayatah, agni°yatah, dharanikampabhayatah. Should 
we read valuka 0 ? But what would fire-sand mean? 

Agnivesya, pi., n. of a brahmanical school: Divy 
635.18. (Sg. as n. of a teacher, Mbh. crit. ed. 1.158.27; 
and cf. Skt. agnivesya). 

Agnivaisyayana (^= Pali Aggivessana, n. of Di- 
ghanakha; cf. AMg. Aggivesayana), surname of DTr- 
ghanakha: Av ii.187.10 ff. 

AgnisrI, n. ol a Bodhisattva: Gv 442.7. 

agni-huta, fire-offering, agnihotra: °hutam (or v.l. 
agnijuham, mss.) tasya pratisthato mama {as I am setting 
about to sacrifice . . .), prabhamkaro lokatamonudo yatha, 
aditya lokasmim tatheva Iryasi . . . Mv ii.55.10 (vs); one 
of these forms (or agni° m.c.) should doubtless be read 
(Senart em. wrongly); cf. Pali aggihutta and aggijuhana, 
°juh°, both == agnihotra. 

agnihotrika (= Pkt. aggihottiya; not in Pali; cf. 
Skt. agnihotrin, and agnihotrika, Schmidt s.v.), culti- 
vating the agnihotra: Av i.208.9 rsih . . . °kah ; ii.28.3; 
65.17 (Corrigenda). 

Agnisvara, n. of a former Buddha: Samadh p. 57 
line 9. 

jagneya, Agneyl, read Ag°, q.v.] 

agra, (1) adj. (in Skt. only Lex.; replaces Skt. agrya; 
— Pali agga), first, chief, prime, foremost, best: Mvy 2521 ; 
ye brahmavimana agras SP 190.16 (vs); sutram agram 
385.2 (vs); lolcasyagro LV 162.2, best of the world; dhyayina 
agra 109.5 (vs); jhanam cagram 371.14; agram ca . . . 
ojah 387.1 ; bhavan ihagras tribhave 398.21 ; agro prajhaye 
Mv i.44.9, first in wisdom; 113.6 (food); 248.17, 18; ii. 208.13; 
259.9; iii. 63.17-18; Divy 61.29; 349.14; 385.8; Siks 129.4; 
311.14 f.; Bbh 94.17; etc., common. As prior member of 
cpds. : agra-ganika, leading harlot Mv iii. 35.1 7 fT. ; agra- 
pudgala, foremost person, a Buddha, Mv i.47.2 (mss. mostly 
°pungala); agrapura, leading city, Mv i.4.6; agrabala, 
having prime powers Divy 99.20; agrabalin, MSV ii.78.4; 
agrasravaka, leading disciples, Mv i.307.4; others, see the 
following entries; also (like vara) at the end of cpds. in 
same sense, see rasagra; (2) nt. of the preceding used as 
substantive: (a) the best of its class, used particularly as 
predicate to akhyayate (°ti), with a personal subject (so 
in Pali, tathagato tesara aggam akkhayati, CPD s.v. 
akkhayati): (sa . . .) agram akhyayati Mv iii.390.6; 

samyaksambuddhas tesam agram akhyatah Av i.50.1 (so 
ms.; Speyer em. agra(h); to be sure agra(h) is printed in 
the text of the same phrase, without report of v.l., in 
Av i.329.16, but Mv and Pali support agram of ms. in 




i.50.1); (b) first-class gift , as if for agra-dana (cf. Pali 
agga-dana and CPD s.v. agga 2, c), agram abhiharami 
te Mv iii.211.10; the same vs in Pali- DN ii.240.17 has 
aggha twice in text but v.l. once agga, and cf. Jat. v. 
377.19 aggam in same sense. 

agrakulika (= Pali agga°), of very prominent family: 
agrakulika-putra, Divy 366.6; Karmav 70.5. In Divy 
contrasted with the milder kulika-putra, see kulika. 

agratah sthapayitva seems to mean hardly more 
than beginning with , including (as the most prominent 
or important of the group), = -adi in comp.: (sarvavan 
bodhisattva-gano maitreyam . . .) agratah sthapayitva 
SP 315.6 (prose). 

Agrata- sutra, n. of a work (probably = Pali Etad- 
agga-vagga, AN 1.23 ff.): Karmav 155.14; 157.10; 161.20; 
see Levi’s notes. 

agrapada (= Pali aggapada, cf. pada), pi., the 
highest , most sublime subfeds (or utterances*!): (padena 
padam vyanjanena vyanjanam samsyandate sameti) yad 
utagrapadaih Av ii.142.17; 143.6, and that too with... 

Agrapurusa, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.141.5; 
as common noun, leading personage , Mv i.3.9. 

agra-prajnapti (= Pali agga-pahhatti; in AN ii.17.12 
list of four, relating to Rahu, Mandhatar, Mara, and the 
Tathagata), proclamation of superiority , statement that 
some person or thing is supreme in his or its class: Av 
i.49.10 IT. and 329.13 ff. (three, relating to Buddha, 
dharma, and samgha), 

Agramaticitracuda, n. of a serpent king: Mvy 3428. 
agrayana, (1) best vehicle, = mahayana: Yaj 30.6; 
also °nin, see -yanin; (2) n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 442.11. 
Agravlrabahu, n. of a yaksa: Mvy 3373. 
Agrasanumati, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.5. 
agrasara, a high number, or method of calculation 
(ganana): LY 148.19; Mvy 7986 (cited from LY). 

Agratavika (cf. Pali Aggalava, adj.), n. of a wood 
at Atavika: °ke dave MSV ii.51.9. 

agrasanika, adj. (= Pali aggasanika), having a chief 
seat, occupying a high position: brahmano . . . rajno 

’grasanikah Av i.105.6, a brahman who occupied the chief 
seat ( position ) with the king. In line 11 he says to a Buddha, 
nisidatu bhagavan agrasane. 

a-graha, m. (neg. to -graha), ( no-belief ) false oenej , 
attachment to an erroneous view: Yaj 42.13; 45.5 (cited s.v. 
-graha, q.v.). 

agre, postpos. with abl., from (of time): ito . . . agre 
Mv i. 165. 16, from this point (of time). Cf. Pali agge, only 
in cpds.; and -agrena, in cpds., in same meaning and 
much, more commonly. Cf. also Skt. agre, used (see pw 
s.v. agra) in much the same way but apparently recorded 
only in $B. 

-agrena, postpos., (beginning) from, of time. (In 
Pali it seems that only agge is used in this sense, not 
aggena as PTSD says; CPD seems to be right in saying 
that aggena means only according to.) tadagrena, from that 
(time) on, LY 19.4; 265.9; 407.10; adyagrena, from now on, 
SP 107.3; 467.12; Mv i.365.13: Av i.89.7; ii.13.2; Divy 
7.10; 32.8; 53.8; 72.2: 187.21, etc.; Bhik 24b.4. 

Agrodaka, n. cf a town: May 18, 70 (cf. Levi p. 65). 
\grodika, n. of a pisaci: May 239.22. 
agha, m. (= Pali id.), (1) sky, atmosphere’, only in 
aghanistha, q.v.; (2) in the lokantarika (q.v.) passage, 
agha aghasamvrta(h) or aghasphuta(h) (or other cpd.) 
means miseries (? miserable ) and enclosed by ( full of, or the 
like) miseries ; so essentially Senart, Mv i note 405 f. 
We could perhaps recognize the first agha as an adj. (so 
in RY and once in BhagP.); but it seems more likely that 
it is the more familiar noun, which esp. in Pali often means 
misery. In the Pali version (CPD s.v. 2 agha, end) we 
should read agha aghasamvuta, as Senart perceived 
(texts asamvuta, a very old corruption); or at least, that 

must have been the original version. The CPD assumes 
an otherwise unknowm adj. agha, aerial , without support , 
which is inappropriate and implausible. 

aghanistha, doubtless understood as sky-based (see 
agha, 1), a class of gods: Mvy 3107, where it follows 
akanistha, of which it is surely nothing but a folk-etv- 
mological distortion. So Wogihara, Lex. It occurs in no 
other of my texts unless in Bbli; Wogihara reads so in 
62.6 and 68.5; actually it is read only in the latter place 
by one of the two mss. (which reads anistha in the former 
place), while the other ms. reads akanistha both times. 
Wogiliara’s suggested interpretation, and those he quotes 
from Yasomitra and Chin., seem to me fantastic and 
worthless. Cf. lokanistha. 

agharika, or °ka, n. pi. °ka(h), a kind of toy: Divy 
475.19. Etym.? 

aghavin (= Pali id., see §22.51), sinful: Ud v.10 
(= Pali Ud ii.7), read aghavinah (text aghadinah; Pali 
aghavino); in Ud ix.16 ms. aghatinah, for which Chakra- 
varti would read aghavinah (the line is fragmentary). 

anka-dhatrl, nurse who carries a baby on her hip: 
Mvy 9478; Divy 475.12, defined 13-14: ahkadhatrlty 
ucyate ya darakam ankena parikarsayaty angapratyahgani 
ca samsthapayati. Tib. on Mvy pan ha = anka, which it 
seems must be the orig. form, since in India babies are 
carried on the hip. Yet in all other cases the word is written 
amsa-dh° (or amsa-, in mss. also atsa-), and this seems 
to have had real currency, as shown s.v. For the cliche 
see s.v. kslra-dhatrl. 

ankula (= Skt. °ra), sprout: ratnankulah LY 76.15, 
jewelled sprouts (no v.l. in mss. ; Calc. °rah); -bhaisajahkula-, 
sraddhankulanam LY 352.12 and 13 (both edd. °ra°, 
but in 12 best mss., in 13 all mss. °la°). 

arikusagraha, m. (in Pali ankusaggaha is one who 
practices the art, and so Skt. °sag'raha, a rare word; the 
art in Pali is ankusagayna), the art of handling an (elephant-) 
goad: Mvy 4981; LY 156.11 (one of the arts mastered by 
the young Bodhisattva); Divy 442.6. 

anga, (1) member, part (as in Skt. and Pali, where it is 
recorded as nt. only), m. (at least modified by two m. adj.), 
sarve bhavanga . . . niruddhah LV 420.14 (so all mss., 
Lefm. °dha); (2) attribute, quality , characteristic, like the 
Skt. guna (so Pali, CPD s.v., 4, where it is shown that Pali 
uses it 'mostly with numbers’, and often in dependence on 
samannagata, cf. below); the 60 qualities (anga) of the 
Buddha’s voice, Mvy 444, listed 445-504, cf. Siitral. xii.9 ; 
same mg. in cpds., see astanga (2), apranyariga, svaran- 
ga; also kulam (the family in which the Bodhisattva is 
born in his last existence) sastihi angehi samanvagatam 
bhavati Mv i. 197.14 (there follows a list of the 60 ‘qualities’). 
In the LV parallel, 23.10 fT., catuhsasty-akarair . . . sam- 
pannakulam bhavati. Repetition Mv ii.1.6, also with list 
following. Both Pali and BHS further refer to five bad 
qualities as pancanga (Pali °anga): pancanga-viprahina 
(124.15 -vipratihina), of Buddhas, Divy 95.17; 124.15; 
264.30; acc. to Vism. 146.5-6 they are the nivaranani. 
On the other hand, there are five good qualities referred to 
by Pali pancanga in Vism. 146.25 ff. ; and a different set, 
characteristic of kings or brahmans, ‘ gentlemanly qualities’, 
PTSD s.v.; cf. s.v. pancangika, esp. 3; the Buddha speaks 
pancangena svarena, MSY i.220.20. The line between 
meanings 1 and 2 is not always easy to draw. E. g. Mvy 424 
describes the Tathagata as sadangasamanvagatah, re- 
ferring to the six angas (‘ qualities’ ? or members , parts ?) of 
upeksa, cf. chalangasamannagata DN iii.269.19 (list 
follows; consists of indifference to the objects of each of 
six senses), and Yism. 160.9 ff. (chalangupekkha is the 
first of ten upekkha). 

angana. nt. =Pali id.), spot , blemish , depravity , evil: 
Mvy 2157 °nam. Common in compounds anangana, nir-a°, 
sangana, qq.v., which are often spelled with °na in BHS. 




angadaha, m., bodu-burn , a disease: Mvy 9523; 
Bhlk 17 a.2. 

Ahgadika, n. of a city: MSV i.66.2, 13. 
Angadinna, n. of a king of Yideha: Jm 192.12. 
The Pali form is Angati (Jat. 544, which is the same story). 

anga-nadika. acc. to Tib. (pa car, see Das) loin-cloth : 
°kam . . . agarikadharmas tarhy . . . yad utanganadi(ka) 
MSYii.94. 15-17, in a list of garments forbidden to monks; 
abbreviated anga in the uddana ii.91.17; Pali Yin. i.306.8 
has instead akkanala, supposed to be for Skt. arka-; see 

angabheda, m., a disease (perhaps something like 
rheumatism ): thrice in AV, where it Ts not entirely clear 
whether it is an epithet of yaksma or an independent 
disease; Mvy 9510 = Tib. yan lag tu zug pa, pain in the 
limbs . Not noted in Pali or Pkt. 

anga-mani(-vidya), ( science of) bodily marks : Mvy 
5055 = 6a mtshan (-gyi dpyad). 

anga-lipi, script of the Ahgas , a kind of writing: 
LY 125.20 (Tib. also anga-). 

anganusarin (= Pali id.), attendant on , attached or 
conforming to , the limbs (of the body); with vayu, one of 
the winds pervading the body: pi. °rino vayava(h) Siks 
248.13, rendered by Bendall and Rouse as rheumatism, for 
reasons not evident to me. 

angarin (= Pali id.), (apparently) red (like coals, 
angara); only in the verse Therag. 527 = Jat. i.87.1 = Mv 
iii.93.10 angarino, of trees (in the Pali; in Mv hopelessly 
corrupt, the noun being omitted). 

-angika, see -amsika. 

Angiras (= Pali °rasa), nom. sg. °rah, n. of a king 
(in Pali of the race of Mahasammata) : Mvy 3572 (in a list 
of cakravartins headed by Mahasammata, 3552). 

Anglrajva (?), n. of a rsi: Anglrajva (so!) nama 
maharsih May 256.18. Note that Angirasa (also in Skt.; 
== Angiras) is mentioned just before this. 

Angirasa ( = Pali id. in mg. 1; regular Skt. would be 
Angirasa, q.v.), (1) ep. of the Buddha: Mv iii.lQ9.20; (2) 
n. of a former Buddha: Mv iii.239.5 f. 

angulika, (1) (Pali id., = Skt. anguli) finger; only 
in ekangulikaya or pi. °kabhis, (pointing) with single 
finger(s) : sg. LY 49.3; 67.12; pi. LY 290.17; (2) = Skt. 
anguliya(ka), finger-ring; both times with v.l. angulika, 
probably read so (M Indie reduction, § 3.118, of angully- 
aka, q.v.), Mv ii.73.1; 102.16. 

Ahgulimala (= Pali id.), n. of a brigand converted 
by Buddha: Av i.148.9. 

Angulimalika, n. of a work: Lank 258.4 (nirvanan- 
gul°, v.l. nirmanangul 0 , presumed to be dvandva by 
Bendall-Rouse and Suzuki), presumably = next; quoted 
Siks 133.4 (here ms. °laka). 

Ahgulimallya, nt., n. of a work, presumably = 
prec. : Mvy 1398. 

angulika, see angulika (2). 

angullphanahastaka, having a hand with fingers 
(round and awkward) like a snake’s hood : Mvy 8776 (Chin. 
round-fingered ); MSV iv.68.6 (read with ms.). Corresponds 
to Pali phana-hatthaka Vin.i.91.11, interpreted SBE 13.225 
as having hands like a snake’s hood; comm. 1027.1 yassa 
vaggulipakkhaka ( bat’s wings) viya anguliyo sambaddha 

angullyaka, fern., finger-ring; nowhere else recorded 
in this form and gender; but cf. angulika (°ika): anguliy- 
aka . . . patita Mv ii. 110.4; sa angullyaka drsta parijnata 
5; angullyaka . . . patita 13. 

angullya-lipi, a kind of script: LY 125.20; Tib. 
finger (sor mo pahi) writing. 

angustha-vibhedika, nt., thumb-separater, presum- 
ably a glove or mitten with separate hole for thumb but 
not for the other fingers : °kany anyani ca vividhani 
vastrani Kv 78.21. 

Angottama, n. of a former Buddha: Mv iii.233.2 f. 
Acaratarkiraja, one of the 10 krodha: Dharmas 11; 
= Acalatakkiraja, q.v. 

Acala, m., (1) n. of a samadhi: Mvy 580; ^sP 1421.19; 
(2) n. of a future Buddha: Av i.53.18; (3) one of the 
krodha (cf. next): Sadh 137.13. 

Acalatakkiraja, n. of one of the krodha: Sadh 
418.6; both Acala and Takkiraja are thus used, alone; 
and see Acaratarkiraja. 

Acaladeva, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.6-7. 
Acalamati, n. uf a son of Mara (favorable to the 
Bodhisattva): LY 313.15. 

AcalaSrI, n. of a kimnara maid: Kv 6.2. 
Acalaskandha, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.5. 
acala, (1) n. of the 8th Bodhisattva bhumi: Mvy 893; 
Dharmas 64; Lank 15.5; 221.19; Dbh 5.10 etc,; Bbh 
353.3; (2) n. of a raksasi: SP 400.6; May 243.26; (3) n. 
of a female-lay-disciple: Gv 170.13; 172.1 ff. ; Acalopasi- 
kavimoksa (so read for text vacanopas 0 ), Siks 36.4, 
refers to Gv 170-179, dealing with Acala’s instruction to 
Sudhana; Siks 36.5-8, cited from Gv 171.21 26. 

acalacala, immovable (acala) as a mountain (acala): 
acalacalam (niscayam) LY 216.15 (vs). 

Acalitasumana(s), n. of a former Buddha: Mv 
i.141.16 (°nah, 

Acalendraraja, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 4.7. 
Acalopasikavimok^a, see Acala (3). 
acara, probably m.c. for Skt. acara, unchanging, 
constant : acara-carikam, unchanging (constant) course (of 
the Buddha, for countless aeons) RP 5.13 (vs). To be sure 
there is a Skt. noun cara, movement , of which this might 
be a compound with a-; but no such cpd. is recorded in 
Skt. or M Indie. 

acinti(su) for Skt. acintya, see § 3.115. 
acintia, see acintiya. 

acintika (perhaps MIndic for acintyaka, q.v.? or 
hyper-Skt. for acintiya = Skt. acintya?), unthinkable, 
incomprehensible: Mvy 733 (Tib. bsam gyis mi khyab pa, 
impenetrable by thought); Mmk 559.20 (vs) carya bodhim 
acintika (in line 25 below note acintyaka) ; kalpam acintikam 
Mmk 587.2 (= kalpan acintyakan, for unthinkable aeons)i 
Acintikamadhyabuddhivikrldita, n. of a Bodhi- 
sattva: Mvy 733; see prec. Tib. bsam gyis mi khyab pahi 
dkyil hkhor la bio gros main par rol pa, sporting in enlight- 
enment zn(to) a circle (dkyil alone generally = madhya) 
that is incomprehensible by thought. 

acintiya, adj. (= Pali id., Skt. acintya), unthinkable : 
examples §3.103. Once written acintia: dana-acintia- 
tyaga-mukhena &iks 328.2 (vs; wrongly divided in ed.), 
by means of inconceivable giving of gifts. 

acintya, nt., a very high number: Mvy 7814; 7946 
(here cited from Gv); 8047; Sukh 31.3; Gv 106.24; 134.13. 

acintyaka (= Skt. acintya), unthinkable; cf. acintika 
(°tika occurs Mmk 559.20): Mmk 559.25 (vs). 

Acintyagunanuttaradharmagocara, n. of a Bodhi- 
sattva: Gv 443.9. 

acintyaparivarta, m. (or, in Gv 134.13, nt.), square of 
acintya: Mvy 7815; 7947 (here cited from Gv); Gv 106.24; 

AcintyaSrl, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.7. 
acira-cira-cirena (m.c. for °na; no v.l. ; as one word? 
so text): LY 78.5 (vs). Rendered by Foucaux for a long 
time. Maya speaks to the King: deva srnu hi mahyam 
bhasato yam matam me; acira-cira-cirena jata udyana- 
buddhih, . . . for a long time I have conceived the thought of 
(going to) the pleasure-park. Gould acira(m?) be taken 
separately, with preceding line? Tib. seems to have nothing 
for acira; it says yun rih rin po hdas nas, for a long, long 
time past. 

acirayanasamprasthita, = nava-yana°, q.v. : AsP 


a- cir as thitika- ta 



a- cir as thitika- ta, see cirasthitika, and s.v. sthitaka 

[acirna-dandata, var. for acirna 0 , q.v.] 
acela (= Pali id.) m., a member of a sect of naked 
ascetics: Mvy 8467 (-danam; cf. Pali Vin. iv.92.$-5); 
Siks 331.12. 

acelaka (= Pali id.), = prec.: Mvy 3528; Prat 511.10. 
acchata, nt. (only Mmk 159.23; in Pali acchara as 
stem in comp, beside °ra) = acchata, q.v. 

acchata, also acchara- samghata (= Pali and 
AMg. acchara, Pali also acchara-samghata), once ac- 
chata- samhata (see samhSta); cf. ricchata (for rcch- 
ata? which could be the original of acchata), (1) 
snap of the fingers: ekacchata ye (so read with WT) ca 
karonti Sabdam SP 392.6; acchata-sabdena Divy 555.21; 
°sabdah Mvy 2802; °£abdam akar§it, snapped his fingers , 
Gv 510.22; °samghata-sabdah SP 388.8; ( 2 ) as n» of a 
small unit of time, instant , jiffy: °ta (printed °tam in 
160.7, wrongly) tvarita gatih Mmk 160.7; 279.23; otice 
as nt. (see acchata), °tam Mmk 159.23; various advetbs, 
in a jiffy , acchatamatrena Mmk 79.27; °ta-samghata- 
matram Mvy 8226; Divy 142.11; °ta-pada-matram Mmk 
268.18; ekacchatasamhatamatram Siks 214.11; as adj., 
having or characterized by the measure of a finger-snap , i. e. 
in a jiffy , agreeing with personal subject, (Manjugrih . . .) 
°tasamghatamatro . . . vikurvanam . . . satnapadyata 
Mmk 3.27. 

acchati ( = Pali id., Pkt. acchai), sits: accha drume 
tuva LV 343.2 (vs) sit at the treel; [(plthe) acchati Mv 
ii.379.5 (vs), but this is surely an error for acchambhi of 
Siks 303.3, which meter requires;] kausldyam acchati 
Siks 298.4 (could be sits in sloth , but might also be goes to 
sloth as Bendall assumes following Pischel 480; in LV 
this is impossible). 

acchandagamin, adj., probably not going after whims 
or desires , of the family of the Bodhisattva: °gaminam 
LV 24.1 ; °gami Mv i.197.20; ii.1.10 (all same passage). 

acchambhita, adj. (neg. of chambhita, and cf. 
next; Pali has acchambhitatta), not frightened: Gv 37.1; 
40.20, etc.; 452.24; adv. °tam, without consternation, Mv 
ii.281.15 (parallel with abhltam, asamvignam, asamtra- 

acchambhin, adj. (= Pali id.; cf. astambhin; neg. 
of chambhin; cf. prec., and chambati, chambhita, etc.; 
on etymology see under chambati), not paralyzed with 
fear, not frightened: acchambhi, n. sg. m. (in LV 284.18, 
and possibly 285.9, voc.) LV 284.18 (vs); 285.9 (vs); Mvy 
1821; Mv ii.269.20; 270.1, 18; 278.21; 281.13; read ac- 
chambhi Mv ii.379.5, with the parallel Siks 303.3, for text 
acchati; acchambhi, n. sg. m. Gv 364.20 (vs); accham- 
bhinam (! n. sg. m. ; -m ‘hiatus-bridger’?; amankubhutah 
Mmk 93.24 (prose). 

acchindati (— Pali id., for Skt. achinatti; Senart 
always emends to acch 0 ), ( 1 ) takes away, removes, with 
gen. of person, acc. of thing: acchinditva Mv ii.434.3, 9 
(tesam bhratrnam); iii.7.17 (gulikam); in Mv iii.403.12, 14, 
read aham na (14 . . . naiva) kasyaci demi napi acchindami 
(with mss., misinterpreted by Senart), I do not give to 
anyone nor take away from anyone; (2) abolishes, puts away: 
acchet(t)va (trsnam) Mv iii.285.6, 9 (= Pali acchejja, 
acchijja, same vs, SN i.127.3, 6). 

Acchinnadhara, n. of a rain-deity: Siks 247.8. 
Acchila, n. of a naga-king: May 247.34. 

Acyuta, (1) n. of a Bodhisattva cakravartin: Mv 
i.113.14; ( 2 ) n. of a naga-king: Mvy 3292; May 247.34; 
( 3 ) pi., n. of a class of gods (as in Pali accuta): Mahasamaj. 
Waldschmidt, Kl. Skt. Texte 4, 185.18. 

Ajakarna, n. of a disciple of Buddha: Mv i.76.1.* 
ajanya (cf. Pali ajanna), prob. ignoble, debased: 
ajanyasya brahmanasya putro Mv i.319.12; 321.16; 323.7; 
said of Jyotipala; since he was a friend of a potter’s son, 

his father may have been an outcaste brahman. Senart 
assumes mg. noble, on grounds which I find unconvincing 
The mg. I assume fits the Pali ajanna, Jat, ii.437.17 
In Mv iii.119.23 prob. read with v.l. anajanyaratha, noi 
ignoble chariots, for ajanya 0 of text. (Meter is bad in either 
case.) In Kv 42.10 for na jatyesu read perhaps najanyesu, 
not among ignoble people; see s.v. jatya. 

ajapadaka-danda, m. (= Pali ajapada-danda), staff 
(cleft) like a goat's hoof: Mvy 9045; ajapadaka-dandaka, 
id., MSV iv.75.5. 

Ajapala-nyagrodha (= Pali °nigrodha), the Goat- 
herd's Banyan, under which Buddha spent some time 
(the 6th week, according to Mv) shortly after enlight- 
enment: Mv iii.302.21; 313.18. Story of how it got its 
name, Mv iii.301.8 ff. (apparently does not occur in Pali; 
doubtless a late invention based on the name); ajapalasya 
nya° iii.302.21; 425.18, 23; 436.19, 22. 

Ajaya, n. of a goddess: Sadh 502.10. 
aja-r-edakH (cf. Pali ajelaka, Skt. Gr. ajaidaka), 
voc. °ke, 0 female of the goats-and-sheep\ (cf. § 4.63): MSV 
iv.228.16 (vs). Addressed to a ewe; use of the dvandva cpd. 
is peculiar but hardly questionable; cf. § 23.3. Confirmed 
by nom. (sa) ’ja-r-edika 228.21 (prose). 

ajava, perhaps to be read for java, a high number, in 
Gv 106.13; see s.v. ayava. 

a-j d taka, adj. ( = Skt. ajata), unborn: ajatakas ca 
(v.l. ajata sarve) SP 281.9 (vs), m.c. 

Aj&ta§atrtj (= Pali Ajatasattu), n. of a king of 
Magadha, son of Bimbisara: SP 5.5 (attends the Buddha); 
Divy 55.17; 279.20 ff.; 369.9; 380.18; 545.8; Av i.54.6 ff.; 
83.6; 88.7; 308.5 ff.; ii.182.1 ff.; Siks 274.3-4 (from Tatha- 
gataguhya-sutra) ; Mmk 590.2 (in the sequel repeatedly 
referred to as Ajatakhya, e. g. ajatakhyo nrpottamah 
592.7); Karmav 45.3; 49.20 (summary of his story), et alibi. 

Ajata£atrukaukrtyavinodana, m., n. of a work: 
Mvy 1358. 

Ajatakhya, see Ajatasatru. 
ajanaka, adj., foolish, see janaka. 
ajananaka, adj., = prec., see jananaka. 

Ajita, (1) (= Pali id.) epithet of Maitreya; mostly 
voc. in direct address, the name Maitreya being otherwise 
used in same context; but other forms occur (ajitasya 
Karmav 40.1): SP 18.4; 308.1, 2; 309.2 ff. ; 327.3; 332.6 ff . ; 
345.7 ff., etc.; Mv i.51.6; Siks 97.8; (an unidentified 
Bodhisattva, prob. Maitreya) Sukh 64.7 ff.; 92.10; ( 2 ) n. 
of a future Buddha, but seemingly distinguished from 
Maitreya: Mv iii.330.8; ( 3 ) n. of an attendant on the 
Bodhisattva (Sakyamuni) in a previous birth: Jm 3.4 
(query: to be identified with Maitreya?). 

Ajita Ke&akambala, or °lin (= Pali Ajita Kesakam- 
bala, or °1I, °lin), n. of one of the six heretical teachers of 
Buddha’s time (see s.v. Purana KaSyapa), named with 
the others: °lah Mvy 3548 (Ajita-kes°, as cpd.; so also 
Mironov); Divy 143.11; Av i.231.4 (ms. Kesa°); °lasya Mv 
i. 253. 14; °1I, nom. sg. Mv i.256.20; iii.383.16. 

Ajitacakra, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i. 137. 12. 
Ajitamjaya, (1) n. of a Bodhisattva: Mmk 41.17; 
( 2 ) n. of a locality: May 27; 69. 

Ajitapusya (? Senart with v.l. °pusyala), n. of 
a former Buddha: Mv i.137.13; see pusyala. 

Ajitabala, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.140.2. 
ajitavatigandha, a (mythical?) kind of jewel: 
(-maniraja-) Gv 101.8; cf. ajitavati. 

Ajitasena, n. of a householder: Gv 453.18, 26, etc. 
? Ajitasenar5jan (mss. Ajinasenah Raja), n. of a 
former Buddha: Mv i. 140.11. 

Ajita, n. of one of the four Kumar! , q.v., or Bhagini: 
Mmk 537.8; 539.25; 543.9 et alibi; prob. the same, a 
yaksinl, 573.14. 

ajitavati, a kind of perfume (cf. ajitavatigandha): 
ajitavati(gandharaja-) Gv 153.15. 




ajinaka (== Skt. °na plus -ka svarthe), deerskin : °kena 
Mv iii.144.9; 154.11 (both prose). 

? ajina-khipa (or, Sktized, °ksipa; m. or nt. ; = Pali 
°kkhipa), deerskin dress (of an ascetic): °khipena, so I em. 
Mv ii.147.7, for mss. jana-kapilena, -karitena. The vs was 
puspitagra; Senart fails badly on it, but some of my 
guesses, too, are far from certain: kasayapata-(m.c. for 
kasayapata-) -valambitaprakarsl ajinakhipena vistlrna 
aindramarge, bhurikamalajavaklrnagatro saranavare gata 
eka cakravakah. See my Reader, Four Sights (Mv), end. 

Ajiravati (Skt. Gr. : = Pali Aciravati; see also 
Aryavatl), n. of a river at Sravasti: Av i.63.5 If.; ii.69.3; 
MSV ii.85.20. 

ajihma-kuksi = abhugna (q.v.) -kuksi. 
a-jihmikarana, see jihml°. 

ajlvika: £iks 332.1 (vs), probably only m.c. for aj° 
(despite note p. 414). 

Ajeya, m., n. of a samadhi: Mvy 548 (not in $sP). 
Ajnanavidhvamsana, n. of a former Buddha: Sukh 

6 . 12 . 

a-iiana (nt. ; Pali ahana; MIndic for ajnana, §2.15), 
ignorance: jnanam na kalpeti, ananu (n. sg.) no bhavet 
MadhK 157.1 (vs; no v.l.). 

[anja (anjas?), cf. Skt. ahjas, quickly ; exclamation 
used in Pali (Jat. i. 192.5, 29) in urging a draft-animal to go 
(geel get up] go ahead !), come up] In LV 394.18 (vs) tad 
ahja is Lefm.’s em. for tad-anya of all mss. and Calc, 
which seems to make no sense. Addressed by Brahma to 
the Buddha, urging him to preach the law; presumed to 
mean perhaps come on l But Tib. seems to have had a 
quite different reading: kha hbyed pa, mouth open (Fou- 
caux, ouvre ta bouche ; but the form is not given as impv. 
by Ja.). Should we read ud-anca, 2 sg. impv., for Skt. 
ud-ancaya, ertonen lassen (pw)? Graphic confusion of u 
and ta occurs in some Indian alphabets, e. g. in Sarada.] 
anjati ( = Pali id., Skt. anakti), anoints , ppp. ahjita: 
anjitehi akslhi Mv ii.234.17. 

1 Anjana or °na-ka, n. of a king of Benares, father of 
Punyavant(a): Mviii.33.12 (°nako, n. sg.), 15 (°nasya, gen.). 

(2 anjana: mrgo . . . raktehi khurehi anjanehi akslhi 
prabhasvarehi darsanlyehi Mv i. 363. 18. No v.l.; but there 
is no authority for anjana as adj. [PTSD quotes 3 Jat. 
passages for this, all erroneous.] Senart suggests sanjanehi 
or equivalent. But perhaps render: with red hoofs and eyes 
bright and beautiful (as if?) with colly r ium.) 

anjanlya or °ya (so Senart with one ms.), or anjanaka 
or °ka (v.l.), acc. to Senart box for holding collyrium ; cf. 
Pali anjanl, AMg anjaniya (for °ka), id.: °nlya (v.l. °naka; 
n. pi.) pi Mv ii.473.10, listed among products of a sankha- 
valayakara, q.v. 

Anjalipriya, n. of a yaksa: May 49. 
Anjalimaladharin, n. of a former Buddha: Mv 

i. 140.3. 

? anjistha: SsP 1561.6, 7 na 'hjistham, in a list of 
color words. Perhaps error (haplogr.) for (na) manjistham? 
Otherwise may be identified with Skt. Gr. (Unadi) aiijistha, 
Pali (according to Maung Tin, cited CPD) anjittha, the sun 
(to Vedic anji); in that case perhaps bright-colored: 

annaya, so Senart (with the Pali version, SN i.126.27) 
for mss. anyaya = Skt. ajnaya, ger. of a-jna, knowing : 
°ya dharmam Mv iii.284.4 (vs). 

Atakavatl (var. Ala°; Mironov Ataka°, no v.l.), n. 
of a place: Mvy 4137; presumably = Adakavatl, q.v., 
= Skt. Alaka. 

atakkara, m., apparently pathologically ravenous 
appetite : Mvy 9515, according to Tib. bkres na ba (ed. 
suggests riiab, misprinted rnab, ba) and Chin.; in a list 
of diseases. See atakkara. 

atata, m. (== Pali id.), n. of a hell (cold, acc. to 
Dharmas and Tib. Mvy): Mvy 4931; Dharmas 122; Divy 
67.23; 138.7; Av 1.4.9 etc.; Mmk 635.22. 

atanin (Skt. atana plus -in), wandering (adj.):pasyatha 
katham atany akhedavan Gv 481.24 (vs), see how , wander- 
ing, he is not wearied. 

Atavaka (cf. Atavaka), n. of a naga king: May 

A^avl ( = Pali Alavi), n. of a town: May 15, 90. Levi 
identifies the first with the Pali city-name but thinks the 
second a different locality. 

Atavlsambhava, n. of a pond: Suv 184.6 ff. (note 
especially 188.2). 

atta, m. (v.l. atta; so Mironov), a high number: Mvy 
8067; Tib. phyor, which Das gives as = anta (read atta?), 
n. of a number. Cf. also itta. 

[attaha(h): Mmk 19.10, read abrha(h) or avr°, q.v. 
a class of gods.] 

? attiyanika or °vanika, pi. °ka, so mss. at Mv 
iii. 442.15, corresponding to agrivanlya at iii.113.10; 
Senart em. attavanija, which is quife implausible and not 
really easier to interpret. In a list of designations of various 
tradesmen or artisans. 

Attesvara, n. of a suparnin, previous birth of 
Virupaksa: MSV i.260.19 ff. 

Adakavatl ( — Skt. Alaka; see Ataka°, Ala°), n. of 
the capital- of the yaksas: LV 202.13; Suv 116.1 °vatyarri 
(Nobel em. Adaka°, needlessly); May 106; 228.21. 

addhatiya (= Pali id., acc. to CPD by haplol. for 
addhatatiya = Skt. ardhatrtiya), or addha°, two and a 
half. Senart’s Index cites only addhatiya, which is read in 
text Mv iii. 72. 12 (mss. avrttiya) and 13 (mss. attatiya or 
atta°), while addhatiya is read in text Mv ii.312.10 (mss. 
attati, omitting ya) and iii. 75. 7 (mss. attatiya). 

Anala (so Lefm. with some mss.) or Anala (so Calc, 
with best mss.), n. of a town: LV 406.20 (prose) °lam, 
acc. sg. 

anu, grain of sand (nowhere recorded in this sense): 
gahganubhih sammitah LV 360.17. 

anu-phala, m., lit. having minute fruit, millet (Tib. 
tsi tsi, tsi tse): Mvy 5657. 

(anda, cupola, the bulb-shaped part on the top of a 
stupa: Divy 244.10, 11. See P. K. Acharya, Diet. Hindu 
Arch. 16, and pw 1.284.) 

andakastha: Divy 384.24, acc. to Burnouf Intr. 376 
eggshell; doubtful; see s.v. hirodaka. 

Andabha, n. of a yaksa: May 51. 

Andayana, pi., n. of a brahmanical gotra: Divy 
635.19.* * 

anvati, rarely °te (derived by Senart, note on Mv 

i. 15.10, from Skt. rnvati), goes: anvati LV 192.7 (text 
’nveti, unmetr. ; cf. vv. 11. ’nvata, ’ntata); Mv i.264.12; 

ii. 101.18 (mss.); 211.2 (mss.), 3; 457.15; iii.28.8; 144.17 ff; 
154.17; 155.3, 9, etc.; °te SP 111.4 (Kashgar rec.; text 
hamce); anvanti Mv i.15.10; ii.211.7; anvami Mv ii.226.14; 
anvama (pi. for dual) Mv iii. 310.10; anv§mas (v.l., text 
ancamas) SP 168.9; anvantehi (em. ; pres, pple.) Mv 
i.356.5; °ntena Mv ii.83.21; °nto Mv ii.212.16; 217.5; 

iii. 28.9 (mss. °ati); 35.17; anvati (text °nti; n. sg. fern.) 
Mv iii. 12. 10; anvamana Mv ii.441.6; anvi (aor., went; 
read °karmanvi, cf. WT who cite their ms. as °nvi!) SP 
258.10; ppp. anvitah Mv ii.210.15 (padehi, went on foot); 
iii. 144. 15; °ta (em.) Mv i.356.10; ger. anviya Mv iii. 145.1; 
inf. anvitu-kama(h) Mv ii. 21 1.10; gdve. bhiksa anvitavya 
Mv iii.178.7 one must go a-begging. 

atapa, once atapas, the second of the suddhavasa, 
and (usually pi.) the class-name of the gods who dwell 
there; in Pali atappa: Mvy 3103; Dharmas 128; LV 150.10; 
Mv ii.314.9 ; 319.7; 349.1; 360.22; Divy 68.16; 367.14; Av 
i.5.3; Mmk 19.10; 43.21 (text anaya); 69.6 (here sg. of an 
individual member of the class); atapas (s-stem, in comp.) 
Gv 249.10. Others, see s.v. deva. 

atara, m. (cf. next), a high number: Mvy 7777 (°rah); 
Gv 106.14 (°rasya). 




ataru (cf. prec.), a high number: Mvy 7906 (°ruh; 
cited from Gv); Gv 133.25 (°rum, n. sg. nt. !). 

a-tarkika, adj. (Pali atakkika, see CPD; cf. tarka), 
free from ( sophistical ) ratiocination : °kam suksmam anasra- 
vam ca jnanam . . . SP 62.12 (vs). 

[atarsaka: Siks 255.8 °ka(h), followed by atrptikarah; 
read atarpakah, not satisfying; of the visayas.] 

[atarsaniya: Siks 255.8 °yani, after atrptani; read 
atarpaniyani, insatiable; of the indriyas.] 

[Ati, read Atri, n. of a Prajapati: May 257.18.] 

[ati tvam: LV 253.8 (vs), so text, but most mss. 
atlva, and so Tib. (sin tu); read atlva (m.c.).] 

atikala (= Pali id.), too early time; cf. ativikala; 
11 a catikale (v.l. °lam) na cativikale (v.l. °lam) Mv iii.255.14, 
not too early and not too late; iii.414.5 (mss. nanyatikale). 

atikranta, adj. (ppp.), surpassing , wonderful , (speci- 
fically of appearance) beautiful : atikranta (so mss., Senart 
abhi°) ca manusah Mv iii.96.19; 100.20; °ta-varna, of 
beautiful appearance, LV 396.17; Mv iii. 316.13; 317.11; 
also Mv ii.257.9; 258.7; iii. 197. 15; 302.10 (in these four 
Senart em. abhikranta 0 ). The equivalent Pali is regularly 
abhikkanta (-vanna), but atikkanta also occurs in the 
same sense (CPD s.v.). In BHS, in this sense, abhikranta 
occurs, if at all, only in LV 398.11 °ta varna, see abhi- 
kranta 2, Since t and bh are easily confused, it may be 
that graphic confusion is here concerned. On the other 
hand, atikranta is erroneously read, e. g. in Divy 462.13, 
for abhikranta (1), which is correctly read in the same 
passage in MSV i.70.3, and elsewhere in that text. 

atikranta- manusyaka, surpassing human powers or 
nature : Mv ii.283.15 (caksusa visuddhena) °syakena 

(i transcending human sight). 

atiksunaka, adj. (var. atikhuntannaka-, corrupt; 
read °ksunnaka, broken*!), over-small : nati°kair alopaih 
(sc. paribhoksyamah) Mvy 8572; so Tib. ha can chun ba. 
See ksuna. (Mironov as text.) 

aticirayati (= Pali aticirayati; cf. Skt. cirayati), 
delays excessively : Divy 175.20. 

atijalpati, talks too much : Mvy 7024 °lpet. 
atitti-(ga-) ? (= Pali id., Skt. atrpti); assumed by 
Senart at Mv i. 133. 12 (prose) atittigas (no ms. reads quite 
so, yet the variants seem indeed to tend in this direction), 
ils ne tendent pas a la satisfaction de leurs sens, ils ne sont 
pas esclaves de leurs sens. It seems to me, however, that the 
general use of derivatives of trp would suggest just the 
opposite meaning, which would not fit here (ep. of Bodhi- 
sattvas): they never reach satiety. 

atinamayati, atinameti ( = Pali atinameti), causes 
(time) to pass, spends (time): kumarabhumlm atinamayitva 
SP 68.7 (vs), having spent his childhood period (stage); 
ratrimdivany SP 61.1; kalam LV 384.14; Mv i.192.14 
(atinamenti) ; Siks 40.5; Bbh 172.7; (saptahapuram . . .) 
atinamesi Mv ii.348.16, spent a full week; saptaham Divy 
443.6; ratrimdivasam Divy 82.29; ratridivasany Suv 113.2; 
ahoratram Jm 36.4; divasam Divy 304.4; ratrir . . . atina- 
mita Av ii.153.14; also used absolutely, without a word 
for (period of) time, yan nv aham tusnlbhavenatinamaye- 
yam RP 39.14, suppose I spend (my time) in silence; 
similarly Dbh 5.26-7 tusnimbhavenatinamayati; suciram 
(prob. adv., for a long while) atinamayam asa Gv 342.5 
(spent the time; or is suciram a noun, object of the verb?). 
See also abhinamayati (4), adhinam 0 , vyatinamayati 
(vlti 0 ). 

atiniryati, goes all the way thru: (in hell, dhumo . . . 
asthim) bhittva asthimarjam mansady °yati Mv i.20.2 
(some mss. °jati). 

atipascat, see abhipascat. 

Atipurusa, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i. 138. 13. 
atiprathate, spreads abroad exceedingly, becomes very 
well known: °thante . . . caritesv atikramah Jm 188.21 
(mss., Kern em. abhi°, hardly necessarily). 

ati-pravanna, see pra vanna. 

atipragas, adv., too early, see under next, and cf. 
Pali atippago (ending analogical to forms like bhuyas): 
°gas tavad . . . pindaya caritum Mv i.54.12; 56.6. 

atiprag eva, adv. (see prec.), too early , very early , cf. 
Skt. atiprage and prak (Lex. = prabhate), Pali atippageva: 
°eva . . . pindaya caritum Mv i.34.16, it is too early to go 
begging food. 

Atibalavlryaparakrama, n. of a future Buddha 
(= Nanda 8, ‘the lazy'): Av i.22.3. 

atimanyana (= Pali °mannana; Vedic atimanyate 
plus -ana), despising, contempt: an-a° sarvasattvesu KP 
18.3; Tib. mi brnas pa. 

atimana (= Pali id.), self-conceit, excessive pride; see 
also manatimana: Mv iii.214.9; an-atimana-taya, Gv 

Atimaya, n. of a sister of Maya: Mv i. 355. 17. 
atimukta (m. or nt. ; Skt. Lex., = Skt. atimuktaka, 
Pali atimutta beside °taka), a kind of shrub and its flower: 
SP 342.8 (vs); °ta-kadali- Divy 619.18 (prose). 

Atimuktaka (= Pali Atimuttaka-susana ; presumably 
named from the creeper atim°), n. of a cemetery near 
Benares: °ke (Senart em. °ka-) smasane Mv ii. 168.8 ; °kam 
(Senart em. °ka-) smasanam id. 11. 

Atimuktakamala (v.l. Abhi°), n. of a village chiefs 
daughter: LV 265.5. 

atiyatra, passage-fee: Divy 92.27. Probably about 
the same as ativahika in Kaut. Arth., cited s.v. gulma, 

atiriktaka, adj., completely ( miserably ?) empty; in 
this sense (ati plus rikta, empty) nowhere recorded, either 
with or without sufflxal -ka (pejorative?). Otherwise Skt. 
atirikta, and Pali atiritta(ka), are pples. of ati plus ric- 
and mean left over, excessive , superfluous or the like: 
Kasyapo ca Piirano 'tiriktakena patrena nirdhavati Mv 

ii. 207.2 (whereas the Bodhisattva received a bowl full of 

ati-r-iva (= Pali id., Skt. ativa, §4.61), in excess; 
noted only in Mv: prose, i. 302. 19; iii. 60. 8; 147.3, 11: 
258.9; 302.2; 334.2; 341.5; verses, i.129.6 (read tvaya 
atirivapi, with v.l., even in a manner surpassing you; 
Senart em. wrongly; v.l. atiriccapi, which would be possible 
if tvaya were construed as acc.); 266.14; ii.37.10; 227.7; 

iii. 109.17; 246.6. 

atireka-, excess(-ive), as prior member of cpd. (so in 
Pali, but in Skt. app. only as final member): atireka-puja, 
exceedingly great respect , Mv i.89.16 (prose); same cpd. in 
Pali, MN i.220. 11-12; read Mv 1.89.15 f., yatas ca bodhi- 
sattvacaritabhumim prapnuvanti, tarn (so mss.!), na 
pujayanti atirekapujaye (correct punctuation!), and from 
whom they obtain the stage of Bodhisattva-course-of-conduct, 
him they do not (as they should) honor with exceeding great 
respect; atireka-labha, extra allowance, Bhik 22b. 3-4; 
23a. 2, 5; °ka-clvara (Pali id.), extra robe, MSV ii.91.11 f. 
atilaksa, nt., a million: Mvy 7995. 
atillyate (cf. Pali atillna), becomes slack: natiliyase 
MSV i.9.12. 

ativatta, in ativattaksa Mvy 8833; Tib. (mig) ha 
can che ba, (having) very large (eyes). There is a v.l. 
ativanta 0 , and Mironov reads ativatra 0 without v.l. Seems 
to be MIndic, for ati plus either Skt. vrtta (Pali vatta), 
round, or vyatta (Pali vatta), wide-open (in Skt. and Pali 
only recorded of the mouth). 

ativakya (= Pali id. [so, a and ky! Sanskritic]; cf. 
Skt. ati-vac), blame, abuse: Ud xix.6 (°kyam titiksati; 
= Pali Dhp. 321); xxix.31 (°kyam titiksami); MSV i.11.17. 

ativaha (= Pali id.), guide, conductor; only in sartha- 
tivaha (-sadrsa) = sarthavaha (and perhaps m.c.), caravan- 
leader, merchant: Gv 474.14 (vs). 

ativikala (= Pali id.), too late a time: Mv iii.255.14 
(see s.v. atikala); °kale 414.5. 




ati-visvasta, adj. (Pali ativissattha), exceedingly inti- 
mate: me bhagavam ... ativisvasto Mv i.327.20; 329.5. 

ativisa (1) adj. (— Pali ativisa), very poisonous: Jm 
229.17; (2) nt., a plant, according to Tib. bon ha dkar po, 
said to mean white wolfsbane ; cf. Pali ativisa, a medicinal 
plant, and Skt. ativisa, identified as one or more varieties 
of Aconitum: Mvy 5821. 

ativistrta (cf. Pali ativitthara, °arita), too expanded , 
too diffuse: Bbh 264.24 (applied to sastras; opposed to 

[(a)tisamlayana, doubtless error for prati°, privacy: 
Divy 204.4 sayahne ’tisamlayanad vvutthaya; this phrase 
regularly has pratisamlayanad (q.v,), and there seems 
little doubt that the syllable pra has been accidentally 
lost from the text.] 

atisadrsa, see anati°. 

atisamrddha, m., n. of a muhurta: Divy 643.10 
(text here °ddhir); 644.14 (°ddhah). 

atisarati, transgresses , goes too far (in Pali also sins; 
since it follows, and is parallel with, natijalpet in Mvy, 
it seems not likely to mean that here; but cf. atisara): 
natisaret Mvy 7025 — Tib. ha can hphro bar mi bya 
(byed), not make going too far; acc. to Chin., in speech. 

? atisarjana, nt, see abhisajjana. 
atisara (= Pali id.), sin, in satisara ( = Pali id.), 
sinful , guilty: Mvy 9336 — Tib. hgal tshabs can. Here, 
and seemingly always, used in nom. with bhavati, becomes 
guilty of a sin. So Divy 275.18; 330.1; Siks 63.8; Bbh 
160.24; °ra (fern.) Bhik 10a. 3-4. 

-atisarin (to prec.; cf. Pali id.), transgressing: vinay- 
atisarinlr dusthula apattlr desayitva MSV iii.79.5; simi- 
larly 86.12 etc. 

[Atisurya, Senart’ s em. for mss. Abhisurya: Mv 

? atisvara, in Divy 304.28 tasyatisvarena gacchato 
’nupadam gacchanti. The word seems certainly corrupt; 
read atitvarena, with very great speed ? This at least would 
make good sense, and tvarena, with speed , is recorded. 

aticcha, excessive desire: Siks 255.16. Cf. Pali aticcha, 
aticchata, and atriccha. 

atitaka = Skt. atita, past (opposed to present and 
future): RP 6,5; Bhad 13; Gv 384.6. In all may be m.c. 

a 'tartha (= Pali atitattha, atita-m-attha), having 
missed one's aim, object, or profit: (na . . .) nirvrtah puru- 
saSrestha atitarthe (so ad mss.; n. pi.; or loc. abs., when 
their aim is missed ?) jinatmaja Mv i. 122.18 (vs), Buddhas 
and Bodhisattvas never die leaving uncompleted their aims. 
atlsaya (m.c. for Skt. ati°), abundance: Mv i.100.10 


atula (1) (-gandharaja), some kind of perfume: Gv 
153.14; (2) m. (Pali id.), n. of a naga-king, previous in- 
carnation of iSakyamuni: Mv i. 249. 18; 251.12; [(3) a high 
number: in Gv 105.25 text sattvatulasya, read certainly 
sattva 0 ; but possibly sattvatulyasya (see atulya).] 
Atulaprabha, n. of a kalpa: Gv 447.1. 
atuliya, adj. ( = Pali id., Skt. atulya), incomparable: 
Mv ii.300.8, 9 (vss); 362.11 (prose). 

atulya (cf. atula, 3), nt., a high number: Mvy 7812; 
7944 (cited from Gv), 8045; Gv 106.23; 134.12; Sukh 31.2. 

atulyaparivarta, m. (in Gv 134.12 nt.), square of 
atulya: Mvy 7813; 7945 (cited from Gv as °tah, n. sg.); 
Gv 106.24; 134.12 (°tam, n. sg.). 

atrtiya, adj., with no third (of two individuals); 
nowhere recorded, but cf. Skt. advitlya: ubhaye atrtiya 
Mv ii.171.16, the two of them (alone) without a third. 
atta, see atta. 

-attamanas, adj. (= Pali id., BHS atta°), in an-atta° 
not glad , Gv 411.8. Possibly retention of MIndic short a- 
before consonant cluster; § 3.32; but may be mere corrup- 
tion for -atta°. 

attattamlya (= Pali attattamya; semi-M Indie for 

atmatmiya, § 3.34), the self , and what pertains to the self: 
-vigatas Dbh.g. 16(352). 6. The same cpd. in prose as 
atmatrmya-vigata Dbh 43.13; atmatmlya-rahita Dbh 50.29. 

attiyati (Pali attlyati), see ar(t)tiyati: attlyate, 

attiyaslS. (to prec. plus -ana), aversion , with ablative: 
dharmebhyo 'ttiyana (so mss., text artl°) jugupsana 
MadhK 297.4; see ar(t)tiyati. 

atma, semi-MIndic for atma, self: LV 419.8 (vs); 
see §3.35. 

aty atita, nt., what is beyond death: in cliche of wish 
for a son (s.v. adi£ati, 2, 3), asmakam catyatitakalaga- 
tanam, Divy 2.15, and when we have died (and so entered) 
into the postmortal state; same 440.28-29; Av i.14.15; 

ii. 73.10 (so ms. in these); read so Av i.197.2; 277.1 ; ii.180.13 
(Speyer reads always capy atita 0 , sometimes with ms. 
support) ; in same cliche, asmakam catyatitam kalagatanam 
uddisya Divy 99.6, and with reference to the postmortal state 
of us after we have died. 

atyantakale, adv. (cf. AMg. accantakalassa, Ratnach.), 
for a very long time: Mv i.103.9, read yada (mss., Senart 
omits this) pretesu, atyantakale (mss. reported °kaye, 
Senart em. °kayesu; peril, read °kalena?) nopapadyanti, 
if ( they are born) among pretas, they are not born (so) for a 
very long time. 

Atyantacandramas, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.5. 
atyantata, instr. °taya, absolutely, with neg., not at 
all: °taya hi bhagavan svapnantare (254.5 svapne) . . . na 
samvidyate ^iks 252.8; 254.5. 

[atyantarlbhuta, error for abhyant 0 , q.v.] 
atyaya, m., (once nt., Av ii.151.3), sin = Pali accaya 
(hardly in this sense in Skt. ; Manu 8.243 is close to it but 
apparently isolated); with pasyati, dr£-, recognize as a sin; 
with desayati (rarely pratideSayati, aviskaroti) confess as 
a sin; with pratigrhnati (rarely janati), accept ( a con- 
fession of) a sin = forgive , absolve it; with ksamapayati 
(rare), ask forgiveness for a sin. Often atyayam atyayato 
instead of the simple atyayam,- With all these expressions, 
in the same meanings. Pali uses accayam accayato, and 
verbs passati, deseti, patiganhati, as in BHS; also khamati, 
forgives: atyayo me Divy 617.17, / have sinned; atyayam 
atyayatah pasyami Divy 617.20; ° °drstva desayami, 
° °aviskaromi (so!) id. 20-21; atyayam atyayato drstva 
pratidesayati LV 379.13; °yam desayanti LV 409.22; °yo 
desito Av i.149. 12-13; °yam desitavan 272.13; °yam °yato 
desitam (as if nt. !) ii.151.3; °yam °yato desaya, confess 
as a sinl, &iks 58.15; Divy 5.5; 55.1; 567.29-30 (read 
deSayapy for °yamy); 570.23; °yam . . . desayamo SP 
210.1; de^emahe atyayu SP 212.7; °yam °yato desayamy 
Gv 122.8; atyayam no bhagavan pratigrhnatu LV 379.6; 
bhagavan atyayam atyayato janatu pratigrhnatu Divy 
617.22-3; atyayam pratigrhnanjtu (subject the Buddhas) 
Suv 30.8; sa tenatyayam atyayato ksainapita Divy 5.6, 
he asked her to pardon his offense. Once, atyayam atyayato 
agama(h; aor.) fylSV i.43.5, you have arrived at ( been guilty 
of) a sin. 

atyaya- de&ana, nt., confession of sin: Karmav 49.24; 
°na, f., id., RP 34.11; Jm 127.13. 

[atyayika, read atyayika, q.v.] 

aty-avaSyam, adv., quite certainly: Mv ii.491.7, 8; 

iii. 263.16; 265.7, 'l0. 

[atyavahara, read abhyavahara, which is Skt., pw 
7.306, (digestible) food , Gv 401.6.] 

-atyastam, ifc. adv. (cf. Pan. 2.1.24), when . . . has 
passed , after...: anekajanmatyastam Lank 251.9. 

atyastika, a certain posture, presumably of the 
hands: Stein ms. fragments 1.3b, 4a, La Vall6e Poussin 
JRAS 1913.844; adjoins vinyastikS; cf, also udvyastika, 

[atyakhySya (tarn te gatim gamisyanti), by em., 
LV 88.22 (prose). But Lefm. misedits and misunderstands 




the passage, and Weller ignores it. boucaux is practically 
right. Read with most and best mss. vyakhyayatam te 
tam; all mss. have vya°. not tya°. Render What is the fate 
of those who expound the Buddhas past , present, and future, 
while yet ignoring (or concealing) the enlightenment of the 
Buddhas, — to that fate will they go.} 

aty-arabdha, ( = Pali accaraddha), too greatly exerted, 
adj. with vlrya (so in Pali, with viriya): Siks 51.2. 

? atyahata, afflicted (but probably error for Skt. 
abhyahata): Divy 460.7, text duhkhenatyahato. 

Atyuccagamin, n. of a former Buddha (spelled Abhy° 
in Gv; in mss. of Mv iii.245.6; 247.6; 248,9; and in v.l. at 
LV 172.3, where Tib. rab hthor gsegs; Foucaux interprets 
rab — abhi, but it may = ati, see Das s.v. rab-hkhrugs; 
Tib. for LV 5.6 sin tu . . . = aty-): Mv i.137.11 ; iii.240.2 f. ; 
243.5, 6; 244.1; 245.6; 247.6; 248.9; LV 5.6; 172.3; Gv 
(see above) 204.26; 205.2, 10. 

Atyuccadeva, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.9 (text 
Abhy°, cf. prec.). 

Atyuttama, n. of a former Buddha: Mv iii. 239.2. 
[atyutsahata, Divy 547.26, or °hana, Divy 549.7, 
read abhyut 0 .] 

atyudgacchati, and ppp. atyudgata, sometimes in 
texts and oftener in mss. (frequently as v.l.) for abhyud 0 
in meaning rises (ppp. risen) above. Graphic confusion is 
certainly concerned here, at least in part; except as under 
atyudgata, q.v., all occurrences are grouped under 
abhyud 0 , q.v. For the most part Pali abbhuggacchati and 
derivatives support this classification. Note however 
(aside from Pali accuggata, apparently only used as adjec- 
tive, often with specialized meanings) Pali accuggamma, 
ger., used of water-plants, having grown out above (the 
water, acc. or abl.); but BHS uses (only) abhyudgacchati 
in this sense, according to unanimous tradition, tho 
perhaps this tradition may be erroneous. Contrariwise, 
there is even in Pali tradition some confusion between 
abbhugg- and accugg- in this group ; see CPD s.v. abbhug- 
gata (a var. accuggata occurs with subject yaso). 

atyudgata, m. : Mvy 7734, or nt. : Mvy 7862, a high 
number, = Tib. zan(s) yag; in 7862 cited from Gv, text 
of which reads abhyud 0 , q.v. 

atyunnamayya (cf. Skt. unnamayati), ger., raising 
or stretching up very high : Divy 36.10; 120.5; Av i.276.16; 
in all purva- (or °vam) kayam aty°, preparatory to express- 
ing an udana. Perhaps only graphic error for abhyu°; 
Skt. has abhyunnata, ppp.; and see abhyunnamya. 

atramantra, a high number: Gv 106.7; seems to be 
a corrupt substitute for bhramantra, q.v. 

atrana, adj. defenseless ( = Pali atana and attana; 
only Buddh. ; a- plus Skt. trana): Mv i.22.14 (prose) 
atrana(h). To be read metrically atanam, though written 
atranam, Gv 474.23. Cf. next. 

atranya = prec.: °yah Suv 53.1 (vs; v.l. atranah). 
Atri, see Ati. 

atha, followed by khalu, tarhi, or evam (= Pali 
atha, and atha kho; seems not used in this sense in Skt.), 
after a negative clause: atha khalu (not . . .) but rather, 
Ger. sondern Mv ii.161.15, 18; 162.1, 3; atha tarhi, id., 
LV 19.11, 16, 20; 20.3; atha evam anyatra Mv iii. 66. 8 and 
15 (see s.v. anyatra, 1), but rather , on the contrary . . . . 

atharvana, nt., Atharvanic practices, sorcery, black 
magic: Divy 629.16 (mss.; ed. em. ath°). Pali (Sn 927) 
has v.l. athabbana for edd. ath°; Skt. has atharvana also 
but 'apparently not in precisely this sense. 

atharyanika, a member of a school of the AV: Divy 
633.10 ff. 

adattadayika (= Skt. °yin, Manu 8.340; also BHS, 
Gv 159.13; 228.13), thief: Divy 301.23; 418.28. 

adattSdasyatha, 2 pi. fut., madatta 0 , do not steal: 
LV 15.9; see § 28.53. 

Adana, n. of a naga king: May 246.25. 

Adarsamukha, n. of a naga king: May 247.36; cf. 
Adarsamukha, for which this is probably a misprint or 

adanta- damaka ( = Pali adanta°), tamer of the 
untamed, epithet of Buddha (cf. purusadamyasarathi). 
Reference lost. 

adinna, adj. (— Pali id.), not given: Mv i. 346. 10 ff. ; 
abbreviated expression for adinnadana, q.v., Mv i.145.9 — 
202.6 = ii.6.3 (vs) viramarni capy adinna(d), and I ab- 
stain also from (taking) whut is not given, i. e. from theft. 

adinnadana, nt. or m. (= Pali, nt. ; MIndic for Skt. 
adattadana, nt., see pw s.v.), theft: °nam (n. sg.) Mv 
i.347.13; adinnadano adharmo adattadanavairamano 
dharmo Mv ii.99.6. 

Adinakusuma, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.2. 
Adinagamin (mss. mostly Adlva 0 ), n. of a former 
Buddha: Mv i.141.12. 

Aduka, n. of a naga king: May 247.27. 
adusin, adj., in Divy printed adusin, prob. by error, 
doing no wrong (Skt. -dusin); in aausy-anapakarin (in 
Divy wrongly printed -anayakarin), doing no wrong and 
not offending: °karl, n. sg. m., Divy 574.11; 581.18; MSV 
i.215.13; °karino, n. pi., ii.78.21. 

adrsya (not recorded in this sense), probably to be 
read for text adrsya, n. of a magic herb (which makes 
invisible): Gv 498.1, 2; in line 2 could be either a- or a-, 
in samdhi; but the stem, in composition, is printed as 
ending in -a, for which probably read -a; in line 1 text 
asty adrsya namausadhih. 

adeksiya (hyper Skt. for Pkt. *a-dekkhiya, to dekkhai, 
on which see J. Bloch, Fest. Wackernagel, 143 ff.; blend 
of dakkhai and pekkhai = preksati; cf. adraksanlya), 
ugly: (sobhano raja . . . chattradharo punar) °yo Mv 

iii. 10. 15. 

adbhuta (in Mvy Kyoto ed. always adbhuta, 1277, 
5043, 7164; but Mironov adbhuta without v.l.), (1) adj. 
amazed, wonder-struck (in Skt. only astonishing, and so 
usually Pali abbhuta, but see Ap 109.24, CPD s.v.) 
ascaryabhuta sma tathadbhutas ca SP 110.12, we are 
amazed and astonished; (2) nt., also adbhuta-dharma, m. 
(Pali abbhuta, °ta-dhamma), one of the divisions or types 
of literature in the Buddhist canon, marvel(s), itivrttakam 
jatakam adbhutam ca SP 45.7; adbhutadharmah Mvy 
1277; °dharma, Dharmas 62, one of the nine pravacana. 
(Not in this sense, adbhutanam ca dharmanam visuddhir 
upalabhyate Mv i.175.17, of marvelous conditions or states.) 

adyatve, loc. = adya, today, in the present time (so 
Skt. Gr., BR 5.968): LV 155.20 (prose); adyatvena, 
instr., id.: MSV i.89.20; ii.186.15. 

adyagre, Karmav 158.4 (mucfi more commonly 
adyagrena, see s.v. -agrena), and ady&d-agre Karmav 
158.3, from now on: = Pali ajjatagge, ajjadagge (but not 
°aggenat), derived by CPD from *ajjato agge, a theory 
perhaps supported by adyad (abl.?) agre (but *adya-d- 
agre, with hiatus-bridging d* see § 4.64, might have been 
secondarily reinterpreted as adyad-). 
adyad-agre, see prec. 

?adrak?aniya, Senart's em. at Mv ii.152.14; ex- 
plained in note as hyper-Skt. for Pkt. *a-dakkhaniya, 
read °niya, ugly, — adeksiya, q.v.; in description of the 
sick man as seen by the young Bodhisattva; Senart, 
°niyo samvegakarako; mss. adraksani (v.l. ayaksani)- 
sodaSa-vegakarako. Uncertain. 

(adruta-lipi. see anudruta 0 .) 

advaya, nt., non-duality , as designation of the 
Buddhist doctrine. In Mvy 1717 advayam (Tib. gnis su 
med pa, non-duality) is listed among paramartha-paryayah, 
synonyms for the true doctrine; advayasamjna udapasi Mv 
i.237.14, consciousness of non-duality arose in him (so that 
he resolved to become a Buddha). 

Advayavajra, n. of an author: Sadh 48.18, etc. 




advaya-vadin, preaching non-duality, ep. of Buddha: 
Mvy 23; Divy 95.13. 

[adha, text in Sukh 22.8 (vs) -adha nanaprabhiita-, 
erroneously; read adhanana ( = °nanam) prabhiita-.l 
Adhaurdhvadigjnanavabhasa, n. of a Buddha: 

Gv 309.18. 

a-dhandha (see dhandha), not slow : Bbh 9.19; 15.22. 
adhandhayamana, see dhandhayati, °te. 
adha-m-urdhva, with ‘Hiatus-bridging’ m, for 
*Hdha-urdhva (adhas plus u°), upside down: adhamurdhva- 
lokadhatu Gv 518.4 (prose), (follows vyatyasta-lokadhatu-); 
in Lank 28.1, text adhamurdhas ca, read adha-m-urdhvas 
ea (after vyatyastafh]). 

-adharaka, fem. -ika (== Skt. adhara), in Blivr. 
cpd., lower lip, endearing diminutive (§ 22.34): bimba- 
supakvanibhadharika[h], LV 322.14 (vs), of daughters 
of Mara. 

adhara-tas, adv. (Skt. Gr. id.), downward, sinking : 
asthicarmavasesah samantad gatrenadharatah MSV 

adharima, adj. (§ 22.15), lowest: ep. of bhumi, 
ground , in the cliche on birth of children, avatatanti(m) 
°mam bhumim Divy 99.15; 167.12; 441.5; Av i. 15.6 
(elsewhere adhara in same cliche, Speyer, Av Index); 
°me skandhe MSV ii.6.17 ff. 

adhar-dis (-dik) (= Skt. adho-dis, recorded in 
connn. on Hem. Abhidli., BR; also, without citation, in 
Apte), the nadir; acc. to Kern, SP Preface vi, in Kashgar 
ree. of SP, for Nep. adhodik. 

adharsikata, state of not violating or disturbing: Siks 
3.7 (vs). 

adhasta, adj. (= Skt. adhastana: cf. Skt. adhastat 
adv.), below: adhastayam disi, in the nadir: SP 240.12; 
243.11 (here Kashgar rec. hestimayam); Sukh 98.7. 

adhikarana ( = Pali id., in both senses), nt., ( \) mat- 
ter of contention or dispute, especially among monks: samghe 
kalahabhandanavigrahavivadam adhikaranam kaukrtyam 
utpadetsuh Mv iii.48.(13-)14; adhikarana na tasya jatu 
bhoti Siks 195.10; °na-kusala MSV i.55.13; adhikarana- 
vastu Mvy 9115 = Tib. rtsod pahi gzhi, ground of dispute; 
adhikarana- samatha Mvy 8630 ( = Pali °samatha), the 
(7 rules for) quieting of disputes, a part of the Pratimoksa; 
they are listed 8631-7, mostly as in Pali, sammukha- 
vinayah, smrti-vinayah, amudha-vinayah, yadbhu- 
yasikiyah, tatsvabhavaisiyah, trnaprastarakah, 
pratijnakarakah, qq.v. ; (2) -adhikaranam, ifc. adv., by 
reason of: yato-adhikaranam, conj. (= Pali yatvadhika- 
rariain) Mv iii.52.7, because, lit. by reason of which; also 
stem in comp., pramadadhikaranahetor MPS 4.7 ff., 
because of negligence (Pali pamadadhikaranarn, adv.; 
elsewhere -adhikarana-hetu, CPD). 

adhikara, m., (= Pali id.), service, respectful duty 
performed towards another, usually a superior (and esp. a 
Buddha); Senart Mv i.402, note on i.37.11— 12, renders 
offrande, and so Suzuki on Lank 6.3 offerings. No doubt 
the ‘service’ often included or consisted of offerings; but 
that this was not necessarily so is proved by SP 111.12 
bahuhi karyehi krtadhikarah, said of merchants (vanijah) 
employed by a wealthy capitalist, who do service (to him) 
with many business-operations (certainly not offerings, 
karyehi!). The cpd. krtadhikara (Pali kata°) is very 
common and in BHS most often refers to services per- 
formed for present or past Buddhas: SP 49.13; Lank 6.3 
(krtadhikara buddhesu karisyanty adhuna ca vai); Mv 
ii.288.8; iii.263.12; purima-jina-krtadhikara LV 393.6; 
Mv ii.312.5; sumahanta adhikara maya krta (to former 
Buddhas) Mv iii.241.12; (bhagavato . . .) adhikaram 
kartum Mv 1.37.12 ; . . . krtva Mv i.44.14; prasannadhikara, 
service tendered by one who is kindly disposed, i. e. service 
of friendship, Divy 305.7; 308.20 ff. 

-adhikarika, ifc. adj., f. °ki, (= Pali id.), referring 

to, concerned with: -pratyangasirsachedadhikarikas ca 

duhkhas Gv 159.21 ; kimcid evalpam va prabhutam va 
pujadhikarikam akrtva Bbh 160.19, without doing at least 
something, be it little or much, that relates to homage; dharma- 
dhikariki katha MSV i. 162. 14. In MPS 45.2 and 6 (prose) 
yasya vayam pujadhikarikam autsukyam na samapannah, 

1 cannot explain the a in °kam (reported 3 times from 

2 mss.); I should expect °kam; a fem. substantive °ka 
seems implausible. 

adhikalam, adv., Sukh 8.1 (vs), (reading uncertain, 
several vv.ll.) ato ’dhikalam, in reference to time hereafter, 
i. e. for all future lime (? adhi as in adhicittam, governing 
the noun with which it is compounded). 

adhigama, m., also (even after consonants) dhigama 
(q.v.), spiritual realization; attainment of religious goal; 
used in senses very close to this in Skt. (BR and pw), as 
well as in Pali; seems nearly equivalent to abhisamaya, 
q.v. : (bhagavantam . . .) adhigamabuddhir yadyoginam 
yogabhisamayakale samadhisukhe (so with Tib. for 
°mukhe, note in ed., and Suzuki) samaptanam adhigamo 
bhavati, tasya cadhigamad yoginam yogasabdo nipatyate 
adhigamaneneti Lank 11.17-12.3, of whose (viz. Buddha’s) 
yog ins the will to spiritual-realization becomes spiritual- 
realization when they have attained perfection (sainapta) in 
the bliss of trance at the time of spiritual-realization (at- 
tainment, abhisamaya) of yoga; and thru realization 
(attainment) of him (tasya = bhagavatah) on the part 
of (his) yogins the word yoga is (rightly) applied, by reason 
of (this) realization (attainment, that comes thru it); 
yasyam ca ratryam dhigamo, Lank 144.10 = 324.5, 
referring to the night of Buddha’s attainment of enlight- 
enment, cf. 142.17; Bbh 81.24; Mvy 134; punar bodhisat- 
tvah adhigamajnane saradarsl bhavati, na sruta-cinta- 
dharmartha-vijnana-matrake Bbh 257.16, referring to 
Mvy 1548 jfiana-pratisaranena bhavitavyam, na vijnana- 

adhigamana = °gama, spiritual realization; so Pali 
(both forms) : ye me bhananti varnani samadhito ca silato 
ca prajnato ca adhigamanato ca . . . Mv i. 270.4; for Lank 
12.3 see s.v. adhigama. 

adhicitta, nt. (Pali id.), superior mind, intellect ; 
also adj., and °cittam, °citte, adv., relating to intellect; 
see s.v. siksa 

adhitanaya, m., supreme offspring: sakyarajadhita- 
nayah (of Buddha) Mmk 230.1. 

adhitapta (error for Skt. abhi°?), inflamed: skandha 
adhitapta Mv iii.345.5. 

adhitisthati, also adhisthahati, °sthihati (and noun 
adhisthana, q.v.; Pali adhititthati, adhitthana, in general 
in same meanings; previous translations of BHS vary 
widely and are hardly worth systematic quotation; very 
common is bless , which I think should be deleted, see 
below): ( 1 ) masters, controls , in normal Skt. (BR stha 
with adhi 3, 4) and also BHS (exx. La Vallee Poussin, 
AbhidhK. vii.119 note 2, b); in BHS particularly takes 
possession or control of, MSV i.248.20 (saptahikam), and 
ff. ; Bhik 15a.l (the newly initiated nun says to her in- 
structress) samanvahara upadhyayike, aham . . . idarri cl- 
varam samghatlm adhitisthami, I take (formal) possession 
of my nun’s garments (similarly with other implements, 
below; Ridding p. 124 calls this rite benediction of the 
garments, etc.; but the nun is the only speaker; she 
would not ‘bless’ her own belongings!); in BHS (2) the 
power or control is usually supernatural or magical: 
adhitisthantu bnddha bhagavanto idarri patasutram Mmk 
56.12, let the Lord Buddhas exercize their supernatural 
power over (assume control of) this thread (Lalou, Icono- 
graphie p 20, occupent ); in the sequel, favorable sounds 
show the performer that, adhisthitam me buddhair . . . 
tat patasutram (17); he reflects, buddhanam . . . adhistha- 
nam etat (24), this is the controlling power of the B.; Lank 




100.6 ff., Bodhisattvas may be adhisthanadvayadhisthitah, 
controlled by two supernatural powers (of Buddhas, cf. 11 
buddhadhisthanadhisthitah); these are (9) samadhisama- 
pattyadhisthana; the control that gives attainment of samd- 
dhis (cf. 12 samadhim samapadyante; to this verb sama- 
patti, q.v., is merely a noun of action; wrongly Suzuki), 
and sarvakayamukhapanyabhisekadhisthana, the control 
that comes from sprinkling by (the Buddha’s) hands of the 
whole body and face (cf. 101.10-11); persons are said to 
be adhisthita, supernaturally controlled by Buddhas (may 
often be rendered inspired) SP 231.1; 238.2; 420.4; LV 
275.2; Lank 4.13; cf. adhisthana; this control often in- 
volves (3) magic transformation, and even the creation of 
magic appearances ; not easily separated from the preced- 
ing; transitional is sarvabuddhadhisthito ’yam . . . dharrna- 
paryayah SP 288.13, it is under the supernatural control 
of all the Buddhas (hence marvelous effects for one who 
preaches it, as related above), with this cf. tasmat tarhi 
. . . adhitisthamlmam dharmaparyayam asmin jambudvipe 
SP 421.2, therefore I (lit. exercize supernatural power over 
this Dlx., which however here seems to mean) make this 
Dh. appear in this J. (with magical effects, some mentioned 
above, some in the next sentence); from such passages 
as this and SP 384.3, below, La Vallee Poussin, AbhidhK., 
Index, and esp. vii.119, note 2, derives the supposed 
meaning faire durer, but in iii.31, note 2, quoting the 
vyakhya, he translates adhitisthati benit, whereas it means 
takes under control, assumes control of; the meaning bless , 
assumed by Burnouf and many others, rests on Tib. byin 
kyi rlabs, which to be sure often means bless, but acc. to 
.Jaschke also create , change into; this kind of change by 
magical mastery or control need not be a blessing, cf. 
(ta jarajarjara) adhyatisthat LV 378.17, he changed them 
(the daughters of Mara, by magic control) so as to be 
decrepit with age, and later, buddhasya yo hy adhisthanam 
saknuyat kartum anyatha 379.3, (I see no one) who could 
alter a magic transformation of the Buddha; mahabrahma 
imam . . . lokadhatum tat ksanam samam adhyatisthat, 
panitalajatam . . . trnair imam . . . lokadhatum samchadi- 
tam adhyatisthat LV 276.19 ff., the Great Brahma magically 
mastered (and thereby changed) this entire world (so as to 
be) even, etc., . . . covered with grass; in SP 384.3 (as he 
was about to die, Sadaparibhuta heard this sutra; then, 
not dying after all,) adhisthihitva ca sudlrgham ayuh, 
and having mastered, acquired, assumed by magic, very long 
life (he proceeded to proclaim this sutra; similar passages 
are taken by La Vallee Poussin l.c. to mean faire durer); 
(Bhagavan . . .) jivitasamskaran adhisthaya ayuhsam- 
skaran utsrastum arabdhah. samanantaradhisthitesu jivita- 
samskaresu (omens occurred) Divy 203.7-8 (in this phrase 
LaV-P, AbhidhK. ii.122, renders stabilise; note the term 
vasitva in the comm., l.c. 124 line 1; render controlling), 
see samskara 2; buddha bhagavantah tarn prthivi- 
pradesam vajramayam adhitisthanti sma LV 86.16-17, 
. . . magically made this spot of ground (where the young 
Bodhisattva took seven steps) hard as a diamond , so that 
it did not sink under his feet (N.B. they did not literally 
stand upon it; they were located, sthitah line 16, in the 
ten quarters); tatrapi catmanam adhisthahami, sarvams 
ca sattvan ah[am] adhisthihami (so read, § 8.99) SP 323.13, 
there (having made it appear that I entered nirvana, tho 
I did not) I make myself appear (create myself magically, 
cf. 316.1, s.v. adhisthana 3), and I control all creatures 
(in next line, men of perverted minds were deluded and did 
not see me, tho I was standing right there); with SP 384.3 
cf. Dbh 91.28 sarvasattvams ca akanksan yathabhiprayam 
rupasrayalamkrtan adhitisthati; in this section adhitisthati 
occurs many times, beginning with 90.21-22 samksiptaya 
lokadhator vistirnatam adhitisthati, and means always 
(a Bodhisattva in the tenth stage) makes appear magically, 
either by transformation or creation; cf. in Pali Therag. 

1131 sattha ca me lokam imam adhitthahi (aor.) aniccato. . . 
the Teacher made this world appear to me as impermanent 
(by his supernatural power, but this time without the 
usual connotation of magic or illusion); catvari patrani 
pratigrhyaikam patram atihitistheyam LV 384.4-5, 
accepting the four bowls I will change them magically into 
a single bowl, which he does; pratigrhya caikarn patram 
adhitisthati sma, adhimuktibalena 385.4 (see adhimukti 2 
which in such passages = adhisthana). 

[adhinamayati, prob. error for ati- or abhi-nam°, 
qq.v., spends (time): saptaham °yami MSV i.134.15 — 
Divy 443.6 ati-nam°, in same story.] 

adhipati (as in Pali) used in figurative sense, con- 
troller , dominant influence or factor : adhipati-pratyaya, 
relation of dominance (GPD), Mvy 2270, fourth of 4 kinds 
of pratyaya (1), q.v.; adhipatina (sc. pratyayena) Siks 
253.2; Bbh 14.4, 10 etc.; 80.22; defined as upaya-hetu, 
99.2-3; etc. (common in Bbh); the four pratyaya listed 
also SsP 80.4, but there seems to be a corruption in place 
of adhipati: alambanamateya-samanantara-hetu-pratyaya- 
tam (text °ta; amateya or am° instead of adhipati!); the 
other three are as in Mvy; °ti-phalam, dominant fruition , 
one of the 5 phala (acc. to Sutral. of karuna), Mvy 2273, 
‘because it is the seed of supreme enlightenment’, Sutral 
xvii.31, comm.; but in more general sense Bbh 102.18, 
expl. 103.5 ff., caksurvijnanam caksurindriyasyadhipati- 
phalam, . . . (etc. with all senses,) svena-svenadhipatyena 
yat phalam nirvartate, tad adhipatiphalam. 

adhipatya (nt., = Pali adhipacca, adhipatiya, cf. 
Skt. adhipatya), overlordship : °tyena Sukh 42.15 (prose). 

adhipalayati, protects: °lentu LV 388.7 (vs), repeated 
11, 14, etc. 

adhiprajna (Pali adhipahna), superior wisdom; adv. 
adhiprajnam, and stem in comp, adhiprajna, relating 
to wisdom, see s.v. siksa. 

adhibhasati, °te (cf. sam-adhi°), recorded only in 
augmented forms, both presents (as adhyabhasati, § 32.8) 
and preterites; so also in Pali ajjhabhasi etc.; addressed , 
spoke to (always with acc. of person; pw 4.263 also aus- 
sprechen, hersagen, citing LV (Calc.) 111.2, but for this 
Lefm. 97.4 reads abhyabhasatam) : adhyabhasat LV 130.1 : 
302.20; °sata LV 132.6; Mv i.101.5; RP 42.10; 46.2, 6, 
12; °santa LV 56.4; 205.19; 378.5; aor., °bhasi Mv i.35.13; 
°bhasasi Mv i.55.6; °bhase Mv i.108.6, etc. 

adhimanyati, °te (not in Pali ; cf. adhimana), 
despises , . shows haughtiness : °yanti KP 18.9 (in Correspond- 
ing prose 18.3 an-atimanyana, noun); kutah punar adhikain 
yenadhimanyeta evam adhimanah parivarjayitavyah JssP 

Adhimatrakarunika, n. of a Mahabrahma: SP 

adhimana, m. (= Pali id.; Skt. abhimana; cf. 
adhimanika, °nin, adhimanika), pride, arrogance , 
haughtiness, overbearing behavior: SP 13.5; 57.8; 481.5; 
Mvy 1947; $sP 1465.2 (see adhimanyati); Karmav 47.5 
(follows mana and abhimana); niradhimana-ta (see this). 
Also occurs as v.l. for text abhimana, e.g. SP 37.1, 5; 
38.14; 44.7. 

adhimanika, adj. (Pali id.; to prec. plus -ika, or 
next plus -ka), haughty, arrogant, conceited: SP 234.1; 
267.5; 377.10. 

adhimanin = prec.: SP 272.1; 279.3. 
adhimukta (Pali adhimutta), ppp. of adhimucyate, 
(1) zealous about, actively interested in or devoted to (a) non- 
religious objects (loc., or in cpds.): yathadhimuktavanijam 
Mv iii.289.12, referring to 15 ff. tatra ye rupadhimukta 
vanija (the merchants whose interests were centered in forms, 
i. e. the objects of sight) te rupehi lobhita, ye sabda- 
dhimukta vanija te manojhagitavaditasabdehi lobhita (etc., 
with other objects of sense); kimadhimukta jatila? jatila 
khalu jatiladhimukta Mv iii.424.4, what do fatila-ascetics 




like*! They like jatila-ascetics, of course (with this thought 
Buddha surrounds himself with 1000 magically created 
jatila-ascetics and visits the jatila Uruvilva-Kasyapa) ; 
the family into which a Bodhisattva must be born in his 
last existence must be kriyadhimuktam . . . tyagadhimuk- 
tam fond of activity , of liberality LV 24.5-6; Mv 1.198.3 ; 

11.1.13 (LV adds danadhimuktam; Mv i.198.3 adds vrata- 
dhimuktam); (b) religious objects (with loc., or peril, acc.): 
deva ca namasyanti yo yadrsam "asmim adhimukto Mv 
iii.77.19 (read with ms. B), and they worship the gods , 
whosoever which (god), being devoted to him; sunyatam 
adhimuktarm (corr. adhimukta, prob. so read, or take m 
as hiatus-bridger) animittam (corr. °ttam) vicarati HP 

16.13 (vs), he lives with his mind centered on emptiness , 
causelessness; usually in cpds., -dharmadhimukta zealously 
devoted to dharma Mvy 854; sraddhadhi 0 Divy 49.18 ( = Pali 
saddhadhimutta, both of Vakkali); pravrajyadhi 0 Divy 
302.23 IT. ; pradanadhi 0 Jm 23.6; -buddhadharmadhi 0 
Samadh 19.3; often modifying sattva, creatures, yatha- 
dhimukta-sattva-, creatures according -to their inclinations , 
LV 35.8; creatures are often described as nanadhimukta, 
having inclinations towards various objects , SP 71.8; 318.1; 
the Bodhisattva is subhadhimukta, inclining towards ex- 
cellent things, LV 141.8; common folk are hinadhimukta 
SP 113.9; 114.4; or luhadhimukta LV 264.4 (of certain 
gods; misrendered by Foucaux devoted to (the Bodhisattva) 
in wretched condition, but it means having inclinations to 
petty things; these gods tried to persuade the Bodhisattva 
to let them restore his strength magically); Av i.285.5 
(of evil monks); (2) ppp. periphrastic, (was) changed 
magically, Divy 393.18, see under adhimucyate (2). 

[-adhimuktaka, see °tika.] 

adhimukti, f. (= Pali adhimutti; to adhimucyate), 
(1) strong inclination , attachment; earnest, zealous applica- 
tion; Tib. mos pa (Jaschke, to be pleased, la with; to wish, 
to have a mind; to take pleasure in, to rejoice at; as substan- 
tive pleasure, satisfaction, esteem; also to respect, to esteem, 
to respect with devotion, to revere , to adore ) ; La V-P. AbhidhK. 
Index = ruci; cf. Bbh 95.12-13 katham ca bodhisattvo 
’dhimuktibahulo bhavati? iha bodhisattvo ’stavidhe 
’dhimuktyadhisthane Sraddhaprasadapurvakena niScayena 
rucya samanvagato bhavati. (Other alleged meanings, as 
croyance Levi Sutral. i. 13 note 1; confiance , Burnouf; 
good will , Kern, in translation of SP; etc., are not supported 
by BHS usage, except as under 2, below.) It may be (but 
rarely is) applied to (a) non-religious objects: sa ca purusas 
(the father) tesam kumarakanam (his ignorant sons) 
aSayajho bhaved, adhimuktim ca vijanlyat, SP 73.14-15, 
. . . and he understands their inclinations, what they are 
interested in. But usually the object is related to (b) a 
religious aim. It may be specified, syntactically (in the 
loc.), as in yam . . . sugatah prabhasate, adhimuktisam- 
panna bhavahi tatra SP 32.15, what the Buddha says, 
be perfect in zealous application to that. Usually it is not so 
specifically stated, tho the context is apt to suggest that 
it is zealous cultivation (study or propagation) of sacred 
texts or religious instruction that is meant (note -that 
the object of the verb adhimucyate is commonly some- 
thing of this sort);, cf. e. g. -lokam yathadhimuktya 
( according to their [varying types or degrees of] zeal or 
application ) subhasitena samtosayantam LV 160.17; 
adhimuktisaro yo syad . . . sah, punyam labheta yo etam 
(most mss.) sutram vacel likheta va SP 342.3-4. And this 
is probably meant as a rule when the context gives no 
special clue, as in many of the following: SP 6.13; 31.6; 
93.9; 125.8; 235.10; 274.10; LV 10.11; 182.20; 432.8; 
Mvy 856; Samadh 22.43; RP 20.5; Bhad 7, 48; Bbh 195.12; 
anadhimukti, lack of (religious) zeal RP 19.18; 35.4; 
various gods in Mv ii.309.14 fT. see the bodhi-tree svakaye 
adhmuktiye, according to their tastes, inclinations, interests 
(Senart suivant Vinclination de chacun) as made of various 

precious materials; one of the ten bala of a tathagata is 
nanadhimuktijnanabala Mvy 122 (and cf. Mv i.159.15 
adhimuktinanatvam vetti, as one of the ten bala); adhi- 
muktivasita Mvy 776, one of the 10 vasita of a Bodhisattva; 
yathadhimuktya, adv., LV 160.17 (above) and 179.17; 
hin adhimukti, attachment to low ends, SP 115.12 (cf. 
hinadhimukta, °tika, s.vv. adhimukta, °tika); (in LV 
294.4 for vidyadhimuktiprabhah read probably vidyavi- 
mukti°, having the splendor of (true) knowledge and emancipa- 
tion, so Tib., rnam par grol ba = vimukti); ( 2 ) magic 
transformation, in adhimukti-balena LV 385.5, see s.v. 
adhimucyate (2), and adhitisthati, end. 

-adhimuktika (once °taka, probably by error; to 
prec. plus -ka; = Pali -adhimuttika; in both Pali and 
BHS used only ifc. Bhvr.), having a zealous interest (adhi- 
mukti) in . . .: hlnadhi 0 (generally with sattvah) Mvy 
2448; SP 109.2; 110.7; LV 248.14; 289.10; Sukh 71.14; 
lukhadhi 0 (= hlnadhi 0 ) Mv ii.313.9; adharmadhi 0 LV 
257.21; nanadhi 0 Mv iii.321.1; anekadhi 0 2; udaradhi 0 
LV 439,3; Gv 94.17 (text °muktak°, corr. 2d ed.); Sukh 
7.5; audaradhi 0 Gv 534.20 (see audara); -buddhadhar- 
madhi 0 Samadh 19.2 (°muktikena, v.l. °muktena). 

- adhimuktika- ta (== Pali °muttikata), abstr. from 
preceding, state of having zealous interest', hlnadhi 0 SP 
105.1; 109.6. 

adhimukticarya, course of conduct determined by 
(religious) zeal, Sutral. i.13 (Levi note 1, conduite par 
croyance, see s.v. adhimukti): °bhumi, stage of zealous 
conduct, Mvy 896-901 (five such listed); the first of a list 
of six bodhisattva-bhumis Bbh 84.23, or the second of 
seven, 367.4 (see s.v. bhumi 4, end). 

Adhimuktitejas, form used in verse of the n. of a 
Buddha = Vipuladharmadhimuktisambhavateja(s), 
Vipuiadhimukti 0 : Gv 428.10 (vs). 

adhimucyate, °ti (= Pali adhimuccati; cf. prec. 
and foil, items), ( 1 ) is actively interested in, zealous for, 
earnestly devoted to, intent upon (with acc.); see under 
adhimukti for Tib. rendering, and discussion of meanings, 
which on the whole parallel those of the verb; see also 
adhimukta, adhimoksa, and other derivatives. The 
object is generally religious, and most commonly religious 
knowledge or sacred texts (see especially adhimukta for 
non-teligious applications) : esam . . . nirvanam bhasate 
yad adhimucyante, SP 187.2-3, preaches to them nirvana 
(the Hinayana goal), to which they zealously apply them- 
selves; adhimucyante SP 288.3 (upayakauSalyam sam- 
dhabhasitam); (jnana[m]) 302.7 ; KP 140.9; °yanti SP 232.9 
(dharmaparyayam); KP 139.6; ! adhimucyami Bhad 3, 7 
(puja sarvajinanam); adhimucye (1 sg.) Bhad 6 3 ; adhimu- 
cyed (opt.) SP 255.2 (idam sutram); 336.4; adhimoksyate 
(fut.) SP 260.8 (saddharmapundarikam) ; °ksyanti LV 89.8 
(sutrSntan); adhimucyamana (pres, pple.) RP 4.15; an- 
adhimucyamana (preceded by hiatus-bridging m-) KP 
139.3, 5, not showing inclination towards (instruction); sa 
maitrisahagatena cittena . . . ekam diSam adhimucya (Tib. 
mos te; zealously concentrating on one' direction) spharitvo- 
pasampadya viharati Mvy 1508 (and so on, until finally 
he does the same with sarvavantam imam lokam, 1509); 
adhimoktum (inf.) Gv5.10 (tathagatajnanam) ; adhimucyi- 
tum KP 39.9; ( 2 ) rarely, used in the sense defined by GPD 
under adhimuccati (d) as to make a ( magical ) act of volition; 
but a better definition would be changes (something, acc.) 
by magic into (something else, acc.), as in Vin. iii.250.25-26 
pasadam suvannam ti adhimucci, so ahosi sabbasovanna- 
mayo (comm, sovannamayo hotu ti adhitthasi). Doubtless 
the original or literal meaning was, he concentrated his 
interest on the palace , with the thought — (it is to be) goldl — 
and it became entirely made of gold. In BHS the word (i)'ti 
is omitted: Bbh 60.5 prthivlm apo ’dhimucyate, changes 
(magically) earth into water, and a series of like clauses in 
the sequel. So in the miracle of turning four bowls into 

adhimucy ana- ta 



one: catvari sailamayani patrani grahayaikam patram 
adhimuktam Divy 393.17-18, (by the Buddha) taking the 
four stone bowls , a single bowl was made by magic ; cf. 
pratigrhya caikam patram adhitisthati sma, adhimukti- 
balena LV 385.4-5, and having accepted (the four bowls) 
he changed (them) magically (see s.v. adhitisthati) into a 
single bowl , by his power of magic transformation. 

adhimucy ana- ta (== Pali adhimuccana, nt.) — adhi- 
mukti, zealous application , interest , with gen., SsP 615.11 
(prajnaparamitayah, but with an intervening parallel 
noun; perhaps rather loc. understood). Cf. next, 
adhimucyana = prec., q.v. : Sutral. xi.61. 
[adhimu§yanti, SP 351.6, for which WT read 
adhisusyanti with their ms. K'; both are wrong. See dhi 
= dhik.] 

adhimurchita ( = Pali °mucchita), clinging (to); 
also -tva, state of . . .: an-adhimurchito Mv ii.139.11 ff.; 
iii.201.5; an-adhimurchitatvat Jin 35.4, because he was 
unattached , had no clinging (Speyer fails to observe special 
Buddhist sense). 

adhimoksa (== Pali °mokkha), = adhimukti, 
zealous application : Mvy 1929; Dharmas 30; sunyatadhi 0 
Bbh 40.5, zealous adherence to (the theory of) nullity; with 
loc. Bbh 282.7 (arthe); neg. an-adhi° lack of interest Bbh 
174.12 (in profound and difficult text-passages); (buddha- 
dharmesu) yo ’dhimoksah Bbh 313.5, part of definition of 
adhya£aya, q.v. 

adhimoksati, or °k?ayati, denom. from adhimoksa, 
= adhimucyate, applies oneself zealously to , with acc. ; 
adhimoksanti Lank 193.12 (-patham); adhimukta adhi- 
moksayisyanti adhimoksayanti ca AsP 148.5 (dharmam, 
understood from preceding dharme Siksitah etc.), 
-adhimoca, °cya, only in dur-adhi°, q.v. 
adhirudhaka, adj. ( = Skt. °dha), mounted : Divy 565.5 
(vs, may be m.c.). 

adhiropayati, attributes , imputes (to, loc.): narhasi 
mayy adhiropayitum . . . kapirajavadham Jm 150.20. 

adhilaya, objection , refutation , opposition in argument : 
MadhK 159.15; 499.4, 10; in 10 comm., glossed adhiksepa, 
nirakarana, pratiksepa; Tib. smoa pa (so ed. on 159.15; 
on 499.10 printed erroneously smon pa). On 159.15 vv.ll. 
adhiraya, adhirepa. 

adhivacana, nt. (= Pali id.), designation, appellation , 
name , term (of, for, gen.): Mvy 6333; Mv i.161.2; tathata 
tathateti . . . Sunyataya etad adhivacanam &iks 263.1, 
tathata is a name for nullity ; KP 71.9, 10; bhutatathataya 
etad adhivacanam Vaj 37.3; AsP 342.1; kasyaitad adhiva- 
canam yad uta nirvanam iti Lank 182.9, of what is this a 
designation , viz. the word nirvana ?; anayavyaya ity anut- 
padasyaitad adhivacanam Lank 175.18; katamasyaitad 
dharmasyadhivacanam samadhir iti Samadh p. 13 lines 
19-20, of what matter is this a designation , the word samadhil 
AdhivacanapraveSa, m., n. of a samadhi: Mvy 523 
= Adhivacanasamprave^a SsP 1416.17; in 1416.16 
(by error) VacanasampraveSa. 

adhivartati (= Pali °vattati), comes to, falls to the 
lot of, with acc. of person: dayakam adhivartati Mv 
i.269.15 (one ms. adhivattati, the Pali form, probably 
to be adopted in text). 

adhiv^sa?: Mv i. 253.4, 5, and 6 (prose): app. adj. 
with rogajata, defined as a kind of disease which carries 
off a region or country (pradeiam harati). Opp. mandalaka, 
q.v. Perhaps enduring ? See s.v. arddha. 

adhivasana, nt., also °nata or °na, f. (to next; — Pali 
°na, °na; the nt. very rare in Pali), (1) (a) endurance (of 
suffering): °na, duhkhadhiv 0 Bbh 250.25; °na-jatiya, 
characterized by patience, Sukh 25.15; sthavaradhivasana- 
jatya, Siks 23.9; -du§cintitadhiv°, -pldadhiv 0 Gv 248.2, 3; 
°na, duhkhadhiv 0 Bbh 189.10; 192.10 (here v.l. °na); (b), 
toleration (of an evil or sin, wrongfully), see s.v. adhivS- 
sayati 1, b: kleSadhivasanata KP 114.1; ldegasevadhiv- 

asanata Bbh 288.26; (2) consent : °na, LV 7.13; Mv i.116.3; 
Mvy 9381 ; °na (the common form) LV 6.3; 395.13; 400. 20 ; 
Mv i.114.2; 230.20; 263.4; 285.4; 324.2; ii.258.1; iii.93.1 ; 
255.5; Divy 66.1 (here text em. °nam); 306.20; Av i.42.5. 

adhivasayati, °seti (= Pali °seti, both mgs.), (1) (a) 
endures, puts up with : °sayati Mvy 7041, Tib. dan du len 
(pa); Bbh 192.22 (duhkham); duhkham adhivasya Bbh 
132.5; adhivasita duhkham LV 354.4 (vs); misc. forms 
SP 271.10 (fut. °vasisyama); Mv i.285.2; Av ii.199.8; Siks 
177.6; Gv 244.1; (b) tolerates (an evil or sin, wrongfully, 
instead of fighting it), Bbh 161.6; 168.23 (here keep 
adhivasayati of mss., despite Corrig. p. 5; with Tib. as 
cited there cf. Mvy 7041, above); (2) consents, especially 
agrees to, accepts (an invitation), with gen. of person: 
sacasya (= sace[t] asya) . . . adhivasayati Mv i.323.21, if 
. . . consents to him (Senart’s note wrong); tesam pi nadhi- 
vaseti Mv iii.103.4, did not consent to them, either; in accep- 
tance of an invitation, regularly with tusnibhavena or 
tusnim, which may precede the verb (so Mvy 6451; SP 
39^2; 167.9; 171.3; Mv i.263.4; LV 416.13), or the sentence 
may begin adhivasayati, then subject nom., then gen. of 
person, then tusnibhavena (so LV 6.1, 19; 395.11; Mv 
i.230.19; ii.257.17; iii.92.18; Divy 19.27; 151.10; Av i.42.4); 
if object of invitation is expressed it is regularly acc. as 
in Pali (adhivasayatu . . . bhojanavidhanam Mv i.116.2), 
or nom. in passive expressions (kasya bhagavata £uve 
agaram adhivasitam Mv i.271.11, whose house has been 
accepted by the Bh. for tomorrow [to visit]?); but once instr., 
adhivasayatu bhagavan asmakam nagare 6vo bhaktena 
(then the usual adhivasayati plus nom. plus gen. plus 
tusnibhavena) RP 56.6; misc. passages LV 408.5; 412.8; 
Lafik 6.15; Mv i.113.5; 189.12; iii.255.4 (°vasave, aor.). 

adhivasitata (from °vasita, ppp. of adhivasayati, 
q.v.), state of having been endured: Dbh 75.24. 

[adhiviihiddha, Gv 231.9, read ati°, very pure, with 
2d ed.] 

adhisila, nt. (Pali adhisila), superior morality; adj., 
and °lam adv., relating to morality : see s.v. Siksa. 
adhista, see adhista. 

adhistha, f. °stha, resident, permanently abiding : 
devate adhistha bhava, ihaiva tistheti Divy 578.8. [In 
LV 442.21 (prose) Lefm. adhisthamano, which is impossible ; 
v.l. atisthamano, not stopping , which is certainly right.] 
adhisthahati = adhitisthati, q.v. 
adhisthana, (regularly) nt. (= Pali adhitthana; see 
6 below for forms of other genders; from adhitisthati, 
q.v.), (1) basis, as in Skt. (BR s.v.l); special usage, SP 
405.8-9 (a Buddha of old preached the SP at length) 
Sarvasattvapriyadarganam bodhisattvam . . . adhisthanam 
krtva, making (his disciple) the Bodhisattva S. the basis , i. e. 
with special regard to him, or for his special benefit; (2) 
(mental) firm basis — determination, resolve, resolution, vow, 
— Pali (cetaso) adhitthana (see GPD); rare in BHS: (a 
Bodhisattva is about to burn his body to honor the SP 
and the Buddha who revealed it to him; having purified, 
adorned, and scented his body) svakam adhisthanam akarot 
SP 407.6, he made his resolution, firm mental determination; 
followed by svakam adhisthanam krtva svam kayam 
prajvalayam asa; buddhan bhagavatah saksinah krtva 
tesam puratah satyadhisthanam (q.v.) karomi: yena 
satyena etc., SP 413.7-8, ... I make a truthful resolve . . . 
and he proceeds with an ‘act of truth 5 , see satyavacana; 
(?) LV 423.5-6 aksanasattvavinayadhisthanapratyudavar- 
tyacakram (said of the dharmacakra; text °dhisthana- 
praty°, but see s.v. apratyudavartya), wheel that cannot 
be turned back because of (the Buddha's) fixed determination 
to discipline creatures that are subject to bad births (? or 
possibly because of the Buddha's supernatural power to 
discipline etc.; otherwise, implausibly, Foucaux); here 
perhaps also the ‘four adhisthana 5 ( firm resolves ?) of Mvy 
1580-84 (satya-, tyaga-, upaSama-, prajna-) = Pali four 




adhitthana, DN iii.229.18 (paniia-,sacca-, caga-,upasama-); 

(3) in Skt. (BR s.v. 2) mastery , power; in BHS control, 
e. g. of a monk's own robes (cf. adhitisthati 1), MSV 
ii.91.12 tricivaradhisthanena ; oftener supernatural, magic 
power : punyavipakadhisthanadhisthitas LY 48.21 (Apsa- 
rases) empowered (controlled) by the power of the ripening of 
merit (which enables them to disappear from their heavenly 
home and appear in Kapilavastu) ; -devatadhisthanat LV 
381.12, by the magic power of the . . . deity (the merchants’ 
wagons were stopped and could not be moved); usually a 
Buddha’s or Bodhisattva’s; it may be his supernatural 
control over his own destiny, SP 64.13, where bodhisattva- 
dhisthanena goes closely with tat paurvakam caryaprani- 
dhanam, see s.v. sammantrita; but it is usually control 
over another person, a Bodhisattva or disciple: Maitreyasya 
bodhisattvasyadhisthanabalena sarv.esu tesu kutagaresv 
abhyantarapravistam atmanam samjanite sma, Gv 512.13- 
14, by the force of the supernatural power of Maitreya 
(Sudhana) fancied that he had entered into each one of those . 
palaces; buddhanam . . . adhisthanena LV 163.9-10 (text 
adhisthan 0 ; when the women were making music for the 
Bodhisattva) by the supernatural power of the Buddhas 
verses of exhortation to him came forth (in 163.14 avesa, 
q.v., or v.l. adesa, replaces adhi°); similarly 182.3; adhi- 
sthanena buddhanam anubhavad (another near-synonym) 
vikurvitaih Samadh 22.19 (the body of the Buddha can 
be seen); other like cases Lank 2.10; LY 31.3, 6; 237.18; 
368.12; in 415.16, the dharmacakra is sarvabuddhadhis- 
thanavilopitam, unbroken thru the supernatural power 
(influence) of all the Buddhas; for Lank 100.6 and Mmk 
56.24 see s.v. adhitisthati (2); etam . . . samadhim sama- 
pannasyadhisthanam: lokadhatuvijnaptisu adhisthanam, 
etc., long series of Iocs, each with adhi° repeated, stating 
the spheres of the mastery obtained, Gv 98.15 ff. ; mama- 
dhisthanabaladhanam SP 316.1, my assumption of the force 
of supernatural (magic) power (here causes people to believe 
that the earthly life of Sakyamuni, w r hich was unreal, is 
real); but the corresponding verse, 323.13, has adhistha- 
hami in the sense of I make appear by ' magic (see adhitis- 
thati 3), and possibly adhisthana may be concrete here 
(and in sadadhisthanam mama etad idrsam SP 324.11, 
resuming the same subject), exhibition of supernatural 
(magic) power — magical appearance or transformation; 
this latter is certainly the meaning in LV 379.3, see 
adhitisthati (3), and perhaps in Prabhutaratnasya 
tathagatasya . . . etad adhisthanam abhut SP 241.8, this 
was the adhisthana of the Tathagata P. (there follows a 
quotation of his words: Let this stupa of my remains appear 
whenever the SP is preached). Does this adhisthana. mean 
this exhibition of supernatural power , viz, the making of the 
stupa to appear? Or is it this fixed determination , resolution 
(2, above)? Near synonyms are avesa, (Skt.) anubhava, 
adhimukti; cf. also Lank 292.13 and 15, where one of the 
sources of abhijna is ‘from adhisthana’ (adhisthanan, so 
read in 13 for text °nam, abl., before n-), which means 
from the controlling power of the Buddhas and is paraphrased 
in 15 by buddhaprasadatah, from the grace of the Buddhas. 
Suzuki, Transl. of Lank passim, renders sustaining power; 

I think rather controlling power. Even Bodhisattvas are 
at times dependent on Buddhas and need their control; 

(4) in architecture, Skt. (see Acharya, Diet. Hindu Arch, 
s.v.), basement , foundation of building or base of a pillar. 
Here in Mvy 5591 = Tib. Ian kan gyi rten ma, prop (i. e. 
base) of a railing; so Chin. Whatever it means here is 
certainly meant also in Divy 221.9, 10 adhisthanam, and 
Mv i.195.1 fl. ; iii.227.8 ff., adhisthanakam, where the 
context is the same as in Mvy 5591; see sGtf, sueika; 

(5) see padadhisthana ; (6) m., n. of a (mythical) samadhi: 
Gv 451.26. In this curious passage, 451.25-452.6, the word 
adhisthana is further used predicatively in a series of 
equational sentences, varying in gender like an adjective 

with different subjects. Bhadrottama says to Sudhana: 
aham kulaputra ’nalayamandalam nama dharmaparyayam 
janami deSayamy, adhisthanas ca me samadhih pratilab- 
dho; na tatra samadhau kasyacid dharmasya ’dhisthanam; 
adhisthanam tatra sarvajnatacaksuh pravartate, ’dhistha- 
nam sarvajnatasrotram, adhisthanam sarvajnataghranam, 
adhisthana sarvajnatajihva, ’dhisthanah sarvajnatakayo, 
’dhisthanam tatra sarvajnatamanah pravartate, ’dhisthana 
sarvajnatormir, adhisthana sarvajnatavidyud, a dhisthanah 
sarvajnatavegah pravartante jagadrocanamandalah; etam 
aham kulaputra ’nalayamandalam dharmaparyayam ja- 
nami. (Punctuation introduced by me.) There is no further 
light from the context. I am not sure what meaning the 
author attributed to the word adhisthana: presumably 
something like either basis or controlling power . 
adhisthanaka, nt., see adhisthana (4). 
adhisthayika, m. (Pali adhitthayika, beside °yaka; 
Skt. °yaka), supervisor, superintendent: MSV i. 70.15 ff. 
(in same passage Divy 462.26 ff. always °yaka); prose, 
adhisthita, ppp. of adhitisthati, q.v. 
adhisthihati = adhitisthati, q.v. 
adhiseva (no *adhi-sev- recorded), service , attendance : 
ksantyadhiseve ’ti ca durbalesu KP 20.10 (vs; cf. durbalesu 
sattvesu ksantya sevanata 20.3, prose). 

[adhisthana is read for adhisthana, q.v., in LV 163.10 
(acc. to Lefm. with all mss.) and 182.3 (here v.l. -sth-).] 
adhista (in Skt., e. g. Pan. 5.1.80, but very rare), 
ppp. of adhyesati, requested (for instruction); cf. Pali 
ajjhittha, used with ajjhesita as ppp. to ajjhesati: tena 
adhistu (= °to) LV 393.14; yais tathagato ’dhlsto ’bhud 
asya dharmaparyayasya samprakaSanaya 438.15; Mv 
iii.403.14 (prob. read with mss. adhisto); yadhista bhavati 
tayasau bhiksunl prastavya Bhlk 10 a. 3; anadhista not 
requested for instruction, Divy 329.21 ff. 

Adhovana, or (MSV) Adhunana, m., n. of a mountain : 
Divy 450.11; 455.30; MSV i.144.17 (ms. here Avevana, ed. 
em.); 152.13. 

adhyabhasati, see adhibhasati. 

? -adhyayita, in sarva£astradhya°, Mv i.78.16 (prose), 
without v.l. or note; seems clearly intended for -adhyayi-ta, 
from Skt. adhyayin (Pali -ajjhayi); state of being a reader 
or student. 

AdhyardhaSataka, n. of a sutra (unidentified): °ke 
siitre, Karmav 63.3 (see Levi’s note). 

adhyavakirati, adhyok 0 (= Pali ajjhokirati, in mg. 
1), (1) bestrews (with acc. and instr.): puspais tarn ratna- 
stupam avakiranty adhyavakiranty abhiprakiranti SP 
240.2; okiresi adhyokiresi prakiresi, okiritva adhyokiritva 
abhiprakiritva . . . Mv i. 38. 9-10; candanacurna-adhyo- 
kirno Mv ii.309.8, bestrewn with . . . ; adhyokiritva (mss. 
adhya°) Mv i.212.4; (2) introduces (food, into the pores 
of the skin), (devata . . .) romakupavivarehi divy am ojam 
adhyokiretsuh (Senart °ensuh; v.l. adhyak 0 ) Mv ii.131.6; 
in the like phrase above, line 3, the verb was adhyohari- 
syamah; possibly read a form of this verb in line 6? 

[*adhyavagacchati: °gacchan in Lefm. LV 239.5 
(prose), pres. pple. ; an otherwise unknown form. Required 
is adhyagaccham, I studied; so read; several mss. adhya- 
gacchan, before saksad-akarsam ; cf. lines 8-9 below, 
dharmah saksatkrto ’dhigatah.] 

adhyavasana, nt., and once °sana-ta (= Pali 
ajjhosana, see adhyavasyati), clinging to, grasping, 
coveting (regularly desires or worldly things , loc. or in comp.), 
once adhyavasana-ta, id. (LV 246.13 kamesv adh°nata; 
below, 246.22, in same formula, °nam); in similar passage 
kamadhyavasana (pi.) Mv ii.121.4; 122.7; kayadhy 0 Av 
ii.191.7; kayajivitadhy 0 Samadh 22.2; adhy° (kayi, jiviti, 
Iocs.) 4, 5, 6 (vss); without dependent noun Mvy 2197-8; 
Av ii.188.10; 189.4; RP 17.10 (°na-parah); 34.3 (°ne 
bahulah, of evil monks); Siks 19.18; others Siks 222.6 
(vedanadhyavasanam trsna, thirst is clinging to sensa- 




tions ; wrongly Bendall and Rouse); Lank 251.1 (trsnadhy 0 ); 
Bhik 24a.3 (kamadhy 0 ); Bbh 222.4; RP 17.5; anadhy 0 , 
not grasping (Pali anajjhosana) Bbh 411.18 (svasukhana- 
dhy°); as synonym of raga MadhK 457.3 (see s.v. dusana). 

adhyavasaya, m. or nt. = °sana, grasping , clinging, 
devotion (to something deprecated; cf. adhyavasita) : 
Divy 534.19; adhyavasaye tisthati, cited from Madhya- 
mika-vrtti in note 4 on Siks 223.8. (On adhyavasaya, ger., 
see adhyavasyati.) 

adhyavasita (Pali ajjhosita, in mgs. 1 and 2, and neg. 
an-ajjh°, cited CPD only in sense 1), ppp. of °syati, q.v., 
(1) of things, grasped , coveted (in BHS less common than 
the following): an-adhy° not coveted Dbh 13.23; Siks 23.12, 
16; (2) of persons, attached (with loc. or in comp.), grasping , 
coveting (the usual BHS meaning): SP 78.12; LV 207.7 
(Lefm. °£ita with mss.); Mvy 2196; Divy 534.19; Av 

i. 271.15; 289.11; 296.1; RP 35.6 (kuladhy 0 ); Lank 253.15; 
an-adhy° not attached, not covetous Mv ii.139.10; iii.201.5; 
Samadh 22.1 (kayajivite canadhy 0 ), 3 (kayajivitanadhy 0 ); 
Siks 269.8 (sv-anadhy°) ; Bbh 274.18 (kamesv anadhy 0 ); 
Lank 250.9; (3) accepted, agreed to (a proposal, offer): MSV 

ii. 10.5-6. 

adhyavasyati (cf. adhyavasana, °saya; Pali *ajjho- 
sati, fut. °sissati etc. ; not exactly in this sense in 
Skt.), clings to (something deprecated), covets : °syati Siks 
223.8; °syaty adhyavasaya (ger.) tisthati Divy 37.23; ppp. 
adhyavasita, q.v. 

adhyakramana, stepping, marching upon : mad-°ne 
viSanka ni£ritya mam svasti gatah Jm 180.8. 

adhyagacchati (nowhere recorded in this sense), 
= deSayati (2), recognizes (a sin), confesses: atyayam 
atyayato 'dhyagamad (aor.) Divy 617.25. 

[adhyacara, °ra: LV 395.9, see adhyavara.] 
adhyacarana, behavior (but used of good behavior, 
in contrast with adhyacarati, °cara, qq.v.): prasadena- 
dhyacaranad Bbh 30.11. 

adhyacarati (= Pali ajjhac 0 ), performs, does, only 
in bad sense (as in Pali), commits (a sin; so adhyacara; 
but cf. adhyacarana): °caranti (-duscaritam) Bbh 302.7, 
8; aku£alam karmadhyacarati £iks 160.7; madyapanam 
ca nadhyacaranti MSV iii.130.8. 

adhyacara, m. (to prec. ; = Pali ajjhacara, regularly 
in bad and ‘especially in an erotical sense', CPD), per- 
formance, commission (of evil, sin), (sinful) behavior (with 
gen. of the sin, or in comp.): punar anadhyacaraya Bbh 
181.12, so as not to sin again-, savadyasya ca danadikasya 
kusalasyadhyacarah 289.11; apatty- anadhy acara- 289.22; 
anadhyacare adhyacaravairamanyam tivras . . . yogah 
karaniyah Bhik 27b. 4, serious discipline in not sinning , 
ceasing from sin, must be undertaken; for this, which seems 
the correct reading, Bhik 24b. 5; 28a.l, 4; 28 b. 2 (by 
error?) °anadhyacaravairamanyam°; but also in MSV 

iii. 8.10 anadhyacaram acarate, engages in sinful behavior, 
implies adhyacara = good behavior; Tib. also has a neg., 
spyad par bya ba ma yin pa spyod pa; but the text is 
pretty surely wrong, since in 9.10 the opposite is na adhya- 
caram acarate, engages in no sinful behavior. 

[? adhyapatyati, Siks 171.16, acc. to note, p. 408, 
tam ca °patyet, should violate her (a mother or arhanti). 
But lead adhyapadyet, cf. next but one. I question such 
a form from root pat. The meaning would be the same 
and is supported by Tib. de la log par spyad pa.] 

adhyapatti, f. (in Pali only neg. an-ajjhapatti; see 
anadnySpatti), commission (of a sin, or of an offense 
against a moral principle, cf. under adhysipadyate) : 
papakarmadhyapatti- Gv 264.19-20; sahadhyapat(t)ya 
Bhik 23b. 4; 24a.l, with the commission (of an offense 
against a moral principle). 

adhyapadyate (= Pali ajjhapajjati), (1) incurs (guilt), 
commits (a sin, acc.): duscaritam adhyapadyamanah Bbh 
117.21; parajayikadhyapannah 159.22; (da£aku6alan [so 

read for text da£a-kusalan, which makes nonsense with 
the following na samudacarati] karmapathan . . .) na- 
dhyapadyate AsP 325.9; (2) violates (a moral principle, 
acc.): anyatamanyatamam dharmam adhyapadya Bbh 
159.4; (parajayikasthaniyam dharmam) adhyapanno bha- 
vati id. 181.1; gurudharmadhyapannaya (mss. °naya) 
Bhik 5b. 4, by one who has violated an important rule (so 
Pali garudhammam with ajjhapanna, q.v. in CPD); 
adhyapadya (ger.) Bhik 23b. 4; 24a.l; adhyapatsyase, 
°patsye (fut.) 24 b. 5, all with (anyatamat) sthanam, some 
point or item (of the moral code); (3) violates (a woman): 
°dyet, see adhyapatyati; [(4) in Gv 531.14 adhyapanna 
would be used in a good sense, if the text were sound: 
(sarvabuddhaksetrani visudhyanti sma sarvasattva-)-dhatv 
-anyonya - maitra - hita - citradhyapanna - citta - samsthana- 
taya; but read with 2d ed. °citravyapanna°.] 

adhyarama-, in the park (stem form representing 
Pali adverb ajjharame, q.v. CPD): -gatam (ratnam) Prat 

adhyarohati (= Pali ajjharuhati), ads in a tyrannical 
or bullying way: krudhyetadhyarohet Bbh 171.6. 

adhyalamba = °bana, (mentally) seizing, grasping: 
udarabuddhadharmamativipuladhyalambena Dbh 29.18. 

1 adhyalambate (cf. Pali ajjholambati), hangs down 
upon (of shadows, at evening; so Tib., grib so cher babs 
pa): Mvy 6922 (same context in Pali, see abhipralam- 

2 adhyalambati, °te (not in Pali or Pkt.; Skt. 
alambati, °te), grasps , takes hold of, ( 1 ) literally and 
physically: tam daridrapurusam adhyalambeyuh SP 104.3; 
sumerum yas ca hastena adhyalambitva . . . SP 253.5 (vs); 
(panina . . . daksinahastesv, em.) adhyalambya SP 484.4, 
and similarly 8; adhyalambamanah (sc. utensils for 
worship) LV 77.2; (phalakam . . .) adhyalambante AsP 
286.11; (tam . . . parSvabhyam) svadhyalambitam (so with 
v.l. for text sva°) adhyalambya suparigrhitam parigrhya 
291.6; (2) metaphorically, grasps = reaches , attains: 
-jnanabhumir adhyalambita (so read, text °bata) Gv 
18.18; (bodhisattvacarya . . .) katham adhyalambitavya 
Gv 59.19. 

adhyalambana (n. act. to prec.), (act of) grasping, 
in metaphoric use, acquiring (cf. prec., 2; this noun has 
not been recorded in the literal and physical sense, possibly 
by oversight): Mvy 6991; -kusalamuladhyalambana-tvad 
LV 429.14-15; buddhadharmadhyalambana- Gv *72. 9; 
tathagatasukhadhyalambanaih Gv 321.26; buddhadharma- 
dhyalambanaya Dbh 3.18; -pranidhanadhyalambanena 
Dbh 57.29. 

adhyalambanata = °bana, q.v. : buddhajnana- 
dhyalambanata Mvy 186; dasatathagatabaladhyalamba- 
nataya ^iks 123.1; -pranidhanadhyalambanatayai Gv 

adhyavara, m. (= Pali ajjhavara), associate, atten- 
dant, member of retinue: adhyavara (acc. pi.; so all mss., 
Lefm. em. °cara) krtvana sarvadevan LV 395.9 (vs), 
having made all gods my associates. CPD and PTSD suggest 
emending the Pali form, also, to ajjhacara. But the two 
forms confirm each other and must surely be kept, what- 
ever the etymology of this rare and obscure word may be. 

adhyavasa-gata, adj., in the dwelling: Prat 517.1 
(cf. adhyarama, and Pali ajjhavasathe, adv.). 

adhyaviSati, attacks , strikes down: MSV iv.120.12, 18; 
121.9; Tib. hbab par byed, make fall. 

[adhya§ana, (probably error) for Skt. adhyasana: 
samadhibhavanadhyaSanataya Gv 494.8-9, because it is 
the basis for realization (bringing into being) of samadhi(s).] 
adhyaSaya, m. (= Pali ajjhasaya), (1) commonly 
mental disposition; (strong) purpose, intent , determination 
(esp. religious); clearly understood as a more intensive 
near-synonym of a6aya, which is used often in substan- 
tially the same sense in BHS as already in Skt. (so far 





as I can see there is no difference between Skt. and BHS 
asaya except for the adverbial uses of forms of the latter, 
q.v.): adhyasayah Mvy 7116 = Tib. lhag pahi bsam pa, 
superior (adhi) thought, will, inclination or the like (aSaya = 
Tib. bsam pa Mvy 7117); aSayena adhyasayena LY 182.18; 
asayo LV 34.18, as a dharmalokamukha, immediately 
followed by adhyasayo, used in the same way. Definition: 
Bbh 313.4 ff. graddhapurvo dharmavicayapurvakaS ca 
buddhadharmesu yo 'dhimoksah . . . bodhisattvasya so 
'dhyaSaya ity ucyate. te punar adhyaSaya bodhisattvasya 
. . . pancadasa veditavyah. katame pancadasa: agryasayah 
vrataSayah etc., all cpds. of a£aya. With adj. drdha, firm 
determination, SP 97.10; or vajraka ( = drdha), LV 216.4; 
bracketed with gaurava, adhyasayena gauravena, with 
resolution and with earnestness, SP 286.2; LY 203.4; 
adhyasayena with one’s whole heart, wholeheartedly , SP 
337.10 (adhimucyate); 389.9; (dharmarthiko, seeking the 
dharma ) LV 179.10; RP 14.7; adhyaSayena LV 180.12, 
with resolve (see s.v. anarthika); tadadhyasaya- Mv i.128.7, 
intent on that; adhyasayena sampannah SP 337.1, per- 
fected in disposition ; adhyasaya-sampanna(h) Mvii.288.14; 
list of adhya£aya, mental dispositions, which a Bodhisattva 
in the 2d bhuini cherishes, Mv i.85.3 ff. ; adhyasaya-bala, 
one of the 10 bala of a Bodhisattva, Mvy 761; dvav imau 
. . . bodhisattvasya sattvesu kalyanadhyaSayau ( excellent 
intentions towards creatures ) pravartete, hitadhyasayaS ca 
sukhadhyasayaS ca Bbh 18.16-18; a Tathagata knows 
the adhy°, mental dispositions, of all creatures SP 163.3; 
180.15; adhyaSayam (with dependent gen.) viditva Samadh 
8.14; RP 56.3; °sayam (of others) parlksanti (Buddhas) 
Mv i.192.19; a Tathagata is sarvadharmarthavasitaprap- 
tah sarvadharmadhyasayapraptah SP 121.8, arrived at 
control of the meaning of all dharma, attained to (an under- 
standing of) the intent (purpose) of all dharma; durbala- 
dhya£aya£ ca Mv i.79.13, and feeble in determination; 
bodhisattvasyadhyasayaSuddhitam Av i.221.4, cf. adhya- 
£aya£ ca pariSuddhah Mv i.102.5; similarly Dbh 63.23; 
miscellaneous, Mv i.77.6; 153.10 (kalyana-, cf. Bbh 
18.16-18 above); RP 10.7 (corrupt; read yad uta tarana- 
dhyaSayapratipattya, determination to save , cf. 10.13 tara- 
nartha); Jm 41.2-3 (jagatparitranadhyasayah, cf. prec.); 
45.24; 68.6; Gv 143.3; Bbh 242.8 ff.; (2) in looser sense 
of mentality, mind in general, upahatadhyaSayatvat Jm 
186.13, because his mind was affected. 

adhya6ayati (rare; doubtless denom. from adhya- 
&aya, q.v.; Pali only ppp. ajjhasita intent upon, rare and 
only in cpds.), is intent upon, with loc. : bodhisattvo 
'dhyaSayaty anuttarayam samyaksambodhau &iks 17.21. 
In LV 18.8 the good ms. A reads adhyasayati for text 
°sayati (mahaprthivim . . . abhinirj ity adhyasayati), is firm- 
ly fixed upon, occupies , with acc. ; but probably text is 
right; Skt. adhyaste is used in this sense, and the LV 
form is only an aya extension of this; the meaning and 
construction do not fit adhyasayati. 

adhyaSayana (to prec.), = adhySSaya: °nam 

marg(ay)itva MSV iv.109.18; 110.9, etc. 

AdhyaSayasamcodana- sutra, n. of a work: Siks 
15.13; 97.19; 104.9; 351.1. 

adhySharinl-llpi, a kind of script: LV 126.9; so 
read for Lefm. madhya 0 (after -lipim), allegedly with all 
mss.; Calc, adhya-, supported by Tib. bla ( superior ) thabs 
su bsnan pa (? augmentation to a higher means ?), which 
suggests a form containing adhi; but I do not understand 
the meaning of either the Tib. or the BHS form, unless 
the latter means suppletive script (a term which might 
conceivably have been applied e.g. to writing of conso- 
nants alone, without vowels). 

adhyupeksana (= Pali ajjhupekkhana), impartiality: 
yathakalavavadanusasanadhyupeksana-guhyam (tathaga- 
tanam) Dbh 87.8, impartiality in the timely imparting of 
admonition and instruction. See next two. 

adhyupeksati or °te ( = Pali ajjhupekkhati), ignores, 
disregards, is indifferent to: Divy 25.6 (svaminam), 16, 18; 
127.12; 185.23, 27; Bbh 40.11; 116.18; 173.15; 179.25; 
254.24 (sattvam . . . nadhyupeksate) ; 268.20. 

adhyupeksa (cf. Pali ajjhupekkhana), disregard, 
disesteem: vimanayed bhupatir °ksaya Jm 154.14; an- 
adhy° Bbh 81.10, non-disregard . 

adhyusta (var. ardhusta, so Mironov), m., (= Pali 
addhuddha, AMg. addhuttha; false Skt. instead of ar- 
dhacaturtha), three and a half: Mvy 8172. 

adhyesaka, m. (to adhyesati with -aka; = Pali 
ajjhesaka, in cpds.), one who seeks instruction: °sako 'ham 
LV 395.9 (vs). 

adhyesana, nt., °na, f. (to next with -ana; Skt. °na 
recorded once, Kull. on Manu 1.2; °na Lex. ; Pali ajjhesana), 
request (for instruction) : °na Mvy 861 (-buddhadhyesana-) ; 
Bhad 12 (vs); °na SP 38.8 (all Nep. mss. °na); 178.15; 
315.11; 404.9; LV 7.13; 395.17; Bbh, 75.6 (saddharmade- 
^anayai); Dharmas 14; Sadh 64.7. The fern, is much 
commoner than the nt. In LV 53.11 and 178.19 (vss) 
text kilesa-dhyesana(L); read kilesadharsana(t) ; some mss. 
-dhyasanat, dhyasana. 

adhyesati, °te, °sayati, °syati (= Pali ajjhesati; 
in Skt. only ppp. adhlsta, q.v., rare; cf. prec. and next 
items), requests (in general): adhyesya Mv i.254.14; 

adhyesisyam ii.108.5; in SP 116.3 asmams ca adhyesati 
lokanatho, the Buddha requests us (to instruct creatures); 
in Av i.75.10 someone requests the Buddha to cause rain 
to fall in a drought; most commonly, however, requests 
(a teacher, generally Buddha, acc.) for instruction (may 
also be acc., Divy 160.20; Dbh 7.17; or quasi-infinitival 
dative, dharmacakrapravartanatayai SP 162.9, and sim- 
ilarly Bhad 10; LV 394.2, 7; 396.12; 397.5;) dharma- 
bhanakan adhyesayeyuh asya . . . sutrendrarajasya sarn- 
prakaSanarthaya Suv 123.9; adhyesate, °se SP 36.4; 37.6; 
38.9; Divy 160.20; °sati SP 116.3; °sante SP 162.9; °santi 
Lank 7.10; °samas SP 167.8; °sama LV 50.14; °sami Bhad 
10; adhyesi (aor.) LV 416.3; °sya (ger.) Lank 2.15; Mv 
i.254.14; °situm (inf.) LV 396.12; Av i.75.10; °stavya 
(gdve.) Bhlk 10a.3; °sita (ppp.) SP 174.4; 178.12 (for ppp. 
adhyesta, adhlsta, see these); adhyesayeyam (caus. opt.) 
LV 415.22 sambodhipraptu ahu dharmu, adh° (the Bodhi- 
sattva. speaks in a pranidhi), having attained enlightenment, 
I would cause (others) to ask (me) for (instruction in) the 
law; but usually non-caus., adhyesayami Lank 7.13, 15, 
like adhyesanti 7.10; adhyesayasi Divy 329.3, 7; dharma- 
bhanakam adhyesayet (read °yed) dharma&ravanaya Mmk 
38.14; also Suv 123.9, above; also adhyesyeyam (opt.) 
LV 394.2, and adhyesyemahi 7 (but LV 397.5 adhyesyante 
is passive, are asked for instruction ); adhyesanti Mv i.106.12 
(vs; Senart em. °syanti), in passive mg., § 37.32. 

adhyesa (to prec.), request (for instruction) : adhyesaya, 
instr., Av i.87.9. But perhaps read adhyesanaya; see 

adhyesta, ppp. of adhyesati, applied to, besought 
(for instruction): (of Buddha) adhyestu brahmanayutebhi 
(no v.l. ; Calc, id., interpreting as m.c. for °nayutebhi, 
i. e. °na-ayu°; read brahma-nayu 0 ?) LV 48.11 (vs); (of 
Buddha) adhyesto LV 412.7 (vs), 
adhyo-, see also adhyava-. 

adhyoharati (for adhyava-h°; = Pali ajjho°), puts 
in, inserts (food): divyam ojam adhyoharisyamah (roma- 
kupavivarantaresu) Mv ii.131.3. The verb, and noun °hara, 
m., are used of food in Pali. In line 6 Mv uses adhyokiretsuh 
(see adhyavakirati), perhaps by error for °haretsuh. 

adhvagata (= Pali addha°; cf. adhvan), that has 
reached old age; old: °tah Mvy 7658; adhvagatavayam 
anupraptah Mv ii.151.2, who has arrived at an advanced 

adhvan, m. (= Pali addha[n], addhana), time. (Cf. 
1 amSa, 1.). The three adhvanah listed Dharmas 86 

adhva-marga 19 

(atito, anagato, pratyutpanno ’dhva). Very common are 
atite and anagate (less common pratyutpanne, SP 42.1) 
’dhvani in past ( future , present ) time SP 17.8; 40.16; 41.10; 

LV 87.11; 88.13; Mv i.1.8; 39.9; Divy 60.13; 62.7; Av 

i. 32.8; Suv 97.3; atitanagatapratyutpannesv adhvasu LV 
263.7; 435.4; adhvasu trisu RP 6.11; also acc., in dating, 
aham pi bhaveyam anagatam adhvanam tathagato . . . 

Mv i. 238. 14, may I also in future time become . . .; 335.14; 
but acc. generally of extent of time, ciram dirgham adhva- 
nam for a very long time Mv i.52.3; 244.19 (suciram 0 ); 

ii. 424.10; Ud v.7 (omits ciram); tr(i)yadhva-, past, present 
and future LV 151.12; 435.5; Bhad 1 etc.; Siks 17.13; 
Dbh 55.22; trayo adhvanah Gv 478.9; yasmin-yasmin 
adhvani Gv 82.14, in whatever time ; dirghasyadhvano 
’tyayena Mv i.338.14, with the lapse of a long time. 

adhva-marga, Prat 497.9, and v.l. 519.10; adhvana- 
marga Prat 510.4; Suv 72.11 ( = Pali addhana-magga), 
travel-road, highroad : in Prat 497.9 and Suv 72.11 cpd. 
with -pratipanna, when on a journey. 

adhvaniya (better adhvaniya; Pali addhaniya), fit 
for a journey : some such form seems clearly intended by 
mss. at Mv iii.93.19 ; they read (natyatisitam natyatiusnam) 
rtusukham adhvaniyam (v.i. adhya°) tarn bhagavantam 
(read bhavantam, or bhadanta, m.c. ; object of pasyantu, 
next line, or voc.). They are clearly corrupt, but Senart’s 
emendations are proved wrong by the Pali parallel Therag. 
529; divide rtu (rtum? rtu?) sukham, the season is pleasant 
and fit for travel. 

an- a-, double neg. prefix, = a(n)-, as in Pali (CPD). 

In Mv i.14.10 (gambhiro) ’nasamuttaro (see samuttara; 
Senart assumes na used in comp.); anaparamrsant (q.v.); 
and Mmk 53.21 an-a-patnlkam, one who has no wife (after 
this a word has been lost from the text; it must have 
named the place where the appropriate ceremony, to get 
a wife, was performed, as in the surrounding parallel 

anagarika; anagariya, lit. ; anagara (nt.); ana- 
garika ( = Pali anagariya or ana°, generally nt. ; anagara 
nt. only once, Sn 376, otherwise m. and personal, also 
°rika, adj. and m. subst., personal; °rika not in Pali), 
homeless (ascetic) life. In most texts anagarika (LV 18.8; 
101.19; 103.20; Divy 17.17; 37.12; 141.1; Samadh 8.15, 
etc.; rare in Mv, ii.69.1 with v.l. °riya), or anagarika (Av 
i.136.6, so best ms., text ana°; i.234.1, no v.l.; Bbh 26.12; 
°kam pravrajyam Bhik 10b. 1), are the regular forms, but 
in Mv it is almost always anagariya as in Pali; this has 
not been noted elsewhere. Regularly in acc. sg. °rikam, 
°riyam (only once anagaram [mss., Senart ana°] upetasya 
Mv iii.387.1) depending on a form of pra-vraj (rarely of 
abhi-nis-kram, Mv ii.161.5 ff.), and preceded by abl. (or 
in Mv gen.) of agara, retire from the home to the homeless 
life. In this phrase the preceding form is always agarad 
in all texts other than Mv, and sometimes there (ii.161.5 ff.; 

iii. 408.2); in Mv also agarato iii.378.4; agarato iii.176.2; 
agarebhyo i.128.10; read agarasma, the Pali form, for 
agarastha i.104.8; but most commonly the gen. agarasya 
i.322.15; 323.1; ii.117.18, 20; 140.3; 271.8; iii.50.11-12; 

Anagha, n. of a Bodhisattva: Mmk b2.13. 

Ananga, n. of a naga king: May 247.1. 

anangana, (1) adj. (= Pali id.; often written °na), 
spotless , free from blemish or evil (angana): LV 344.6; 
345.19; Mvy 2607 (Tib. non mons pa med pa, without 
evil); Mv i.228.11, 15; 229.6; 316.8; ii.132.14; 359.16; 
iii.396.6; Sukh 59.13; Dbh 7.6; 35.19; Ud xvi.3; (2) m., 
n. of a §resthin in Bandhumati in the time of the Buddha 
VipaSyin (later reincarnate as Jyotiska): Mv ii.271.13 ff. ; 
Divy 283.1 ff. (here called a grhapati). 

an-ativara (not in Pali, AMg. anaivara, see Sheth, 
not in Ratnachandra), having no superior; supreme, ep. 
of Buddha: Mv i.206.8, 10 = ii.10.2, 4; i.220.8, 14, 16; 

an- anta- madhya 

ii.22.9, 15; iii.110.19. The AMg. form confirms Senart’s 
choice of this reading; the mss. vary between it and 
anabhivara, °cara, anaticara. 

anatisadrsa, who has none superior to him : silenana- 
tisadrsu LV 164.4 (vs); the only v.l. is °sa for °su. 

anatlta (= Pali id.), not having got over, not free from, 
with loc. ; in Pali app. with acc. only (and so atita in Skt.): 
(jaradharma) jaradharmatayam (so both mss.) anatitah 
Mv ii.151.7, subject to old age, not passed over in reference 
to old age. 

an-adhimurchita (-tva), see adhi°. 
an-adhimoksa, see adhi 0 . 

[anadhisthapada- : Lank 180.17, corrupt; read 

anisthapada-, q.v., with Suzuki, Transl. 156. note 1.] 
an-adhyavasana, see adhy 0 . 
an-adhyavasita, see adhy 0 . 
an-adhyacara, see adhy°. 

an-adhyapatti, f. (= Pali anajjhapatti), neg. of 
adhyapatti, non-transgression : apatty-anapatty-anadhya- 
patti-tam upadaya 5sP 56.5, . . . state of sin, non-sin, and 

anadhyupeksa, see adhyu°. 

an-anuyukta (= Pali °yutta), neg. of anuy°, not 
devoted to, experienced or practised in, with acc.: jagari- 
kayogam ananuyuktaye (parsaye) Mv iii. 48. 17-18 and 
49.4-5; mss. both times anuyuktaye but sense requires 
neg. (haplography). In Pali also used with jagariya. 

an-anuyujya, or °yunjitva, neg. ger., without having 
interrogated (an accused person), or made inquiry (into an 
accusation), (Skt. anu-yuj-; cf. anuyunjati, b, CPD): in 
Mv i.96.7, read (aparadham ca) an-anuyujya for °ya; in 
Mv iii. 160.6 text °yujitva, read doubtless °yumj° (°yuhj°) 
with text in 165.11; 170.7, 8 (in these no expressed object), 
an-anusruta, see anusruta. 

anantaka, nt. (= Pali id., also nantaka), rag, worn- 
out cloth : °kani pravrtya Divy 175.19. 

Anantakosa (? all but 1 ms. Antakosa), n. of a 
former Buddha: Mv i. 141. 11. 

Anantagupta, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i. 138.8. 
Anantaghosa, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 442.3. 
Anantacaritra, n. of a Bodhisattva: SP 300.13. 
Anantachattra, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i. 138. 13. 
Anantajnanottara, pi., n. of a group of Buddhas: 
Samadh p. 66, line 21. 

Anantanirdesapratisthana, n. of a samadhi: SP 
19.14; in the verse account 23.12 Anantanirdesa (divide : 
anantanirdesa varam samadhim). 

Anantanemi, n. of a king: Mvy 3646. 
chattrakararaja, n. of a naga king: Megh 292.8 ff. 
AnantapIIu, n. of a pisaca: Mmk 18.5. 
Anantapratibhana, m., n. of a samadhi: Mvy 585; 
SsP 1422.11. 

Anantaprabha, m., (1) n. of a samadhi: Mvy 541; 
SsP 1417.22; (2) n. of a Tathagata: ^iks 9.3. 

Anantabalavighustaninadita^rlsambhavamati, n. 
of a Buddha: Gv 358.20. 

Anantabuddhi, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.140.9. 
Anantamati, (1) n. of one of the sons of the Buddha 
Candrasuryapradipa: SP 19.3; (2) n. of a Bodhisattva: 
RP 1.12. 

an- anta- madhya, lit. without extremes or middle, = 
infinitely numerous or varied , as adj. modifying, or in 
composition with, various nouns: °ya-dharmadhatu- LV 
423.3; °yam bodhisattvacaryam Gv 387.21 ; in Gv 349.9-17 
a series of typical instances, °ya-kayavarnasamsthana- 
tam 9; °yan varnasamudran (seas, i. e. masses of colors) 
10; °yan rasmimeghan 11; °yan buddhaksetrapratibhasan 
11-12; °yan tathagato tpadan 12-13; °yani vikurvitani (of 
Tathagatas) 13; °yam sattvadhatum 17. The word occurs 
often in Gv, rarely elsewhere. 

2 * 




Anantamaya, n. of a sister of Maya: Mv i.355.17. 
Anantamukhadevasuranetrasura, n. of a kum- 
bhanda: Mvy 3446. 

AnantamukhanirharadharanI, n. of a work: Siks 

AnantayaSas, n. of a cakravartin: Siks 255.8 ff. 
raja, n. of a former Buddha: Gv 150.4. 

anantarayika, adj. (= Pali id., neg. of antar°), 
not connected with (causing, or subject to?) hindrances: 
°ka-vai£aradyam (of Bodhisattvas) Mvy 7,84. 

anantariya, subst. nt. = an°, crime bearing immediate 
fruition , deadly sin (one of five): °riyani (panca) Bhad 51. 
Gf. anantariya, and °tarya; in Bhad -i- could be m.e., 
but is regular in Pali. The initial short a- may also be m.c. ; 
but GPD lists it as adj. 

(anantarya, adj., immediately successive, in) anan- 
tarya-ta, state of being . . .: °rya~taya, Gv 104.22, instr. 
(= Skt. anantarya, used only as noun, and BHS anan- 
tarya, also adj., q.v.) 

[Anantaryasamadhi, misprint in Mvy 901 for 
Anant°, q.v.; corrected in Index.] 

anantava(t), ( = Pali id.; cf. BR 1.172), infinite, in 
anantav’ udagro (mss. °grah) Mv i.83.8, which Senart em. 
°udagro, m.c., understanding ananta + vud°. Probably 
cpd., infinitely delighted; in any case -v- must be taken as 
belonging to anantav(at); §18.52. 

ananta varna- ratna, some kind of a jewel: Mvy 
5967. Tib. translates literally. 

Anantavarna, n. of a Bodhisattva-dharani: Mvy 757. 
Anantavikramin, v.l. °kramin, °krama, n. of a 
Bodhisattva: SP 3.7. 

Anantavlrya, (1) n. of a Buddha in the south: Sukh 
97.9; (2) n. of a Bodhisattva: SsP 6.18. 

Anantasira (for °ras), n. of a raksasa king: Mmk 18.2. 
Ananta&ubhanayanakesarin, n. of a kumbhanda: 
Mvy 3445. 

Ananta vabhasarajendra, n. of a Tathagata: Mmk 


Anantavarta, n. of a dharani: Gv 66.14. 
Anantavarta, n. of a Bodhisattva-dharani: Mvy 751. 
Anantasana, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.4. 
Anantaujas, n. of a Buddha: Siks 169.11. 
Ananyagamin, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 215.17 ff. 
an-anyatha (adj., based on adv. ananyatha), un- 
failing, sure : giram ananyatham SP 152.2 (here v.l. 
ananyatha, Kashgar rec. only); 308.8 (no v.l.). 

ananyadeva, m., having no other god> (beside him), i.e. 
sole god, ep. of Buddha: LV 18.9; so Lefm.; Burnouf, Lotus 
581, followed by BR, not having (recognizing) other gods 

ananyaneya (== Pali anannaneyya), not to be led by 
others , ep. of Buddha: Mv i. 118. 14 (em.); 208.5 (em.) 
= ii.12.14; iii.110.12; 123.21; Mvy 2399; of a Buddhist 
convert, MSY ii.46.18. Gf. aneya. 
ananyapaksika, see anya°. 
an-a-patnlka, see under an-a-. 
anapatrapya, nt. (= Pali anottappa; neg. to apa°, 
q.v.), indecency, lack of modesty and delicacy; associated 
with ahrikya: °pyam Mvy 1972; stem °pya- Siks 105.8; 
Bbh 14.25; 223.12. 

an-a-paramr6ant (Pali a-paramasanta, GPD), not 
paying any attention, unconcerned: read anaparamr£antam 
Mv i.131.14 (see an-a-, double neg. prefix) for mss. ana- 
paragyantam (or °sya°), Senart aparipaSyantam. 

Anapaviddhakarna (v.l. Anupraviddha 0 *), n. of a 
former Buddha: Mv i. 140.4. 

Anapeksa, pi., n. of a brahmanical school: Divy 

an-abhidrohin (from Skt. an-abhidroha), not in- 
juring: Bbh 29.2; 363.5. 

an-abhidhyalu, see abhidhyalu. 

(an-abhinirvrtta, neg. of ppp. (Skt., see pw 5 App.; 
Pali anabhinibbatta), not (really) come into existence: °ttan 
sarvadharman £iks 203.5, all states of being; preceded by 
svalaksanasunyan asambhutan anispannan.) 

an-abhinivisti, adj. Bhvr. (from abhiniviSati, q.v.), 
having no devotion or attachment (to evil things, loc.): 
bodhisattvo . . . ’nabhinivistih sarvadharmesu SsP 381.16. 

an-abhinivrtti-ta (cf: abhinivrtta), state of having 
no cessation or ending: Dbh 64.1 (opp. to apravrttita). 

an-abhinive6ana = an-abhinivisti, but as Kar- 
madh., cf. abhi°; °na-ta, in atmanabhinive^anatayai, dat., 
LV 32.6, unto (resulting in) the state of having no (unworthy) 
devotion to oneself; or perhaps better, of having no attachment 
to the heresy that there is a self, cf. abhinivesa ; sarvadhar- 
manabhinivesanatam AsP 206.10, 18, state of not being 
(reprehensibly) attached to (? or, of not believing in the reality 
of) all states of being. 

Anabhibhutamakuta, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 3.7. 
Anabhibhutayasas, n. of a former Buddha: Mv 
i.141.10 (mss. °yasah, so read, ; Senart em. °yasa-h). 

anabhiramya = nirabhi 0 , unpleasing: Samadh 19,20 
(m.c. anabhi 0 ). 

Anabhilaksita, m., n. of a samadhi: Mvy 601; SsP 

an-abhilapanlya (see next), not capable of being 
expressed in words: Siks 251.11. 

an-abhilapya = prec. (cf. also next): Vaj 24.8 (said 
of tathagatena dharmo . . . desito); syn. of avyavahara, 
q.v., Vaj 45.6. Elsewhere anabhilapya is the normal 

anabhilapya (not in Pali; AMg. anabhilappa, as adj.; 
cf. preceding two, abhilapya, and nirabhi 0 ), (1) adj., 
inexpressible, that cannot be put in words , of the dharma 
LV 392.14; 434.12; of the (dharma-)cakra LV 423.4; syn. 
of avyavahara (like anabhilapya, q.v.) Siks 251.11; 
with suggestion of large numbers or quantities, Mv ii.362.12 
(of tatliagate pratisthapita daksina); ^iks 178.5; Gv 
7.14 ff., Dbh 55.20; Sukh 25.11; (2) subst. nt. (cf. the 
following entries), a very high number: Mvy 7818; 7950 
(cited from Gv); 8048; Gv 106.26; 134.15. 

anabhilapyaparivarta, m. (in Gv nt.), square of 
the preceding (2): Mvy 7819; 7951 (cited from Gv, but m.); 
Gv 106.26; 134.15. Gf. next. 

anabhilapyanabhilapya, nt., a still higher number 
than the preceding: Mvy 7952 (cited from Gv); Gv 106.26; 
134.16; quite common in Gv, and occurs elsewhere, e. g. 
Dbh 2.23; 70.8; read (a)nabhilapy anabhilapya- in Bhad 
Introduction, line 2, with v.l. and Gv 543.6, for Watanabe 
(a)bhilapyanabhilapya-. See next. 

anabhilapyanabhilapyaparivarta, m. (in text of 
Gv nt.), square of the preceding: Mvy 7953 (cited from Gv); 
Gv 107.1; 134.17. Cf. next. 

anabhilapyanabhilapyaparivartanirdeSa, m., a 
very high number (cf. the preceding; in its own list follows 
anabhilapyaparivarta): Mvy 7820. 

Anabhilapyodgata, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 442.25. 
an-abhisamskara, neg. of abhi°, (1) (m.,) non- 
accumulation (of karman), as Karmadharaya, Gv 70.7, see 
s.v. vipratilambha ; generally as bahuvrihi, adj., having 
or characterized by no accumulation (of karman): LV 422.21 
(-cakram, of the dharmacakra) ; Mvy 173 (°rah sarvadhar- 
mah); 799; Siks 190.16; LV 428.10 sarvaprasthanaliptatvad 
anabhisamskaragocara ity ucyate (tathagatah), he is out 
of range of the accumulation (of karman), because he is un- 
stained by any setting-out (to do or get anything); anabhi- 
samskaragatir bodhisattvanam Gv 525.10, the course of B’s 
is free from accumulation (of karman); (2) adj., without 
proper mental preparation: Mvy 1018 °ra-parinirvayi (con- 
trast sabhi° pari° 1017). 

anabhisamskarika (cf. abhisamskarika), fern. adj. 

an- abhisamskrta 



and subst. (from °skara), with or sc. rddhi, (magic potency) 
of non-accumulation (of karman): °skarikaya rddher anu- 
bhavena Gv 70.8; as subst., -understand rddhi, Gv 180.6 
abhavapratisthitaya ( which is established in non-becoming , 
see Gv 70.7, preceding the above, s.v. vipratilambha) 
’ryanabhisamskarikaya by the (magic potency of) non- 
accumulation (of karman). 

an- abhisamskrta (neg. of abhi°, q.v. ; Pali °sam- 
khata, see below), not (specially) prepared , of food: Lank 
196.12, said of rice offered to infants without proper 
boiling (and seasoning?); not affected (by some outside 
influence), avikopitair indriyair anabhisamskrtair gatrair 
LV 323.16, in description of the Bodhisattva’s indifference 
to the daughters of Mara, with senses undisturbed , with 
body-members unaffected. So Tib., lus (body) ma bcos pa, 
lit. not made (up), see Jaschke s.v. bcos-pa, '3. made or 
contrived by art, artificial (so Pali abhisamkhata is some- 
times used, CPD) . . . ma bcos, artless , unaffected , genuine; 
it also seems to denote an absence of mental activity (see 
s.v. abhisamskara) or a forbearance of exercising such 
activity, in short that indifference to the world, which is 
so highly valued by the Buddhist.’ 

an-abhisarana, adj. Bhvr. (*abhi£arana, °sarana 
= sarana; cf. Pali an-abhisara), without refuge : atrana 
anabhisarana Mv i.22.14. 

an-abhyasuyikaya, adv. (instr. sg. f. of neg. of Skt. 
abhyasuyaka), in a not-unfriendly way : (anuparigrahi- 
kaya, see this) anabhya 0 dharmam desayati SP 283.3. 
So read with Kashgar rec. ; Nep. mss. quoted as ananya- 
sucanaya; KN em. anabhyasuyaya, kept by WT without 

anabhraka, m., unclouded , n. of the first (but omitted 
in Pali and the Mv lists) of the classes of rupavacara gods 
in the 4th dhyana-bhumi; see deva: LY 150.8; Divy 68.16; 
Av i.5.3; Gv 249.12; Mvy 3098; Dharmas 128; etc. 

anayaka, adj., f. °ika (from anaya, misfortune; not 
recorded), unfortunate, unhappy: anayikeyam praja sarva- 
duhkhita SP 162.1 (vs). I interpret with Kern (Transl.) 
except that he derives from an-aya; I regard a as m.c. 
for a. Burnouf without protector, a-nayaka. 

anaya- vyasana, nt. ( = Pali id.; as cpd. seems not 
to occur in Skt.), misfortune and disaster: SP 73.7, 13; 
Mv ii.493.2. 

anarghyeya, priceless: -maniratnam Gv 499.26. 

Perhaps error for anargheya (also with maniratna SP 
210.10), which occurs in Skt. (BR 5.1042, s.v. argheya). 

an-arthika, adj. (= Pali anatthika; not in Skt.; see 
arthika and next), not desirous (of: instr., rarely loc. or 
abl.), (a) with instr.: anarthikas ca te sramanyena bhavi- 
syanti LV 88.18, and they will not be anxious for monkhood 
(duty of monks), so read with Foucaux’s ms. A, see his 
Notes p. 113 (Lefm. Sramanyo na); samskrtenadhyasayena- 
narthikah sarvopadanaparigrahair anarthiko LV 180.12, 
with his resoUe nst desirous of the conditioned (see samskrta 
apd adhya&aya, which are not to be construed together), 
and not desirous of all grasping and possessions; RP 15.1 
(labhena); 34.10 (dharmasravanena) ; 43.12 (kamabhogaih); 
KP 125,2, 4, 6; sv-anarthiko Siks 113.9 (gunaih), very un- 
desirous of virtues (wrongly Bendall and Rouse); (b) with 
loc.: anarthiko sarvakamabhogesu Mv iii.104.17; (c) with 
abl.: samsarad anarthikah Divy 2.1, averse from the 

anarthika-ta (to preceding), state of not desiring, in 
comp.: samsaropakarananarthikataya Gv 391.11 (1st ed. 
misprinted °rdhika°; corr. 2d ed.) 

Anala, n. of a king: Gv 154.20; 155.12 ff. 
analpaka, adj. (= Pali anappaka), not insignificant, 
distinguished, excellent (in . . ., loc.): aksarapadavyakarane 
analpako (of a brahman) Mv ii.77.10. 

anavakara, adj. (= Pali id.; cf. avakara), without 
elimination; not partial, complete, absolute, ep. of sunyata, 

absolute void; °ra-sunvata Mvy 944; SsP 191.21; 642.16, 
etc. (common in this text). Cf. akaranavakara. 

anavakasa, m. (once nt., Lank 198.9; = Pali ana- 
vakasa; in Skt. Gr., see pw s.v.), what is out of the question, 
an impossibility, only noted in phrase asthanam (etad) 
anavakaso (regularly followed by yat-clause): Gv 498.5 etc. 
(see s.v. asthana). Cf. anokaSa. 

anavaklrna, see ava°. 

Anavatapta (= Pali Anotatta, in meaning 1), (1) n. 
of a lake: LV 332.12; Divy 150.23; 152.23; 153.4; 344.13; 
399,14; Siks 247.12; Dbh 95.17; Karmav 62.1; °ta-kayika 
devatah, the deities inhabiting Lake A, Divy 153.7 ff. ; (2) 
n. of a naga-king: Mvy 3239; SP 4.12; LV 204.10; 219.9 
(here anava°, m.c.); Suv 85.4; 91.19; 158.14; 162.8; Kv 
2.14; 68.5; Gv 196.13; May 221.20; 247.9. 

Anavataptanagaraia-pariprccha (cf. prec., 2), n. 
of a work: Mvy 1389. 

an-avatara (neg. of Skt. avatara, mg. 2 in pw), 
non-appearance, the not coming into existence: &iks 157.16 
tasya (sc. ayoniso-manaskarasya) anavatare yatnah ka- 
ryah one must strive to avoid the occurrence (appearance, 
coming into existence) of this. 

Anavadya, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 442.24, 

[anavadya-bhiru, wrong reading for avadya-bhlru, 


anavadhistha, or (in footnote) °dhistha, sarvasattva- 
navadhisthakalyanamitrasya Dbh 29.21 ; prob. contains 
anavadhi .= Pali anodhi, without limits , not making any 
distinction, indiscriminate, absolute (is the syllable -stha 
the root-adj. of stha? abiding in no limitation ?). Acc. to 
Rahder, footnote, Tib. (and Mongol) suggest mg. akrtrima, 
not faked, sincere, genuine (ma bcos pa, also for an- 
abhisamskrta q.v.). 

an-avanamana, see ava°. 

Anavanamitavaijayanti, n. of the lokadhatu of the 
future Buddha Sagaravaradharabuddhivikriditabhijna: 
SP 216.10 (no v.l. ; so also WT). In the verse form 217.11 
analyzed into Anonata Dhvajavaijayanti (loc. °tayam 

anavamardaniya, not to be crushed: AsP 401.1. Cf. 
the next items. 

Anavamardabalaketu, n. of a Tathagata: Gv 360.14. 
Cf. prec. and next items. 

anavamardya, not to be crushed: Siks 32.11 (°dya- 
kayabala-); SsP 283.6; read so for text anavamadya(-lak- 
sana) SsP 1410.16. Cf. prec. two and next items. 

[anavamudhyata, wrong reading in LV 34.3 for 

anavamrdya, not to be crushed: Gv 146.8 (-bala); 
SsP 311.20 (-paramita); AsP 205.3 (id.). Cf. prec. items 
and next. 

anavamrdya-ta, state of being uncrushable (from 
prec.): LV 34.3 (read °mrdyatayai with most mss. for Lefm. 
°mudhya°); Dbh 4.5 (-baianava 0 ); Siks 183.5 (cittasya); 
Gv 430.18. 

anavaragra, adj. (corresp. to Pali anamatagga, AMg. 
anavadagga, anavayagga, and prob. hyper-Skt. for the 
latter; see CPD for theories about this doubtful word), 
probably understood as without end or beginning; Tib. thog 
ma dan tha ma med pa, interpreted CPD as without top 
and bottom, but it may, and probably does, mean without 
beginning and end;, commonly ep. of samsara and its 
constituents: °grasmim samsare Mv i.282.6; ii.94.1; 188.13; 
237.9; iii.26.10; 90.2; °gro samsaro Divy 197.15; °gre 
jatisamsare Siks 170.2; maya ’navaragrasya jatijaramara- 
naduhkhasyantah krta iti LV 351.17; 377.3, 6; anavaragra- 
jatijaramarana-samsara- Mv i.34.7; in Mv ii.419.7 mss. 
anavaragre (as subst.? Senart em. °gra-, perhaps rightly) 
jatijaramaranasamsara-; as separate adj. with similar 
cpds. Mv iii.67.10 ; 281.6; cpd. with sunyata, Mvy 943; 
Dharmas 41. 



an- abhoga 

anavaragra-ta, from prec., state of being without end 
or beginning : °tam Dbh 75.19. 

anavallna, anollna, adj. (= Pali anollna), not 
shrinking, not downcast (so CPD), not despondent', ano° 
SP 279.10; Siks 100.17 (ms., wrongly em. to analinah; 
Tib. cited as zhum pa med, not faint-hearted)', parallel with 
visarada confident SP 278.9; 354.13; aprakampyo ’navalino 
'navadirno LY 323.17; anavallna-citta with not downcast 
mind SP 324.11; Gv 202.5. 

anavalina-ta, from prec., state of being not downcast: 
Siks 183.5. 

an-avaliyana-ta (cf. Pali oily ana, I think wrongly 
defined in PTSD, and BHS 2 avallyate, avallna), state 
of not being downcast: Samadh p. 5 line 20 (prose; or read 

an- avallna- ta?). 

an- avasruta ( = Pali anavassuta; see avasruta), 
free from lust and moral defilement (CPD): Mv i.88.7 (vs) 
parannany avasruta, mss. (Senart em. °sruta), metr. 
deficient; meter and sense both require em. anavasruta (a 
sort of haplography has occurred, na lost after nya). 

anavlkaroti, pple. anavlkrta (in Skt. with different 
mg., pw), made not fresh, i. e. stained, spoiled (with dust; 
of a silk cloth): Divy 576.30 (pamsubhir). 

anasamuttara, see under an- a-, and samut- 

Anakrtsnagata (?), n. of a naga maid: Kv 4.4. 
an-agatika, Bhvr., having no coming into existence 
(agati): sarvadharma(h) . . . anagatika agatika(h) AsP 
162.2; samskrta-gatlkam (see s.v. gatika) anagatlkam 
(i m.c.) Dbh.g. 11(347). 2; °ka hi te tathagatah svabhava- 
sambhutatvat Gv 238.7, without origination (they are self- 
existent); but 2d ed. svabhavasambhutatvat ( because by 
nature they have not originated). 

anagamin, f. °nl (= Pali id.), one who is destined no 
more to return to this world: Mvy 5135-6; Av i.286.7; f. 
°ni (pi. °nyo) Divy 533.26; °mi-phala, the fruit of attaining 
this condition , Divy 18.6; 48.14; 50.9; Av i.65.1 etc. See 
s.v. srota-apanna. 

anagara, nt. — anagarika, q.v. Only Mv iii. 387.1 
(Senart em. ana°). 

anagarika = anagarika, q.v. 

anagrha ? : anagrhabhasarvajagatparanmukhavarna 

Gv 348.10; doubtless corrupt; read anagraha 0 ? 

anagrhita ( = Pali anaggahita, neg. of agrhita, 
q.v.), not niggardly: in Mv ii.376.6, text anagrahitah (with 
one ms., v.l. anogrhito), read anagrhltah. 

anacaryaka (= Pali anacarivaka), see acaryaka. 
an-achindana, see achi°. 

anachedya (neg. gdve. of Skt. a-chid), that cannot be 
cut off, destroyed-, -ta, state of being . . .: anachedyaprati- 
bhanah Mvy 851 (of Bodhisattvas); marganachedyata 
Dbh 57.12 (of Bodhisattvas). 

anajflatam ajnasyaml ’ndriyam (Pali anannatan- 
hassamitindriyam), the mental faculty of resolving to come 
to know something unknown (CPD): Mvy 2078. 

an-atmanlya, adj. (neg. of atmaniya, q.v.) = next: 
Mv iii.447.12. 

an-atmiya, adj. (not in this sense in Skt. ; cf. atmiya), 
not characterized by a self; (what is) without self: napi ye 
dharma anatmiya te atmato desayami Mv i.173.4; anatmiye 
atmiyasamjnaya KP 94.8. 

Anathapindada (once °pindika, q.v., as in Pali), n. 
of a rich layman (grhapati), owner of the grove (arama) 
in Jetavana at Sravasti where Buddha often stayed: LY 
1.5; Mv i.4.13 (5 of 6 mss. read here °pindasya); iii. 224. 11 
(here Senart °pindasya with 1 ms., v.l. °pindadasya); Mvy 
4111; Divy 1.2; 35.11; 77.27; 80.12; 168.5; 172.27; 429.8; 
466.23, etc.; Av i.13.5 etc., common; title af Av chap. 39 
(i.223.1), see also Av i.313.6 ff.; Kv 1.5; Karmav 21.13 etc.; 
71.19; MSY iii.135.22 (his life, as Sudatta, more fully 
than in Pali). 

Anathapindika (= Pali id.) = °pindada, q.v.: °ko 
Mv iii.375.6 (no v.l.). 

Anadarsaka, n. of a mountain: Kv 91.14. 

Anadarsana, n. of a ‘gandharva maid’: Kv 4.16. 

an-addna, see adana. 

an-adikarmika, see adik°. 

anadikalika, adj. from (Pali) anadikala, of beginning- 
less time , from everlasting: °liko Bbh 3.4. 

anadeya-vakya, see adeya-. 

anapatti, f. (noun, = Pali id.; neg. of apatti, q.v.) 
no offense; unpunishableness: Divy 330.1 (read with mss. 
anapattis, oj °t.tih, followed by punctuation: there is no 
offense); similarly 544.17, 19; Siks 11.8; anapattih ksiptace- 
tasah, °ttih suddhasayabhumipravistasya Bbh 160.27; 
^sP 56.5 (see s.v. anadhy apatti). The Index to Divy 
renders guiltless, as if Bhvr., but wrongly; as in Pali, the 
word is always a Karmadli. 

anapattika, adj. (= Pali id.; to -apatti with -ka 
Bhvr.; cf. sapattika), free from offense: °kasya sato deve- 
supapattir bhavisyati Divy 303.3. 

anapanna, see s.v. apanna. 

anabhasa, (1) m., (lit. non-appearance,) disappearance, 
vanishing: Mvy 6654 = Tib. mi snan ba, vanishing (Das); 
ihasravo niravasesam anabhasam astamgacchatlti LY 349.1 
(repeated in sequel); ucchinnamulam talamastakavad 
anabhasagatam ayatyam anutpadadharmi Sarny. Ag. 
1.1 IT., cf. Pali Yin. iii. 2. 18, where instead of this anabhavam 
gata (or, var., anabhava-kata, see CPD s.v.); Pali ana- 
bhava, annihilation = our word; (2) adj. (Bhvr., an- plus 
abhasa, q.v.), having no range or scope (of action), i. e. 
substantially inactive, of the mind: °sa-citta Gv 279.10; 
also (3) as subst., neg. of abhasa in same sense: Siks 129.3 
anabhasagatah sattva(h), not coming into range. 

anabhibhu, adj. Bhvr. (for an-a°, with a m.c., 
§3.11), having no superior: bhagavan °bhuh SP 128.4; 
190.7 (vss). 

anabhibhuta, neg. ppp. (^ Skt. anabhi 0 , §3.11), 
unconquered: SP 69.4. 

an-abhoga (see abhoga and sabhoga), (1) adj., 
effortless: crucial is Dbh 67.10 ff., where a boat, before it 
reaches the open sea, is sabhoga-vahana, traveling with 
(human) effort; when it reaches the open sea it is anabho- 
gavahano vatamandalipranlto, traveling without effort, borne 
along by a tornado, and goes in a single day farther than it 
could go in a hundred years by all efTqrtful traveling 
(sarvasabhogavahanataya, i. e. by rowing etc.). So, by 
the knowdedge of the Omniscient (sarvajnajnanena), 
because this knowledge is effortless (automatic, spontane- 
ous: jhananabhogataya), a Bodhisattva gets in a single 
moment farther than he could get in 100,000 kalpas by 
his former effortful activity (purvakena sabhogakarmana). 
Again, in Sutralamkara ix. 18-19, a Buddha’s activities 
proceed without abhoga, effortlessly, spontaneously, like 
music from instruments that are not being played, or 
jewels that shine without labor. So understand anabhoga- 
buddhakaryapratiprasrabdah Mvy 411, (a Tathagata is) 
never ceasing from spontaneous (Tib. lhun grub pa, self- 
created; not contrived by human labor, Jaschke) Buddha- 
activities, and the same cpd. prefixed to -cakram LV 423.3 
(see apratiprasrabdha) ; automatic Siks 7.15 ; °ga-vahanah 
Bbh 260.18, bringing automatically; mahakarunopayakau- 
salyanabhogagatena prayogena Lank 42.8, by praxis that 
effortlessly (spontaneously) arrives at great compassion and 
skill in devices; sometimes best rendered by impassive (not 
involving or subject to any effort.), anabhogapreksikaya 
with impassive look Siks 268.1 ; (see s.v. abhoga for Dbh 
64.16;) prob. impassive in Bbh 317.3, and 350.12 bodhi- 
sattvanam anabhogo nirnimitto viharah, which is con- 
trasted with (and higher than) their sabhoga ( effortful ) 
vihara (346.14); cf. Levi, Sutral. i.7n.7; (2) subst. m., 
non-effort, impassivity: anabhoge tatha siddhih Mmk 




116.24; svabhavanabhogabhyam ca vigacchanti Dbh 48.21, 
and they pass away by natural process and without effort 
(na caisam kascid vigamayita, and no one makes them pass 
away); as one of the samadhy-avaranani, Dharmas 118, 
see s.v. abhoga; (3) adverbs, without effort, effortlessly , 
anabhogatah Dbh 56.19; &iks 12.1; anabhogena parinispa- 
dyante, are automatically perfected, Dbh 58.9; (4) m., n. 
of a yaksa: May 52. 

a-namana-ta (see namana), not changing, not dis- 
turbing or transgressing : (purnacandrasamacittena) kala- 
kalanamanataya Gv 464.1, because of not infringing right 
and wrong times. 

an-amantranaka, see amantranaka. 

? anayaka, f. -ika, acc. to Burnouf without any 
protector (Buddha): SP 162.1; but see s.v. anayaka. 

an-ayatana (nt. ; neg. of ayatana (3) q.v., in sense 
of Skt. patra; = Pali id.), an unworthy object : ma tvam 
anayatane (sc. heretics) prasadain utpadaya, api tu 
buddhadharmasamghe . . . Divy 419.22. 

Anayasa, n. of a yaksa: May 66. 
anayika: SP 162.1, m.c. for anayika, see anayaka. 
an-ayuha, adj. (Pali id.; see also anavyuha), effort- 
less; free from exertion or striving; usually cpd. with a- 
niryuha, without abandonment , riddance, giving up; the 
two terms together seem clearly to be opposites, and to 
mean about the same as a-pravrtti, a-nivrtti, without 
activity or abstention from it (so Suzuki, ‘neither taking 
birth nor . . . going out’, on Lank 115.11-12; 196.3). 
However, Tib. (e. g. on LV 423.4 and on Lank) renders 
an-ayuha by blah ba med pa, or the like, and aniryuha 
by dor ba med pa, which seem most naturally to mean 
without (intellectual) acceptance or rejection respectively; 
La Vallee Poussin, note on MadhK 517.20, see avyuhati, 
gives his Tib. versions as mi len and mi hdor (which are 
equivalent to the above), and equates a(v)yuha and 
nir(v)yuha with Skt. samaropa and apavada. I find no 
support in BHS texts for this interpretation; whether the 
Tib. terms must necessarily be so understood I do not 
venture to say. Without aniryuha the word occurs Gv 
17.13 anayuha-sarvajnata-bhumi-gagana-viryah (of Bo- 
dhisattvas); anayuhan 25.19 (id.), effortless, unstriving (in 
complimentary sense, like anabhoga; substantially un- 
participating, impassive ); anayuhaviyuho (read with 2d ed. 
°viyuha-, cpd. with next, if not niryuha-)-gatir bodhi- 
sattvanam kayacittasampravanataya (see asampravana) 
525.11, the course of B.’s is free from effort and striving, 
because they are not interested in (their own) bodies or 
minds; anayuhaniryuha- LV 423.4 (-cakram); °ham ani- 
ryuham (dharmacakram) LV 436.13; apratisthanayuhani- 
ryuha(h) LV 424.7-8 (tathagatah); anayuhaniryuhah 
(sarvadharmah) Lank 115.11-12; °haniryuha-ta (sc. sarva- 
dharmanam) SsP 283.3 (text by error °niyuhata). 

anarabdha (cf. Pali an-arambha, free from damage 
or trouble, CPD, and cf. BHS and Pali arambha, slaughter, 
Pali arabhati, slaughters (an animal); but our word has a 
less drastic mg.): uninjured, said of the womb of the 
Bodhisattva’ s mother after his birth (rendered so by his 
magic power), sampratijate . . . bodhisattve bodhisattva- 
matuh kuksi pratipurna yeva abhusi anarabdha (v.l. 
°labdha) ca bodhisattvasyaiva tejena Mv i.221.4-5. 

anarja (== Skt. anarya; perhaps semi-Skt. based on 
MIndic anajja [AMg., beside anariya]; possibly influenced 
by confusion with arjava?), (adj., ignoble, base, evil;) 
subst., wickedness : sarve anarjam parivarjayamah Mv 
ii.79.3 (text °jeyamah, formally possible, § 29.33, but 
metrically bad, unless e be short, § 3.65); the corresponding 
Pali has anariyam (Jat. iv.53.8 °yam parivajjemu sabbam). 
Anarthika, n. of a raksasl: May 241.31. 

Anala, see Anal a. 

analabdha?, uninjured, see anarabdha. 
Analambha, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i. 138. 10. 

an-alaya, adj., without alaya (in two senses): (1) 
without base, foundation, firm footing; of states of being 
(dharma), analaya dharma (a)kasasvabhavalaksanah LV 
177.20 (like ether); °yah sarvadharmah Mvy 161, Tib. 
gzhi med pa, without gzhi, usually more fully kun gzhi 
= basis, ground, foundation, (also) abode, home; dharmi 
analaye Gv 256.21; so even dharma in the other sense, the 
profound (gambhira) dh. realized and preached by the 
Buddha, is analaya, which we might take in sense (2) as 
without attachment, but acc. to Tib. on LV 392.12 analayah 
= kun gzhi med pa, and likewise the (dharma-) cakra 
LV 422.19 analaya-cakram (Tib. same). But (2) without 
attachment must surely be the mg. in nisprapancan ana- 
layan Gv 25.19 (of Bodhisattvas). 

Analayamandala, n. of a (mythical) dharmaparyaya: 
Gv 451.25; 452.5, see s.v. adhisthana (6). 

Analayav(i)yuha, n. of a kalpa: Gv 259.13 (vs), 
[analasa, in SP 200.5 aklanto dharmadesanaya, ana- 
lasasya dharmasyakhyata, corrupt: read with WT alam 
asya dharm 0 ; so Tib., nus pa, capable .] 
an-alldha, see alldha. 

analokiya, ? ep. of Buddhas: tato analokiya loka- 
bandhava Mv i. 162. 16; Senart's note may be consulted 
but I find it hardly helpful. 

Anavatapta, m.c. for Anava° (2), q.v.: LV 219.9. 
anavarana, (1) nt., non-obstruction (neg. of avarana, 
q.v.): °na-gatimgata Mvy 356, of Tathagatas, having 
attained freedom from the obstructions; akasadhatur bija- 
syanavarana-krtyam karoti ^al 74.16; (2) (much com- 
moner; = Pali id.) adj., free from the obstructions, of jhana 
(cf. jneyavarana, s.v. avarana) KP 22.1; Gv 473.25; LV 
8.4 (read with v.l. -asanganavaranajnana-, confirmed by 
Tib.); 424.18; Bbh 88.7; Mvy 832 (-jnani); vimoksa LV 
435.6; (buddha-vimoksa) RP 4.15; darsana LV 433.18; 
prajnacaksus Dbh 28.10; pratibhana Bhad 6 2 ; pratisamvid 
LV 426.5; (dharma-)cakra LV 423.2; nirvana Dbh 29.9; 
a road (marga; here literal), -anavarana-ta Gv 186.7; 
(3) substantivized as n. of a samadhi: anavaranam nama 
mahakarunasamadhim ^iks 236.8. 

Anavaranajnanavi6uddhigarbha, n. of a Bodhisat- 
tva: Dbh 2.11. 

AnSvaranadar^in, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.2. 
Anavaranadharmagaganaprabha, n. of a Tatha- 
gata: Gv 311.25. 

Anavaranamati, n. of a Bodhisattva: SsP 6.15. 
bha, n. of a Bodhisattva: Dbh 2.18. 

anavartika- dharma (= Pali anavatti-dhamma), 
characterized by no more returning (to rebirth): °ma, acc. 
pi., asmim loke Mv i.33.7, of suddhavasakayika gods. Cf. 
anavrttika- dharmin. 

Anaviddhavarna, em. for Anivi°, q.v. 
ana vila- samkalpa (= Pali °samkappa, DN iii.270.14, 
of bhikkhus), of not impure resolve : Mvy 434, of Tathagatas. 

anavrta (1) (= Pali anavata) = anavarana (adj.), 
free from the obstructions: Gv 473.11; darsayami ti (= te) 
anavrtam disam 480.22; (2) neg. of BHS avrta, q.v., and 
= Pali an-ovata (q.v. in CPD), not forbidden : Bhik 5b.l. 

anavrttika- dharmin, adj., fern. °ini, having a nature 
characterized by no return (into the round of existences): 
Divy 533.26 (followed by dependent accusative imam 
lokam, into this world). Cf. anavartika- dharma and next. 

anavrttidharman = prec. : °manah (ms. °manah; 
n. pi.) MPS 9.14. 

anavyuha = anayuha, q.v., in sarvadharmana- 
vyuhanirvyuha-samataya Dbh 47.13 (= the usual 


ana^carya, nt. (cf. Pali anacchariya; not cited for 
Skt. except in MW, without ref., not wonderful), a natural, 
spontaneous quality : Bbh 285.2, 12 etc. (a Bodhisattva 
has five such, listed here in detail). 




anSsrava, see asrava. 

anaSvasa (?) — anasvasika, unreliable : asaram 
itvaram ca lokam anasvasam (so I would read for Finot 
anasvasan; ms. anasvasan) apriyasamavadhanam etc. RP 
39.12 (prose). 

anasvasika, adj. (= Pali anassasika), unreliable: 
(anitya . . . sarvasamskara) adhruva ana° Divy 207.23; 
anityesu . . . dharmesv adhruvesv anasvasikesv (by em.) 
Siks 150.9; °ka-ta, unreliability , Dbh 31.3 (anityatam ca 
sarvasamskaragatasya . . .) asubhatam canasvasikatam ca. 

anasrava, see asrava. 

anaharana (an- plus n. act. to aharati with ana; 
cf. Skt., Pali anahara), the not taking food , fasting : te 
’naharanam (text nah°) pratipannah MSV i.58.5. 

Aniketa, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 442.3. 

Aniketacarin, m., n. of a samadhi: Mvy 577; &sP 

Aniketasthita, m., n. of a samadhi: Mvy 538; SsP 

aniksipta- dhura, (1) adj. ( = Pali anikkhittadhura), 
not laying down the burden , persevering : Bbh 203.21; Gv 
514.18; °ra-ta, state of being persevering , AsP 287.15 etc.; 
(2) n. of a Bodhisattva: Mvy 719; SP 3.5; Kv 1.11 (text 
° dhura) ; Sukh 92.12. 

aniksipta- bhar a = °ta-dhura (1), adj., q.v. : Mv 

anigha, adj. ( = Pali id., also anigha), free from evil 
(? see nigha, nigha); occurs chiefly (in Pali literature, 
aside from commentarial etymologies, only) in the neg. 
form; ep. of Buddha, or at least of perfected saints. In 
Pali often rendered calm , unperturbed , but it seems that 
free from evil (whether sin, papa, or misery, duhkha) will 
suffice in all Pali and BHS occurrences. Regularly in lists 
of formulaic epithets which give little clue to a more 
precise mg.: LY 358.5; Mv ii.397.16; iii.400.2 (same vs 
in Pali Sn 534 with anigha); 418.14; Ud xxix.34; Gv 

an-icchantika-ta(-moksa), (salvation that consists 
in) the state of not being icchantika (q.v.): Lank 65.17. 

aninja = aninjya, q.v.: sthito ’nirija-praptena (but 
Kashgar rec. ’ninjya 0 ) ca cittena SP 5.10; in §sP this is 
the spelling regularly found in ed., e.g. aninjo nama 
samadhih 1418.22. 

aniiijana, adj. (see injana; Pali id. only as noun, 
immobility, GPD), immovable: LV 250.16, of the 4th 
dhyana (see under aninjya): °na-citta (n. sg. f.) Gv 279.9; 
°na-ta, immobility, AsP 206.2 °tam upadaya (referring to 

an-injita, adj. (= Pali id.), without vacillation (see 
injita): °ta manyana-varjitas ca (of dharmas) SP 282.1. 

aninjya: variants aninja, an°, aninjya, anijya, 
anenj(y)a, an°, qq.v. The nasalless anijya occurs without 
v.l. only once and may be an accidental corruption 
(anusvara omitted); but see §2.73. The omission of y 
after j is called ‘une orthographe pracritisante’ by Senart, 
Mv i.399; at any rate it occurs frequently in the mss. 
In Pali the same word is written anejja, ananja, anenja, 
and with short initial a- (stigmatized as wrong reading in 
GPD); forms with i in the penult are very rare in Pali, 
but GPD records aninja-ppatta once; this surely cannot 
be separated from the common anenja- (anejja-, ananja-)- 
ppatta. BHS has no ananj- or anejj-, which are not in- 
frequent in Pali. The wild variety of spellings in Pali 
itself shows that it early became an obscure word in the 
tradition. BHS occurrences of the spelling aninjya include 
SP 161.10; Mvy 554, Siks 237.4 (and 223.3, 4 in the ms.); 
perhaps Mv i.133.13 (Senart aninjya, em., mss. mostly 
anica [ not lowl], one animca, perhaps intending aninj[y]a); 
either an- or an- (uncertain because of samdhi) Mv i.228.11, 
15; 229.6; ii.132.15 (here v.l. °nijya-). For examples of 
the other spellings see s.vv. There seems to be no difference 

in mg. between the various spellings; any of them may 
be an adj., immobile , immovable, or a nt. n., immovability. 
As adj., animjehi viharehi Mv i.34.11; ii.419.11, in im- 
movable conditions', ep. of citta Mv i.133.13 (see above 
on form); o.ftener °ninjyaprapta, of citta, LV 344.6; Mv 
i.228.11, 15; 229.6; ii.132.15; aninja-prapta, of citta, SP 
5.10; aninjya-bhuta, of citta, SP 161.10; anijyam santim 
Av ii.199.5; aninjyo (SsP aninjo) nama samadhih Mvy 
554; SsP 1418.22; virajasko (a)nenjyas ca Mmk 476.14; 
clearly noun, aninjyam Mvy 6387 = Tib. mi gyo ba, 
not moving', doubtless noun also in cpds. with -prapta 
(Pali -ppatta) and -bhuta, above; apparently primarily 
adj. as third of a triad, the first two members of which 
are punya and apunya, or kusala and akusala; all three 
are applied to deeds (karman), or the performance or 
accumulation thereof (abhisamskara, q.v.), or the under- 
lying conditions (samskara; cf. Sal 81.5, abhisamskarar- 
thena samskarah), or finally the states jof existence (dharmah) 
to which such various acts lead as fruit. The first two, 
meritorious and demeritorious, relate to good and bad 
deeds as leading to rebirth in the kamavacara and (only 
good deeds) in the rupavacara states, or to these resulting 
states; the word aninj(y)a, anenj(y)a, or a°, refers to 
deeds leading to rebirth in the arupavacara states, or 
to those states themselves (the dhyana states), cf. Bbh 
90.16 aninjya-caturtha-dhyana-viharah; on the subject 
in Pali see Warren, B. in Tr. 179 f. (from Vism.), and in 
general La Vallee-Poussin, note on MadhK 334.8; a good 
Pali passage is DN iii.217.25 tayo samkhara, punnabhisam- 
kharo, apunna 0 , ananja 0 (see Comm, iii.998.29). In BHS, 
Sal 82.3-4 (cited Siks 222.11-223.1) evam avidyayam 
satyam trividhah samskara abhinivartante, punyopaga 
apunyo 0 aneiijyo 0 (Siks aninjyo 0 ); Dbh 48.7 punya- 
punyanenjyan abhisamskaran; karmani kusalakusalaneh- 
jani MadhK 334.7-8 (cf. 543.1 with note); (dharmah) 
kusala va "kusala va aninjya va Siks 237.1. 

anidharya, nt., Mvy 5206, a variant for avi varya, 
q.v. No Tib. or Chin, given; om. Mironov; Jap. not to be 
repressed. Doubtless a corruption. 

Anindita, n. of a pond: Gv 336.21, 25. 
anibaddha-vacana (see pw s.v. anibaddha), dis- 
connected (idle, frivolous) talk, as a sin: Mv i. 145.9 *= 
202.6 — ii.6.3 viramami . . . °nac ca. 

(animitta, adj., = Skt.; for technical Buddhist use 
see sunyata, apranihita, and animitta.) 

Animisa, m., n. of a samadhi, acc. to Mvy 537 
(same in Mironov); but Tib. tshol ba med pa, not seeking, 
shows that this is an error for Anesa, q.v., which is cor- 
rectly read in the SsP version of this very list (taken 
from the ^ Prajnaparamita , acc. to Mvy 505). 

animisa- ta (= Pali °sa-ta), condition of not winking: 
indrasyanimisatena (instr. 1) Divy 222.22 (prose). 
Animisa, n. of a lokadhatu: Lank 105.9. 
aniyata, m., (1) with or sc. dharma (= Pali id., 
with dhamma), one of the two sorts of possible trans- 
gressions of monks which are undetermined as to type of 
offense and consequent punishment, i. e. of which the 
punishment depends on circumstances (Pali Yin. iii.187- 
194; SBE 13.16 f.): dvav aniyatau (sc. dharmau) Mvy 
8382; dharmau Prat 488.7; (2) aniyata-gotra, or aniyatai- 
katara-g°, see s.v. gotra (1). See also s.v. rasi. 

Aniyavanta, n. of a brother of Malini and son of 
Krkin: °vanto nama kumaro Mv i.313.1 (prose). 

[aniyuha, error for anirytiha; see s.v. anayuha, 
SsP 283.3.] 

Aniruddha (rarely Anu°, q.v.; Pali only Anu°), 
one of Buddha’s chief disciples, mentioned frequently 
with his brothers Mahanama(n) and Bhadrika (Bhat- 
tika), as e.g. LY 229.13; Mvy 3608. Other occurrences: 
Mvy 1038; SP 2.3; 207.4 (v.l. Anu°); LV 1.15; Mv i.66.4; 
75.1; Divy 182.21; 361.18; Jm 115.23; Av ii.67.9ff.; 




112.4; 134 1.12;99.3; Mmk 589.10; 595.23; Sukh 2.8; 
92.8; Karmav 66.19; 76.17; 102.14; 154.16. 

anirmuktaka (m. or nt.), one of a list of plant 
names (in a cpd.): Kv 8.5. Might be supposed to be a 
corruption for atimuktaka, but for the following, which 
seems a kind of confirmation. 

anirmukta (cf. prec.), n. of an herb (osadhi) : °ta . . . 
taya grhltaya sarvaparopakramabhayani na bhavanti Gv 

aniryana (cf. Pali aniyyana, °nika), not arriving at , 
neg. of niryana, q.v. (2): -anyayananiryana- Mvy 785 = 
Tib. (theg pa gzhan gyis) mi hgyur ba(r). 

aniryuha, without abandonment, riddance , withdrawal, 
giving up; only in comp, with its opposite anayuha, q.v. 
for references. See also anirvyuha and niryuha. 

a-nirvaha, (1) m., no ‘ exporting ’, giving (of a girl) 
in marriage outside the clan: MSV ii.7.4 (kanyaya) °hah; 
(2) Bhvr., not subject to this: ib. ii.17.7 kanya anirvaha. 

anirvrttamula, or °la, a kind of medicament 
(mahabhaisajyajati) which is said to stimulate the growth 
of trees: Gv 497.16 (°la nama mahabhaisajyajatir), 18 
(°la-mahabhaisajya-). Cf. anivrttamula. 

anirvyuha = aniryuha: Dbh 47.13; see under 
anavyuha, and cf. nirvyuhati. 

Anilanama (!), n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.3 (cor- 
rupt? read Anila-gamana?). 

[anilapaka, see nirlapaka.] 

a-nilambha (as if from an unrecorded ni-lambh), 

(1) adj., independent (Tib. on Mvy 619 brten pa med pa); 
as such, except in the next following cpds., only noted 
in Gv; sarvabhavanilambha-jnana-gocarah Gv 17.13; 
jnane . . . anilambhe niralaye 30.20; others 37.11, etc.; 

(2) as subst., n. of a samadhi, °bha-samadhi-pratilabdho 
SP 424.3, for which Tib. strangely: rlun {wind, air) lha 
buhi (= devaputrasya), (samadhi) of the wind-devaputra, 
or devaputra-wind , as if cpd. of anila! (with what?); 

(3) n. of a kalpa: Gv 446.25. Cf. the following cpds. 
Anilambhacaksurvairocana, n. of a Tathagata: 

Gv 81.10. 

Anilambhacaksus, n. of a Tathagata: Gv 11.23 (as 
line numbers are printed; actually 24; 2d ed. line 22). 

Anilambhaniketanirata, m., n. of a samadhi: Mvy 
619; SsP 1425.22. 

Anilambhamati, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.1. 
Anilambhasunirmita, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 81.11. 
Anilayajfiana, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.4. 
Anilavega6(i)rl, n. of a Buddha: Gv 285.11 (vs). 
AnilaSrI, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 442.10. 
anivarta, adj. (see s.v. anivartiya), not liable to 
turning back : Mv i.85.8 anivartadhyasayas, of Bodhisattvas 
in 2d bhumi; resumed 87.10, 12 by anivart(i)ya- ; °taya 
Sraddhaya Gv 367.2; samadhim anivartam LV 374.8 (vs; 
acc. to Foucaux, Notes 194, Tib., in a passage omitted 
in his ed. of Tib., gives equivalent of animittam, which 
he would adopt). 

anivartana-carya, the course or stage (of a Bodhi- 
sattva’s development in which he is) incapable of back- 
sliding, see carya: Mv i.1.3; 2.1. See also avivarta-, 
and s.v. anivart(i)ya. 

anivartika ( = Pali anivattika; also = anivartiya, 
q.v. for other equivalents), not liable to turning back : Mv 
i.174.9 (vs) cakram (i. e. dharma-c°) pravartesi anivartike 
(so mss., one °ko; Senart em. °kam; perhaps keep the 
loc., on the (way) that has no turning backl). Cf. next. 

Anivartikabala, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i. 138. 13. 
Cf. prec. 

Anivartin, n, of a son of Mara (unfavorable to the 
Bodhisattva): LY 312.3. In Mv i.87.12 mss. anivartiyas 
or anavartayas (adhyasayas), n. pi., which may indicate 
a stem anivarti(n) = Pali anivatti(n); Senart em. anivarti- 
yas, n. pi. of anivartiya, q.v. 

anivartiya, anivartya (== Pali anivattiya; in BHS 
the form in -tiya may be only m.c, for °tya, which mss. 
give in a prose occurrence; see also anivarta, °tin, °tika, 
and s.vv. avivart(i)ya, avinivartya, avaivartika, all 
equivalent in mg.), not liable to turning back: anivartya- 
dhyasaya Mv i.87.10 (prose; all mss.; Senart em. °tiya°), 
of Bodhisattvas in 2d bhumi; resumes anivartadhyasayas 
(see anivarta) of 85.8, and cf. 87.12, next passage; 
anivartiyas Mv i.87.12 (vs; Senart’s em. for °tiyas, °tayas; 
see siv. anivartin; n. pi., with adhyasayah); anivartiya(h) 
Mv i.102.6; 105.16 (both vss), of Bodhisattvas in 8th and 
succeeding bhumis ; Dbh.g. 10(346). 17, of Bodhisattvas in 3d 
bhurhi; in prose Dbh 30.29 avinivarta-, q.v.; in Gv 331.3 
read -yacanakasamtarpananivartya-viryavegah or with 2d 
ed. °tarpanavivartya° (1st ed. °panani vartya 0 , °vega). 

Anividdhavarna (so some mss.; Senart em. Anavid- 
dha°), n. of a former Buddha: Mv i. 140.5. Most mss. read 
-ni-, none -na-. 

anivrttamula, n. of a medicament: °la-maha- 

bhaisajya-raja-bhutam Gv 494.26. Cf. anirvrttamula. 

[aniscara, unswerving, steady : so ’niscarena hrdayena 
suniscitena ksipram prayatu Divy 130.1. But Mr. D. R. S. 
Bailey kindly informs me that Tib. reads hjigs med — 

anisrita (= Pali anissita), unattached, free, independent, 
emancipated (esp. from worldly things): Mvy 2352 — Tib. 
mi gnas pa, without fixed abode , or, mi brten pa, without 
dependence, independent. (Regularly misunderstood by 
older interpreters; correctly Senart Mv i note 456 detache; 
sans attache aux choses terrestres.) SP 92.7; 276.7, 10; 
279.10; Mv i.167.11 (of Buddha); LY 250.17 (of dhyana); 
RP 16.3 (of Bodhisattvas); Dbh 24.14 (cited Siks 126.11) 
of the speech of Bodhisattvas (so also of speech in Pali, 
unworldly CPD: SN ii.280.8 == AN ii.51.17 anissitaya, 
AN comm, iii.90.10 vattam anissitaya, independent of the 
world); Bbh 303.15 anisrita-danata ; Gv 472.8 sarvopapatty- 
anisrita-viharinas ca; Gv 473.10; in Mv i.165.20, a corrupt 
and difficult passage, read anisrita(h) with mss. 

anistha-pada, apparently intended at Lank 180.17 
(text anadhisthapada) and 227.4 (text astapada); Tib. 
thug pa med pahi gnas. Suzuki transl. inexhaustible vows; 
rather, unlimited terms; S. uses the same transl. . for 
nistha-pada, q.v. It seems, indeed, that these two 
formally opposite expressions, unlimited term and funda- 
mental term, are virtual synonyms. Cf. Dbh 17.9, where 
each of the 10 nistha is specifically said to be anistha 
(the trick seems to lie in different uses of nistha: the 
fundament, basis is said to be without end or limit, end 
being also a mg. of nistha). 

a-nihsarana, adj. and subst. (cf. Pali a-nissarana; 
see nihs°), not being (or as Bhvr. not having; sc. a means 
of) salvation : sarve te bhava anihsarana (so mss., Senart 
& for s). ti vademi Mv ii.418.8; anihsarana-nihsarana- 
samjnino Dbh 28.17 imagining what is not (a means of) 
salvation to be one; similarly, anihSarane nihsaranabuddhih 
Lank 145.6; °na-ta, state or fact of not being or having 
(a means of) salvation, LV 244.5. 

anihsrta (= Pali anissata; cf. a-nihsarana), not 
freed (religiously, from the bonds of existence): Mv iii.345.6 
°ta asara ca (skandhah). 

Anihata, n. of a Buddha: Mv i. 123. 17. 

Anihatatejas (text Nihata 0 , after -o), n. of a Bo- 
dhisattva: Gv 443.6. 

Anihatamalla, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 442.6. 
Anihatavarna ( ? mss. mostly Anihita 0 ), n. of a 
former Buddha: Mv i.141.5. 

Anihitamati (read Anihata 0 ? but cf. prec.), n. of a 
Bodhisattva: Gv 443.1. 

Anihlnartha, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.2. 
an-Itika (= Pali id.; from Iti), free from evils (cf. 
Skt. nirltika): °kam, acc. sg. f., Gv 418.16. 




an-Irsu (cf. next; Skt. Irsu, considered by BR error 
for irsyu), not jealous : Mv ii.368.2. 

an-Irsuka (= prec. ; cf. Pali anissuki-n, id.), not 
jealous: Mv ii.363.7; SP 284.11; 285.6; LV 26.19 (prose); 


1 anu, indecl. in noun and verb cpds.; (a) in distrib- 
utive (? or intensive) noun cpds., as in Pali, CPD s.v. 
anu (g); also in JM, e.g. gamanugamam Jacobi Erz. 13.2; 
rare in Skt., 'typical in Buddh.’, Renou, Gr. scte. p. 94: 
divasanudivasam, adv., day after day , Av i.208.10; 261.14'; 
see kalanukalam, ksudranuksudra, ksudrakanuksu- 
draka, anucara, anudharma; but the usage is not al- 
ways clear and the last-named, at least, prob. does not 
belong here; (b) in verb cpds. used in many cases which 
have no parallels in Skt., nor (often) even in Pali or Pkt. ; 
usually before other preverbs. See the following entries 
in this work. Very often it is hard to see any definite 
meaning which anu adds; Tib. in its wooden way renders 
by rjes su, after , which as Jaschke says ‘is often not to 
be translated’. 

2 anu = Skt. anu, subtle ; subst. atom. So often spelled 
in Pali; acc. to CPD false reading. Cf. LV 261.18 anuma- 
tram, all mss., only Calc. anu°, = Pali Sn 431 anumattena 
(v.l. anu°), adv., even the least bit. 

[anukampa, read °pya, to be pitied : Lank 6.14 
anukampo (read °pyo) ’si . . . sugatanam, you have the 
compassion of the Sugatas (Suzuki).] 

anukuttaka, abusing , reviling : °kah SP 272.12 (v.l. 
parikutt 0 , q.v.). 

anukula- yajfta, adj. Bhvr. (Pali °yanna), present- 
ing an appropriate or agreeable offering (to monks): MSV 
iv.139.3. Pali also anukula 0 , acc. to CPD the correct form; 
but Tib. mthun ba — anukula. 

anukule, adv. (= Pali id.; Skt. and Pali anukQlam), 
plus gen., on the bank : yasya (nadya) anukule Karmav 


anuksamati, endures , puts up with : °masva Jm 
165.12; caus. °ksamapayati, asks forgiveness : °payisyam, 
1 sg. fut., Mv ii. 213.16; °petva iii.44.6-; °pito ppp. ; 
°pita id. f. iii.27.13. 

(anukhanati,) anukhaneti (Pali anukhane, opt.), 
digs near or the like: nyagrodhapotam . . . anukhaneti 
Mv* iii.301.16. 

w mgantl? Divy 507.15 Panthakasyanuganti mokta- 
vya; Index message , suggesting reading anugantri. 

anugavesate (AMg. anugavesai), searches for (acc.): 
°samanah (bhiksum) Gv 59.8. 

anuglta-, adj., ppp. (Skt. and Pali id., not recorded 
in this sense), sung in conformity with (a preceding passage): 
anugita-gatha Mv i.42.5 (repeating an episode just told 
in prose). 

anugunin, adj. (— Skt. and Pali °na), appropriate, 
conformable : f. °nini, Divy 592.1. 

anugunya, nt. (cf. Skt. anu°), conformability, com- 
patibility : Mvy 2673 = Tib. rjes su mthun pa. 

Anugravarnaksemagupta, n. of a former Buddha: 
Mv i.140.10 (prose; to be read as two namqs?). 

Anugrahacandra, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.5. 
Anugrahamati, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.5. 
anucankramyati, °te, more commonly °kramati, 
°te (= Pali anucankamati; cf. carikramati), wanders 
along : °myamana, pres, pple., LV 128.18; 248.7; °mati, 
Suv 184.3; 186.4 (here best ms. °myati); °mami SP 55.1; 
°manti SP 84.8; pres, pple., n. m. °manto SP 61.10; Mv 
i. 353.1 2; ii.45.5; 457.15; f. °manti Mv ii.452.3; 454.10; 
acc. °mantam Mv iii.117.6; n.m. °man Suv 185.2; n. pi. 
°mana(h) Sukh 58.11; aor. 3 pi. °mefsuh Mv iii.283.1, 6; 
ger. °mitva Mv ii.455.16; 456.21. 

anucalati, follows, cleaves to, ppp. °lita: satkayadrstir 
asyanucalita bhavati KP 134.8, is attached, cleaves to him. 
anucara? only in caranucara-prayoga-nimittani, Dbh 

45.28, in a list of signs and omens, perhaps omens derived 
from various manners of walking (cara), see 1 anu, di- 
stributive cpd.? 

anucalin, adj. (cf. anucalati and Pali anucarin), 
following after : °libhir Lank 11.3. 

anucira, adj., continuously or successively long (time): 
read with mss. in Mv i.126.7 nanu anucirena kalena 
sarvasattvan parinirvapayisyanti, (if as you say many 
Buddhas all bring countless creatures to nirvana,) in the 
course of continued time they will bring all creatures to it. 
Senart em. acirena, in a short time ; but the text means 
rather in a sufficiently long time. 

anuclrna, ppp. (= Pali anucinna, act. and pass.), 
following, having followed or practised; (pass.) followed, 
practised : Mv ii. 401.1 (act., sakyottamam) : 403.9 (pass., 
caritam, mss., Senart em. cariyam . . . anucirnam, v.l. 

an-uccalana- (nt. ; Skt. uccalana, see Schmidt, 
Nachtr., not in this sense), non-departure: Gv 242.12 
anuccalanagamana-vikramam kalyanamitropasamkrama- 
nam adhyatisthat; 525.11 sarvatathagata-pada-mulanuc- 

an-uccavaca, adj. (= Pali id.), not various; unvarying , 
unchanging, eauable: Mv i.176.6 °ca-dar£ana(h), of Bud- 

anujava (m.? cf. anujavati, °vana), (swift) pursuit; 
swift motion , swiftness, speed: Siks 28.4 °va-sampannan, 
of horses; Gv 222.22-23 cittaksana-dharmadhatu- 
spharananujavanam (bodhisattvanam), possessing swiftness 
in penetrating the dharma- element in a moment of thought. 

anujavati (— Pali id.; Chap. 43, s.v. ju), runs after , 
pursues (cf. anujava, °vana): mrgam °vati Mv ii. 212.1 7; 
°vanto n. sg. m. pres, pple., ii.217.6; °vitva i.321.6; °vitum, 
inf., Gv 400.7 (prose). 

anujavana, (nt.? cf. anujava, anujavati), pursuit, 
chasing after, in 6valostv-anujavana-sadr£a, like a dog’s 
chasing a clod (thrown at him, instead of the thrower), 
KP 105.2 (text °lostvanu°, by error), 3 (here text °lostanu°, 
which could be kept, with Skt. losta for lostu); 106.8; 
107.1, 5; the simile is clearly explained in KP 105; also 
(sarvadiksamudra)-prasaranujavanena Gv 242.19. 

an-ujjuka, adj. (= Pali id.; cf. ujju, ujjuka), crooked , 
perverted: read anujjuko in Mvii.481.1 (mss. antarjjuko) = 
iii.16.9 (mss. anujjako, anurjjako); proved by Pali form 
of the same vs, Jat. v.293.22, which reads anujjubhutena 
(comm, anujjukena cittena). 

-anujfia, in lokanujna Mv i.78.17, one of the 8 
samudacara (q.v., 1) of Bodhisattvas in the 1st bhumi. 
Senart p. xxvii V adieu au monde. But if I am right in 
relating this list to the 10 bhumiparisodhaka dharmah of 
Dbh p. 19 (sec. UU), see esp. lines 20-23, it must correspond 
to lokajnata, see Dbh 19.12-15,* knowledge of (the varying 
traits of) people. The Mv may even contain a corruption 
of lokajnata; equally bad corruptions occur often in its mss. 

anujfiatavin (§ 22.51), having understood: durvijneya- 
dharmanujnatavinah SP 29.6. 

anutata (in Skt. °tam, adv., and °ta- in comp., 
along the bank), pi., parts along the slope (of a mountain): 
girivarasya (himavatali) anutatehi gata Mv ii. 107.9 (Se- 
nart’s reading; conjectural but fairly plausible). 

anutapyana, nt. (= Pali anutappana), or °na, f., 
regretting, repenting, in Bhvr. cpd. an-anutapyanakaram 
Siks 191.2. 

anutapyanlya, adj. or nt. subst., (a matter that is) 
to be regretted or lamented , (a) lamentable (thing); could 
be considered gdve. of anutapyate; cf. also anutapyana: 
tato °yam bhavet Mv iii.74.4. 

anutarsa (Skt. Lex.), desire, longing: pradananutarsa- 
Jm 39.18. 

anutapya, gdve., to be repented: an-anutapya-dayi 
Bbh 274.20, giving (things) which he is not going to repent. 

an- u tkarsana- ta 



an-utkarsana-ta, see utkarsana. 
anuttara, adj. ( = Pali id.; cf. sottara; Skt. in this 
sense only Lex., replaced by anuttama, which has had 
its ending assimilated to superlatives owing to the mg. : 
of the word), having no superior , highest , supreme : AsP 
266.13, of cittani; Gv 244.7 °ram tathagatavarnavisud- 
dhim; LV 24.13 °ra-parivaram (kulam); 85.2 anuttaro 
bhavisyami sarvasattvanam; Divy 144.5 anutt are-in anus- 
yadharme (see s.v. uttari-, end); esp. epithet of samyak- 
sambodhi, SP 100.3; AsP 293.10; Vaj 24.2; LV 183.17; 
Lank 148.3 etc., etc., extremely common (see under 
abhisambudhyate) ; m. as epithet of a Buddha, Mvy 9; 
as n. of a samadhi, Kv 52.3; f. with ellipsis of samyak- 
sambodhi (see above), SP 216.8 (prose) °ram samyak- 
sambuddhah samano, being enlightened unto supreme 
(enlightenment); normally the noun samyaksambodhim 
follows anuttaram in this common phrase; has it dropped 
out by haplography? (WT same text). 

Anuttararaja, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.7. 
Anuttarasri, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.8. 
[anuttarayo, LV 219.22 (vs), both edd. without v.l., 
but can only be corruption for anantarayo, without obstacle ; 
so Foucaux, with Tib. (bar chad with negative).] 
an-uttarika, opposite of uttarika, q.v. 
anuttarya, nt. (= Pali °riya; also an°; CPD regards 
an° as w.r. for an°), excellence , supremacy ; they number 
six, Mvy 1573-79: darsana, sravana, labha, Siksa, paricarya, 
anusmrti (each cpd. with anut 0 ). A corresponding list 
in Pali, see PTSD s.v. anuttariya. A different one is 
nivasanuttarya, Mv iii.320.5, see s.v. nivasa; here anutt ° 
may have been intended. 

an-u(t)trasta, neg. ppp. (= Skt. °sta), not frightened : 
°stah LV 12.16* (both edd., no v.l.; §2.61). 

an-uttrasa, adj. (= Pali anutrasa; see uttrasa), 
without fear , not frightened: Siks 176.5. 

an-uttrasita, neg. ppp., not frightened : °sitasamtrasta 
Mv i.177.4. 

anutpattika- dharma- ksanti, intellectual receptivity 
(see ksanti) to the truth that slates of existence have no 
origination (utpatti); also anutpada- k§anti, q.v.: SP 
136.10 (read with v.l. °ttika- for °ttik!m dh° of both edd.); 
266.1; 327.4; 419.6; 437.1; LV 35.21 ; *440.21 ; Dbh 47.21; 
64.5; Siks 212.13-14; Bbh 348.18; Sukh 55.13; Lank 12.9; 
anutpattika-ksanti, omitting dharma, Gv 525.25; the cpd. 
is analyzed as anutpattikesu dharmesu ksanti(-pratilam- 
bho ’bhut) LV 36.9, °ttikesu dharmesu ksantir AsP 408.8. 
The expression was misunderstood by older interpreters, 
e.g. Burnouf and Kern on SP 136.10. 

anutpada (m., Skt., and Pali anuppada), non- 
origination: anutpade ksantih Lank 203.11, and cpd. 
anutpada- ksanti- LV 33.10, = prec., q.v.; anutpada- 
jnana, knowledge of the non-origination (of the states of 
being), the 10th of the ten jnana: Mvy. 1243; Dharmas 

anutsada, adj., substantially = anutsanna (neg. of 
Skt. utsanna, lofty ; Pali anussada not defined in this 
sense), not excessive , not over-full: Mv iii.343.4, of Buddha’s 
voice (immediately follows anutsanna); Bbh 252.16-17 
niskasayanutsadakasaya-kala-tam state of times that are 
free from impurities , or have moderate (not excessive) 

anutsanna, neg. ppp. (== Pali anussanna; cf. prec., 
utsadana 2, and Skt. utsanna, starker als normal , pw s.v. 
ud-sad), not excessive (in extent, number, or the like; cf. 
anutsada): Mv iii.343.4 °nas ca, of the Buddha’s voice, 
not excessively loud), not too full ; Mv ii.43.12, read an- 
utsanna-gatra (mss. quoted anusanta; Senart. em. an- 
usandhi), limbs not excessive (too many), one (29th in my 
list) of the anuvyanjana, q.v.; corresponding to Pali 
anussannasannasahbagattata (CPD), condition of having all 
his limbs not too many nor deficient. 

an-utsrjana-ta (see utsrjana), non-abandonment , not 
getting rid (of, gen.): Siks 183.9, dharmaehandasya. 

anudadhyamana (? v.l. anubadhv 0 ; irregular pres, 
pple. of pass, of *auu-dadhati = anudadhati, not recorded 
in this mg.), being presented (Tib. dus kyis bstabs pa [see 
Das], which seems to mean given in timely manner ): Bbh 
163.2. Very doubtful; § 37.37. 

anudarsa (? v.l. °sl, i. e., n. sg. of °sin), viewing , 
consideration , in kayanu°-smrtyupasthana (see this), and 
vedananu 0 , cittanu 0 , dharmanu 0 : Dharmas 44 (replacing 
the usual anupasyana, or °pasyi to °pasyin). 
an-udahara, see udahara. 

anudesana (nt., — Skt. anudesa, rare), instruction: 
Mink 133.2 (vs) dattadharmanudesanam. 

an-uddhata (= Pali id.; not violent or rough , or not 
agitated , or, as in Skt., not haughty ), calm, gentle, partic- 
ularly of speech, as also in Pali: Mv i. 166.3 anuddhatam 
. . . gira face.; Senart em. giram); Mv iii.280.17 acapala 
anuddhata ca, of speech (read so in same line Mv ii. 356. 1 1 ; 
Pali also associates acapala with this word); Bbh 239.1 
anuddhatacapala - kaya - van - manah - karmanta - pracarah. 
See anuddhrta. 

an-uddhrta ('— prec., q.v., for which this appears 
to be a hyper-Sktism), (1) adj. calm, gentle, or not proud , 
not haughty: Gv 484.26 (vs) bodhimarga (acc.) . . . tvam 
anuddhrto margase drdhamate atandritah; (2) nt., n. of 
a buddhaksetra: Mv i.124.9 (vs; mss. unmetr. anudbrtarn). 

anudraksi, 3 sg. aor., looked at: Mv ii.54.3. See 
Chap. 43, s.v. drs (3). 

anudruta(-lipi), v.l. anupadruta-, read perhaps an- 
uddruta-, or adruta-, not hurried (?), a kind of writing: 
LV 126.6. Tib. rins med, not hurried, not speedy. 

anudhanvana (nt., n. act. in -ana from anu-dhanvati, 
recorded only RV 2.5.3), pursuit, running after: Siks 33.4 

anudharma (= Pali anudhamma). Acc. to PTSD, 
Pali dhammanudhamma is used as a distributive or 
intensive cpd., see under 1 anu, the Law in all its parts; 
while Childers understands anudh° as lesser or inferior 
dhamma (against which see Levi on Sutral. xiii.l comm.). 
Acc. to CPD anudhamma means (right) method and is a 
'hypostasis of anu-dhammaip’ (adv., in accordance with 
dhamma). In BHS (as also in Pali, e.g. Dhp. 20) there is 
some evidence suggesting that dharmanudharma is equiv- 
alent to dharmasya anu 0 , perhaps the true method of the 
law or the like: Bbh 284.1 na pratipadyante dharmasyanu- 
dharmam, they do not attain (? practise) the anudh° of the 
dh°; 197.16 dharmasyanudharmam pratipadyamanasya 
(sc. Bodhisattvasya; not agreeing with dharmasya, which 
depends on anudh°); Gv 383.5 dharmasya canudharmarn 
pratipadye, and 1 attain (? practise) the anudh° of the dh°. 
Without dharma in the context, we find anudharma-carin 
Divy 617.16 (°rinl, f.), anudharma-praticarin Mvy 1123 
(°ri). So we should probably interpret all cpds. of dhar- 
manudharma-, which usually parallel the like cpds. in 
Pali: dharmanudharma-carin Dbh 32.21; °rma-pratipatti, 
attainment (? practice) of the anudh° of the dh° Mvy 1801 
(mss. erroneously omit dharma after anu; em. Kyoto 
ed.); Dbh 33.29; Bbh 204.7; KP 9.2; LV 32.16; °rma- 
pratipanna Bbh 84.4; LV 179.12; 377.14; Mvy 1124. 
In Mvy 9321 are mentioned sad anudharmah, after 9320 
sad dharmah; so also Bhlk 16b. 4 satsu dharmesu satsv 
anudharmesu Siksa; in neither place do I find any clue to 
what the six anudharma (or dharma) are. I have not noted 
any adv. anudharmam (parallel to Pali anudhammam). 
Anudharmamati, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.8. 
?anudharmya, adj. (cf. Pkt. anudhammiya; not in 
Pali), conformable to religion: Bbh 61.23, v.l. anudharmyaya 
(for text anudharmya, see anudharma) kathaya, instr. 

-anudhara, adj., f. -I, bearing, holding (in attendance ? 
anu): Divy 513.25 -vilepananudharl (f.). 

anudharayati 28 anuparigrhnlte 

anudharayati (cf. Pali °dhareti), upholds , maintains : 
Gv 484.11 buddhavamsam anudharayisyasi. 

-anudharin, adj., keeping , holding fast to: Gv 222.22 
sarvabuddhakathanudharinam (gen. pi.). 

anudhyapita, ppp. of cans, of Skt. anu-dhya, lit. 
caused to think on or long for — made interested in, con- 
cerned with, with loc. : Mv iii.l 19.(18 —)19 (na civare sayarie 
bhojane va) anudhyapita bhonti jina. 

anudhvamsana, nt. ( = Pali anuddham 0 ), false 
charge or accusation (see next two) : Mvy 9404 = Tib. 
(b)skur, abuse. 

anudhvamsayati, °seti (= Pali anuddhamseti; see 
prec. and next), falsely accuses (with, on the ground of, 
instr.): abliutenabrahmacaryamvadena (mss.) with a false 
charge of unchastity Mv i.36.13 °seti; 37.7 °sito, ppp.; 
parajikena dharinena °sayet Prat 481.7; (amulakena , . . 
dharmena) °sayet 519.8. 

anudhvamsayitar (cf. prec. two), (false) accuser: 
Prat 481.9 °ta, n. sg. 

anunaya, in. (= Pali id.; also Skt. in mg. propitiation, 
das Geneigtmachen; friendliness , affection, in favorable or 
at least neutral sense), love, attachment ; ingratiation, in 
BHS almost invariably in a bad sense (a rare exception 
is Divy 510.4, of innocent attachment, affection). Very 
often contrasted with pratigha, q.v. ; the pair may re- 
place raga and dvesa, as feelings to be avoided; so in 
dvandva cpd. anunaya-pratigha- (Pali also anunaya- 
patigha), LV 10.1; 33.7; 275.6-7; 374.3, (read) ihanunaya- 
pratighanam kalvahaivadaprahanaparyantah prapto maya, 
here I have got to the end — which consists of abandonment 
of quarrels and disputes — of attachment and repugnance; 
442.5; Divy 240.24; KP 101.1; Mmk 13.22; Dbh 29.6; 
also, less commonly, pratighanunaya (Pali also pati°) 
Sadh 115.15; Gv 245.24; without pratigha, anunaya (un- 
desirable) attachment or lust is contrasted with maitrl, 
(desirable) affection, (pure) love in Gv 472.3-4 ye te 
maitriviharinas ca na kvacid anunayaviharinah ; in Gv 
351.24 perhaps contrasted with pratighata, q.v. (visaya- 
raty-)anunayo va pratighatacittata va; Divy 257.20 
anunaya-vacanair, with words of (impure sexual) love 
(spoken by a mother to her son with whom she had in- 
cestuous relations); LV 319.21 (yadi) tavac chakyetayam 
auunayenotthapayitum, (Mara speaks:) whether he can be 
moved by lust (for women; M. is sending his daughters to 
tempt the Bodhisattva); anunayasamdhuksanata (Mvy 
°samdhuks°, v.l. and Mironov °samprks 0 ), state of not 
being inflamed with (sexual) lust Mvy 2594; LV 32.7; 
anunaya-nimittam SP 277.1 a cause (or motive) for in- 
gratiating oneself (with women; should be avoided by a 
Bodhisattva) ; Mvy 2131 = Tib. rjes su chags pa, affection 
towards; visabhagasattvanunayat Siks 193.17, see visa- 

Anunaya- gatra (! perhaps corrupt), n. of a Bo- 
dhisattva: Gv 443.8. 

Anunaya- vigata, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.1. 
anunathana (to anunathayati, see BR 5.1541 ; the 
verb also occurs in Sadh 199.12; 231.3; 493-5), entreaty: 
Sadh 446.7. 

anunama (m-?; n. act. from *anu-nainayati), (lit. 
bending, bringing under control ,) training: AsP 54.11 
paridamanaya . . . anunamaya bodhisattvanam. 

anuni^cara, adj. (to *anu-ni£-carati), coming forth 
successively : LV 13.4 (vs) samgiti-ravanuniscara gatha (so 
more likely than °ravanu = °ravanam, gen. pi., which 
would give a forced construction). 

anuniya-ta, state of needing to be conciliated (based 
on gdve. of anu-ni; cf. Whitney 963b, 2); SP 128.9 (vs) 
°ta mahya na kacid asti, and there is no need of conciliating 

anuniyate, follows upon: . . . vijnanam nanusete tan 
(acc.) nanuniyate Samy. Ag. 1.3.1 (and fL). 

an-unnada, an-unnata, an-unnamana, an-unna- 
hana-ta, see unn°. 

an-upakrusta, adj. (= Pali anupakkuttha; cf. Skt. 
upakrusta, a low-caste man; a carpenter), blameless: Mv 
i. 133.17 anupakrusta-vrtti-dvarah, means of (instruments 
of attaining) blameless livelihood, of Bodhisattvas; i.177.2 
°sta-carana; Gv 526.14 jatigotrena anupakrusto bhavati 

Anupagamanaman, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.6. 
an-upaghatya, adj. (neither this nor upa° recorded 
in Skt., Pali, or Pkt.), invulnerable: °tya-sariro Gv 505.13. 

an-upacchinna, neg. ppp. (= Pali id.; cf. upa- 
cchinatti), uninterrupted: Mv i. 171. 10 (of Buddha’s 

Anupacchinnalambha, n. of a former Buddha: Mv 
i. 141. 10. 

an-upaccheda (m.; = Pali id.; cf. upaccheda, an- 
upacchinna), the not cutting off: LV 34.17 triratnavam- 
sanupa 0 ; 137.3 cakravartivamsasya; Gv 260.19 buddha- 

an-upacchedana (nt.), cf. upa°, the not cutting off: 
LV 5.22 triratnavamsasyanupacchedanartham. See prec. 
and next. 

an-upacchedana- ta = prec.: LV 440.21 (triratna- 
vams-)anupa°; Mmk 23.2 (paramantranup 0 ), 9 (triratna- 
prasadanup 0 ), etc.; Gv 280.2 (bodhisattvacaryanup 0 ). 
anupadruta-lipi? see anudruta-. 
an-upadhi-sesa, adj. (= nir-upadhi°, q.v.; = Pali 
an-upadi-sesa), free from upadhi — skandha, ep. of nirvana- 
(-dhatu), i. e. absolute, complete : °sesa- (^sP 1264.16, mis- 
printed anupari 0 ) or °sese (SP 21.9; 411.5; SsP 1450.4; 
AsP 152.8, here misprinted anupavi 0 ) nirvanadhatau. 

an-upadhika (= Pali id.; in both i m.c.), free from 
the upadhi, q.v., or bonds attaching to existence: °kam 
Mv iii.445.2 (em.) = (same vs in Pali) Vin. i.36.26. 
an-upanaha, see upanaha. 

anupanthake, adv. (= Pali anupanthe), along the 
road: Mv ii.423.13 (a)nupanthake viya drumo (mss.); 
iii.184.5 (a var. of same vs), mss. °ka (or °ka) viya druma 
(°ka could be kept as n. pi. of adjective). 

anupamacitta, adj. or subst. m., person of matchless 
mind; sixty such, of whom ManjusrI is the first, attend 
on the Buddha: RP 2.2. 

Anupamamati, (1) n. of a satpurusa, q.v.: SP 4.1; 

( 2 ) n. of a Bodhisattva: SsP 6.21. 

Anupamaraksita, n. of a sthavira and author: 

Sadh 62.6; 206.22.“ 

Anupama, n. of the daughter of Makandika (in Pali 
called Magandiya): Divy 515.22 ff. 

anupariksipta, ppp., surrounded , as with strings of 
jewels, rows of trees, walls: LV 278.16; RP 39.18; Gv 
161.17, 19; 163.8; Sukh 36.3. 

anupariganika, instr. °kaya, adverbially used, with 
successive enumeration , going around the whole circle (of 
the order of nuns): Bhik 10 a. 4. 

anupari grhnite (cf. anuparigraha, °grahikaya; 
no such cpd. in Skt. or Pali, but substantially = pari-g° 
in various senses; forms noted are °grhnite, ger. °grhya, 
ppp. °grhlta, gdve. °grahitavya) : (1) surrounds in attend- 
ance, closely waits upon, LV 82.2 anuparigrhlta (Maya, 
by soldiers etc.); AsP 34.(13-)14 (asmabhir api bodhisat- 
tva) . . . anuparigrahitavya anuparivarayitavyas ca (sim- 
ilarly in line 16 anuparigrhitah) ; (2) holds in the arms, 
embraces closely, LV 103.9 kumaram , ubhabhyam pani 
bhyam sadhu ca susthu canuparigrhya; Siks 155.2 glanam 
bhiksum sadhu ca susthu canuparigrhya bahirdha ni- 
haritva (see this) snapayet; Divy 116.11 sarvangair 
anuparigrhya; 387.5 and 388.13 sarvangenanuparigrhya ; 

( 3 ) cultivates, devotes oneself to, tends , favors, AsP 463.9-10 
(yo . . . prajnaparamitam) pralujyamanam anuparigrhnlte 

. . buddhanam . . . tena bodhir anuparigrhlta bhavati; 




Gv 356.8-9 samanvahrtah (see this) small tathagatena, 
anuparigrhitah smah sugatena (said to a Tathagata in 
welcome on his arrival), the T. has turned his attention 
to us, the S. has bestowed his gracious favor on us. 

anuparigraha (m. ; see prec.), (1) the embracing {in 
one whole), uniting : Sal 77.17 f. yah kayasyanuparigraha- 
krtyam karoty ayam ucyate ’b-dhatuh, what does the work 
of embracing- in-a-unit the body is called the element water, 
and so 78.14 (these are cited Siks 220.14, where text 
°parigraham krtyam, and 221.6; Tib. lus sdud pa, body- 
uniting); (2) tending, cultivating, favoring : LY 5.(21-)22 
(saddharmasya) canuparigrahartham, triratnavamSasy- 

anuparigrahikaya, adv. (instr. sg. f. of *anupari- 
grahaka, helping, to °grhnite, q.v., mg. 3), in a favoring, 
gracious way: SP 283.2 °kaya anabhyasuyikaya (q.v.) 
dharmam desayati. So read with WT and their ms. K'; 
KN °hika without v.l. 

anuparicarati, follows in attendance : ger. °caritva 
Mv iii.155.16. 

anuparindana (to °dami; cf. parindana), the giv- 
ing over, presenting : °nartham LV 443.11; Dbh.g. 56(82).25 
(prose, not vs). See also anuparindana. 

anuparindami (= pari° v q.v.), I present, hand over: 
°ami SP 420.12; 484.5; LV 91.8; 443.9; Dbh.g. 56(82).5 
(prose, not vs); fut. °isyarno LV 90.22. Also anuparin 0 , 

anuparipatikaya, adv. (instr. sg. f. of *°tika, cf. 
Skt. anuparipati-krama, pw s.v.), in regular order, in turn: 
Av ii.11.1; Bbh 92.26. 

anuparipalayati, protects: Mvy 7386; AsP 275.2. 

anuparimarjati (or °jayati?), touches lightly: aor. 
°marje Mv ii. 282. 6-7 (panina . . . Siram); ger. °marjya 
(mukhatundakena ca padav anu°, in token of profound 
respect) Divy 387.7; 400.18-19. 

anuparivartati, °te (= Pali °vattati), moves along, 
after, or according to; follows (with or without acc.): °tanti 
(so read with 2 mss., Senart °tayanti) Mv i.25.9; brahma- 
naparisaya kriya °titavya Mv i.310.6, and kriyam °tan- 
tasya 8; (bodhisattvam) °tetsuh (aor.) Mv ii.264.18 f. ; 
400.4 ft'.; (utsangenotsangam, acc. to Tib. from lap to lap, 
pah ba nas pah ba dag tu, in the harem) °tamanah 
(devadarakah) LV (76.20-)77.1 ; in LV 278.16 for Lefm’. 
anuparivrtair read, with the only mss. which have the 
word at all, (ratnasutraih samantad) anuparivrttaih 
(°ttair) anupariksiptam (bodhivrksam), surrounded by 
strings of jewels that passed all around it (ppp. with active 
meaning as regularly with intrans. verbs of motion). 

anuparivartana, adj., f. °ni (Pali °vattana, nL, n. 
act.; from prec.), moving after or according to, following: 
Dbh 75.1; satyanuparivartani (vac) Gv 455.1 (possibly 
read °tini, in agreement with LV 440.3; Mv ii.197.10, see 

-anuparivartin, adj. in comp. (= Pali °vattin; from 
°vartati), moving after or according to, following: jfiananu- 
parivarti(n) (= Pali nananuparivatti-n) LV 435.3-4; id., 
in list of avenika buddhadharmah, Mv i. 160.10 f. ; Mvy 
148-150; SsP 1450.10 f.; cittanu 0 (~ Pali °vatti-n) Mvy 
2168; satyanuparivarti-vak- LV 440.3; °vartinya . . . gira 
Mv ii.197.10; perhaps read °vartinl (vac) Gv 455.1, see 
prec. ; dlrghanuparivartin (of Buddha) who has long followed 
(the proper course) LV 8.7; Mvy 2161; similarly sadanu 0 
Mvy 2162. 

anuparivSrayati, °reti (= Pali °reti; cf. also anu- 
parivrta), encircles, surrounds, (1) of things, Mv i. 227. 19 
°ritam, ppp. (padmam, aparehipadmasahasrehi); Mv i.238.3 
6 retva, ger. (mukhamandalam) ; Gv 326.1 tam (a city) 
anuparivarya, ger.; (2) of persons, generally surrounds = 
attends, waits on, ger. °rya Dbh 84.33; Divy 464.2; °ritva 
Mv ii.211.9; °retva Mv iii.145.4; ppp. °ritah Divy 7.22 
(here by pretas); gdve. °rayitavyah (asmabhir bodhisatt- 

vah) AsP 34.14; (3) of abstractions, attends — devotes 
oneself to, furthers, promotes; fut. °rayisyati (prajftaparami- 
tam), parallel with anugrahlsyati, anuvartisyate, AsP 
286.8; °rayati (bodhisattvanam . . . utsaham) AsP 134.4; 
(4) with caus. mg., causes to be attended, ger. °rya LV 61.21 
(deva . . . sahasraih); perf. °rayam asa Gv 444.16. 

anuparivrta, ppp. (cf. °varayati, and Skt. parivrta 
beside °varita, both in same mg.), surrounded, attended: 
Divy 361.20 (prose). In LV 278.16 (prose) for Lefm. 
anuparivrtair read °vrttair (see anuparivartati). 

anuparisosita, ppp., continually or gradually dried up: 
£iks 212.3 vatanu 0 . 

anuparitaka, m., for °parittaka == °paritta, q.v , 

with specifying -ka (§ 22.39), one that has been handed over: 
Divy 332.16 (prose; parallel anupradattaka, q.v. for 
citation). Cf. parita = °tta, BR s.v. i with pari, 3, end; 
twice in Mbh. In one of these, i.8437 Calc., Sukthankar 
i.224.9 reads paritta^ ca, tho no ms. reads so; N mss. all 
parltaS ca; but S mss. (with a further change) paridattaS 
ca, supporting the em. The other passage has not yet been 

anuparitta, ppp. (cf. Skt. paritta, prec., and next 
two), handed over, delivered: Mv ii.77.16 (so . . . tasya) 
brahmanasya anuparitto, vedan adhyapehiti (last word 
an em., but plausible). 

anuparindana = anuparin 0 , given in KN (with 
the colophon of a single ms. ; and kept without note in WT) 
as title of SP chap. 27; but in the text only (anu-)parind 0 , 
with short i, occurs. 

anuparindami (= anuparin 0 , parin°, parin°), 

I give over, present: AsP 460.14; 461.12. 

anuparyavanaddha (= paryava 0 ), covered over: 
kudrsti-visama-jalanu 0 Dbh 28.15. 

anupalabdhi, f. or adj. (Bhvr.), = an-upalambha, 
q.v.: (the being) not to be grasped or conceived (mentally): 
°dhi-hetuh Mvy 4461 (as term in logic) ; atyantanupalabdhi- 
cakram (sc. dharma-c°) LV 423.4, completely ungraspable; 
gambhiram . . . dharmacakram grahanupalabdhi-tvat LV 
422.11 profound . . . because it cannot be grasped by (mental) 
grasping; °dhi-tvat (also) KP 148.3; Lank 162.13. 

anupalabdhika, adj. (Bhvr.) — °bdhi: yavad 

anupalabdhikam kuryat Sadh 258.16, until he makes it 
beyond the power of thought to grasp. 

anupalambha, m.c. also anopa°, m., or adj. (Bhvr.), 
inconceivability; inconceivable ( see s.v. upalambha); often 
substantially non-reality or without reality: °bha-dharma- 
ksanti RP 12.2; opposed to the heresy (drsti) of upa- 
lambha; anopalambha dharma Srutva kanksa nasya 
vidyate, nihsattva eti sattvadharma natra atma vidyate 
RP 12.10; °bha-sunyata Mvy 948, emptiness that consists in 
inconceivability (unreality, of everything); sunyatanu- 
palambhesu dharmesu KP 97.3, in regard to states of being 
which because of voidness (so Tib., ston pa nid kyis) are 
inconceivable (unreal); sunyatanupalambha(m)s (here noun, 
Tatpur.) ca dharmesu srutva KP 123.6; of dharma as the 
‘law 7 ’ preached by the Buddha, sunyatanupalambhas, in- 
conceivable because of voidness LV 395.22 and (Lefm.) 
392.16 (here most mss. °tanupacchedah, also interpretable); 
anupalambha-vihara-viharinam Gv 471.8 (parallel: nihpra- 
panca-vih°); anupalambha-yogena bhavayati Mvy 971 
(opp. of upalambha-yogena, s.v. upalambha); anopalam- 
bham aryana gotram KP 137.11 (vs). 

an-upalipta, (1) adj. (= Pali °litta; also an-upa°, 
an-opa°; Skt. has upalipta), undefiled: Mv i.134.6; LV 
3.2; etc. (common); (2) n. of a Bodhisattva: Mvy 687; (3) 
n. of a former Buddha: Sukh 5.11. 

Anupavadya, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i. 136. 14 
(mss. anopravadya; cf. upavadati, and Pali anupavajja). 

Anupa^anta, n. of a son of Mara, unfavorable to the 
Bodhisattva: LV 312.16. 

anupa&yana (— Pali °passana), viewing, considera- 




lion: Siks 232.7; 236.13; KP 95.2 ff. ; Bbh 259.21 fT. ; in 
all these in statements of the smrtyupasthana, q.v. 

anupasyin, adj. (= Pali °passin), regarding, looking 
upon, considering : °pasyl, n. sg., KP 95.2 11.; cittanupasyi 
Lank 360.15; duhkhanupasyina . . . anityanupasyina, 
instr. sg., Mv iii. 266.1 ; in KP in a statement of the smrtyu- 
pasthana, q.v.; prob. so meant in Lank and Mv also. 

an-upasampanna, adj. (= Pali id.; neg. of upa°, 
q.v.), unordained : Mvy 8478; yah punar bhiksur anupa- 
sampannena pudgalena sardham padaso dharmain vacayet 
patayantika Prat 503.9. 

(anupasthita, Skt., not present; -tva, the not being 
present; sprhanupasthitatvat Mv i. 153.11, because desire 
is not present in him . Wrongly Senart n. 497.) 

Anupahatamati, n. of a Bodhisattva: Mvy 720. 
anupata (rn. ? ; cf. next; no cpd. of anu-paMs recorded), 
presumably rending or the like, one of the torments of 
hell, in comp, with utpata: Divy 301.26. 

anupatana Bit.?) = prec., in the same cpd.: Divy 
299.2, 20; 303.19 % . 

anupata, m., peril, trimming around the edge (of the 
border of a monk’s robe): MSV ii.51.2, 3 (Tib. mthah skor, 

anupada ( = Pali id., ‘mostly used before nouns . . . 
while anupadaya ... is preferred before finite verb forms’, 
CPD), abbreviated form of ger. anupadaya, q.v., not 
clinging (to existence): Mv ii.293.13 anupadaSravebhyas 
cittani vimuktani (same phrase with anupadaya, q.v.); 
in Mv i.69.15 read anupada (m.c. for °da; mss. °daya, 
unmetr. ; Senart em. °di, wrongly) vimukti, cf. Pali anupada 
vimutto (CPD s.v.). 

an-upadana, see upadana. 

anupadaya, indecl. (ger.; — Pali id.; also °da, q.v.; 
formally neg. to upadaya, which however seems not 
recorded in Pali or BHS in mg. corresponding to this; but 
cf. upadiyati), not clinging (to existence): anupadaya- 
sravebhyas (or °asrav°) cittani vimuktani, not clinging, 
their thoughts were freed from the depravities, SP 179.17; 
Mv i. 329. 19; iii. 67.1; 337.4 (cittam viinuktam); 338.20; 
RP 59.19; KP 138.2; 145.2; (cf. Pali yava me anupadaya 
asavehi cittam vimuccati, Dhp. comm, i.86.7;) anupadaya 
parinirvrto Mv i.302.12; 357.16 (°vrta); cf. Pali °daya 
nibbuto, e. g. Dhp. 414. 

anupana-pattaka, nt. (v.l. anupara 0 , so Mironov; 
v.l. in both edd. antupara 0 ), c kam Mvy 9030, actu to Chin. 
a dish, bowl or saucer , that has a standard; Tib. phul bahi 
btuii phor (or gtan phor); this cpd., reading btuh phor, 
seems to mean drinking-cup for presentation; it is recorded 
ill Das, s.v. phul ba, transl. by the BHS word here treated 
and by Eng. a drinking plate. 
an-upayasa, see upayasa. 

anuparSva (as adj. in MW without reference; not 
in BR, pw, or Schmidt, nor in Pali or Pkt.), °svena, adv., 
along the sides , with gen.: tasya anu° Divy 240.5. 

anupalana (= Pali id.; Skt. only °na, nt.), the keeping , 
maintaining, with loc. : Siksapadesv anu° Bbh 81.20. 

-anupidana, f. °I, as final in cpd. adj. (Bhvr.? cf. 
next; cf. Pali anupllita; no cpd. of anu-pid- in Skt.), 
oppressing: Mmk 114.15 (vs) parasattvanupldanlm (sc. 
pujam). A possible, but less likely, analysis would be 
parasattvanu (gen. pi., m.c., — °nam) pi°. 

-anupidin, adj. (see prec.), oppressing : Mmk 151.1 
(vs) parasattvanupidinah, with mantra(h) ; for a less likely 
analysis cf. prec. 

anupurva, adj. (cf. Pali anupubba; Skt. anupurva 
hardly in the following senses), (1) tapering, Tib. (Mvy 273 
etc.) byin gyis phra ba, becoming (gradually) smaller 
(Jaschke s.v. byin po, by degrees, more and more fine); 
so in Pali Jat. v.155.22, of thighs (uru), tapering (not 
regularly formed with CPD, PTSf)): SP 338.8 yavad 
brahmalokam uccaistvena, anupurvaparinahena, reaching 

to Brahmaloka in height, tapering in circumference (i. e. 
each smaller than the next lower); anupurvanguli with 
tapering (so Burnouf correctly, effiles) fingers, Pali anu- 
pubbahguli, one of the anuvyanjana, Mvy 273; Dharmas 
84; (anupurvacitranguli) LV 106.12; Mv ii.43.9; anupurva- 
panileklia, with tapering lines of the hand , another anuvyan- 
jana, LV 106.15; Mv ii.43.14 (other versions read ayata 
long instead of anupurva) ; anupurva-damstra, with tapering 
(so Tib.) teeth, another anuvyanjana LV i 07.6 ; Mvy 325; 
Dharmas 84 (not in Pali); anupurva-sujata-skandho Mv 
ii.71.16, of a lion, with tapering, well-formed shoulders; 
anupurvapravanam anupurvapragbharam Divy 113.5, of 
a mountain, with tapering slopes and sides (getting smaller 
as they rise); in 113.15 same, preceded by anupurva- 
nimnam; anupurvonnatani (padmapuspani) Mmk 62.5 
taperingly lofty , i. e. placed one above another, each 
smaller than the one below; °va-grlva LV 27.6 with tapering 
neck; here Tib. mgul rim bzdiin du hdug pa, neck made in 
regular stages or the like (not the usual expression); anu- 
purva-samudgate, of the shanks (jahghe) of the maha- 
purusa, Gv 400.6, in explaining the epithet aineya- 
jangha; (2) made according to regular order or arrangement, 
Tib. on Mvy 288 rim par htsham pa, according to regular 
order: °va-gatra, one of the anuvyanjana, whose limbs are 
all as they should be in arrangement , LV 106.21 ; Mv ii.44.3; 
Mvy 288; Dharmas 84 (Pali anupubba-gatta, and anu- 
pubba-rucira-gatta); anupurva (so with v.l.) -surucirango 
(cf. the Pali just cited) Mv iii.85.9, said of the horse Valaha; 
(3) noun, m. (cf. Pali anupubba, nt., Skt. anupurva, nt., 
and anupurvi, f.), regular order; serial process: Siks 108.3 
anupurva eso iha sasanasya, naikena janmena labheta 
bodhim, this serial (successive) process applies to the 
teaching in this world; one cannot get enlightenment in a 
single birth. See the following entries. 

anupurvam, adv. (= Pali anupubbam; app. not in 
this sense in Skt.), in the course of time: anupurva, m.c. 
for °vam, SP 203.11; 384.7 (in the last ed. prints as if cpd. 
with punyena, which is less likely than taking it as separate 

anupurvaka, f. °ika (= Pali anupubbaka, anu- 
pubbika; also anupubbi-katha), graduated, arranged step 
by step: °vikam katham krtva Divy 355.17. 

anupurva- vihara-samapatti, f. (= Pali anupubba 0 ; 
also anupurva- (samadhi-)samapatti, q.v.), the attain- 
ments of (nine) successive stages: navanu 0 (see samapatti) 
Mvy 1498; &sP 58.8. They consist of the four dhyana, the 
four arupya stages, and (samjfia-vedayita-)nirodha- 
sama°. So also in Pali, e. g. AN iv.410.1 ff. (list of the nine 
anupubbavihara) and 23 ff., list and detailed description 
of the nine samapatti; both consist of four jhana, four 
formless states, aruppa, and sannavedayitanirodha (or 
their ‘attainments’). 

anupurvaSas, adv. (— Pali °pubbaso), in due course: 
SP 112.7; Mv ii.240.2 (°sah). 

anupurva- samapatti (= Pali anupubba 0 ), = anu- 
purva- vihara-samapatti: Divy 95.21-22 navanup 0 ; also 
anupurva- samadhi- samapatti, Dharmas 82. 

Anupurvasamudgata-parivarta, m., n. of a (? part 
of a) work: £iks 313.1. 

anupurvi (= Pali °pubbl, beside anupubbi; Skt. 
only anu°), succession , regular series: °vi-bandham Lank 
255.1, cited Siks 135.5 (wrongly em. in ed.). 

anupurvlya, adj., following a regular order: °viya- 
dharmadesana Mv iii.257.11, 12 (= Pali anupubbi-katha, 

anupurvena, adv. (= Pali °pubbena), in due course: 
SP 102.14; LY 157.5; 159.17; 238.12; 406.22; Mv i.354.15; 
ii.90.8, 11; 131.10; 210.14; 442.5; 461.14; 485.10; iii.73.4; 
256.10; Divy 20.3; 42.26; 94.18; 213.8; Kv 58.23; etc., 

anu-prajnsipti (f., cf. Pali anuppannatti), supple- 




mentary prajnapti, Mvy 9214; follows prajnapti 9213, q.v. 
Lack of clear context leaves precise mg. uncertain. 

anupranidhi (not in Pali), = pranidhi, vow (to 
persist towards enlightenment); commoner than the verb 
anupranidheti and often object of pranidheti, e. g. Mv 
i. 112. 15; 113.7; 114.3; 115.5; 116.12; 117.8; 118.13; used 
after anupranidheti Mv i. 11 9. 15 (mss., Senart wrongly 
pranidhim for anu°, presumably m.c., but meter is defen- 
sible with anu); °dhih, without either verb, Mv i.336.14. 

anu- pranidheti (not in Pali), = pranidheti, makes 
a vow (to persist towards enlightenment); °dheti Mv 
i.119.15; °dhemi (mss. anuparidehi) 323.1; °dhesi, aor., 
335.11; °hitam, ppp., i.63.3. See anupranidhi, which is 
commoner than the verb. If there is any difference be- 
tween this and prani 0 without anu, it does not appear 
clearly; anu does not necessarily imply after (a gift or 
meritorious act), tho this often precedes; in Mv i. 323.1 
however none is mentioned. 

anu-pratipanna (ppp. of *anu-prati-padyati, ASokan 
anupatipa(j)jati, and in the Pali adj. anu-patipajjanaka; 
cf. next), following after : tathatvanupratipannah Dbh 

anu-pratipadayate (caus. of *anu-prati-padyati, see 
prec.), causes to follow: -margam °yamanah Jm 143.8. 

anu-pratistha, adj. (anu plus pratistha, Bhvr.), 
having a corresponding basis : Siks 42.13 (cited s.v. upa- 
niksipati 2). 

anu-pradaksinikaroti, = Skt. pradaks 0 , passes 
around to the right: °ronta, pres. p. Mv ii.400.4 ff.; °ronto 
Mv iii.74.20. 

anu-pradattaka, m. (ppp. wjth specifying ka), one 
that has been handed over , entrusted: (Arya-samgharaksito . . .) 
-Sariputrenanupradattako bhagavatanuparltakah (23 °nu- 
pradattakah) Divy 332.15, 23; f. °ika, given (in marriage): 
MSV i.105.9. 

anu-pradadati (= Pali anu(p)padeti), gives , presents: 
pres. opt. °dadyam Av i.17.1; fut. °dasyami etc. SP 106.12, 
13; Mvy 2868; 7307; Divy 61.6; Suv 103.1; Kv 27.19; 
Gv 327.24; aor. °pradasi Mv iii.159.8; perf. °dadau Av 
i.245.3; ppp. °datta Divy 22.12; 94.23; 117.8; 234.25; gdve. 
°deya SP 338.6; °datavya Av i.314.3; pass. °diyante RP 

anu-pra-darsita (ppp. of *anu-pra-darsayati), 
pointed out, shown: Jm 94.20. 

anu-pradana, nt. (1) (= Pali anuppa 0 ; to anu- 
pradadati), act of giving, presentation: LV 429.19, 22; 
430.4, etc.; Mv ii.221.5; iii.322.5; dharmanam, of religious 
instruction ( = upasamhara, 1) Bbh 82.4; Dbh 15.4; 
(2) encouragement: Dbh 24.4 (na samhitan bhinatti,) na 
bhinnanam anupradanam karoti, he does not divide (cause 
dissension among) those that are united, nor give encourage- 
ment to those that are divided (i. e. schismatics; cf. CPD s.v. 

-anuprapura, adj. ifc., fulfilling (cf. next): °pure, 
voc. sg. f. : sattvarthasamanta-(mss. °mata-, °matva-, em. 
Nobel)-nuprapure Suv 117.8 (so nearly all mss.; text °pure 
with 1 ms.). 

[anu-prapflrayati, fulfills (cf. prec.): LY 46.5 (vs) 
sarvajnajnanam anuprapuritum, inf., could be m.c. for 
°prapur(ay)itum, which Calc, reads; but see anuprapu- 

anu-prabadhnati (or °bandhati; = Pali anuppa- 
bandhati), keeps continually on or after: pres. p. (prani- 
dhivisayam) °bandhan Gv 99.26-100.1. 

anuprabandha (m. ; = Pali anuppa 0 ; to °badhnati), 
(1) continuity, continuation: Sal 75.15; 76.6 f. (cited Siks 
226.6; 227.2 f.); Dbh 77.9 (°dhanupacchedatam dharma- 
nam) ; (2) constant pursuit of, devotion to, dharma-naya-samu- 
dranuprabandhesu Gv 344.15. 

anu-prayacchati (once in TS, see BR; not in Pali, 
yet seems to be a Buddh. word), gives, presents : Divy 7.25 

etc. (common, see Index); Av i.18.8; Kv 27.12 etc. (see 
pw); Bbh 4.22; 5.4 etc.; vacam anu° Divy 338.17, gives a 
word, says anything, makes answer; apavadam anii° Divy 
578.23, offers insult (to, gen.); parSvam anu° Bbh 193.20, 
see parSva. 

anupravartaka, adj. (Pali anup(p)avattaka, of one 
that keeps rolling the dhamma-cakka), that keeps providing 
or furnishing (pra-vartayati) : (bhandopaskaranam) °kam 
dhyanam Bbh 210.15. 

anupravartana (nt. ; = Pali anuppavattana), pursuit, 
following, proceeding along: Gv 37.8 (see avart(t)i). 

anupravartayati (= Pali anupavatteti), keeps 
movirfg: diiarmacakram . . . °yatah MSV iii.54.4. 

anu-pravarita, adj. (ppp.), completely covered over , 
enclosed (?) : narako ayasehi sulehi santaptehi samantato 
hi anupravarito (v.l. °val°, one ms. °vas°) Mv i.25.5. 
Anupraviddhakarna, see Anapaviddha 0 . 
anu-pravi£ati, app. accompanies (? a musical in- 
strument): (salilam vinam) anupravisya gathabhir gitair 
anugayati sma Lank 3.9. 

anupravesaka, adj., penetrating: sattva-cittanupra- 
veSakair nirmanavigrahais Lank 43.10. 

anupravrajati (= Pali anupabbajati; the single Skt. 
quotation in BR, from Ram., can hardly be said to have 
this mg.), follows (another) into the ascetic life: LY 10.12; 
Mv i.336.14; 337.19; iii.50.16; 222.18; Divy 61.17; Bhik 
lib. 3; Jm 110.13. 

anupravrajana (nt. ; to prec.), the following (another) 
into ascetic life: °ne Jm 120.24. 

anu-prasarati (only caus. and intens. in RY ; not in 
Pali), spreads over, penetrates, with acc. : °ranti Gv 432.10 
(subject, rasmijalani); ppp. °srta- Gv 365.2 (1 in 2d ed.); 

anu-praskandati (~ Pali anupakkhandati), encroa- 
ches, intrudes upon: °skandya, ger. Prat 506.2 (°ya 
Sayyam kalpayed, where another was located); 511.6 
(text here °skadya; the Pali ger. is always anupakhajja); 
Mvy 8437; 9447 (balena). 

anu-prakaram and °re, adv. (= Pali anupakare, and 
stem in comp. °ra-), along or near a wall: (nagarasya) °ram 
Mv ii.429.16; °re Mv iii.5.20. 

anu-prapana (from next, or Skt. °prapnoti), attain- 
ment: Dbh.g. 20(356). 18 °narthl; Mmk 107.16. 

anuprapunati, °nati (= Pali anupapunati, Skt. 
anuprapnoti), obtains: pres. opt. °neyarrta SP 163.2 (so read 
with Kashgar rec.); aor. °ne Mv iii.67.2, 4; ger. °nitva SP 
291.13; inf. °nitum LV 46.5 (so prob. read for text °puri- 
tum ; see s.v. anuprapurayati) ; gdve. °nitavya Mv 
iii.287.17; in Mv ii.415.16 (vs) read -va^itanuprapune for 
mss. °tani prapune (Senart em. wrongly); with Pkt. v for 
p, anupravetsuh Mv iii.52.8. 

anuprarthayate, seeks after: °yamana, pple. pres., 
Bhad 48. 

anuprek$afaa (nt.; to Skt. anu-pra-Iks- plus -ana), 
examination , investigation: deSanu 0 MSV ii. 170.19. Cf. next. 

-anuprek$in (Pali -anupekkhin; see prec.), examining, 
investigating: de£anu° MSV ii.170.11. 

anuplava (m.), n. act. (not in Pali; in Skt. only as 
n. ag., follower), following, pursuit: nama-nimittanuplavena 
Lank 225.16-17. 

[anubadha, ^iks 271.13, read doubtless anubandha, 
consequence. See s.v. gurula.] 

anubuddhi (f. ; to Skt. anu-budh-; cf. next, and 
anubodha, °dhana), an awakening, enlightenment, making 
up of the mind, with infin. : adyavaboddhum amrtam anu- 
buddhi sasta LV 299.12 (vs), last word by em., best ms. 
Sastar, others vary; read Sastur, gen. sg., today the teacher 
makes up his mind to win knowledge of what is deathless; 
anubuddhi, n. sg. With Lefm.’s em., anubuddhi could be 
3 sg. aor. of anu-budh (Chap. 43, s.v. budh 2). 

anubudhyana (nt. ; to Skt. anubudhyate plus -ana; 

anubrmhana- 15 



= Pali anubujjhana; cf. prec.), the understanding, becoming 
aware of: pratityasamutpadanubudhyana-ta, Hoernle MR 
118, last line (from Ratnarasi Sutra). 

anubrmhana- ta, °na ( = Pali anubruhana, °na; to 
next with -ana-ta, -ana), strengthening, making to increase : 
Bbh 18.25 °na (hitasukhadhyaSayasya); 203.6 (-vlryanu- 
brmhanataya), 25 (-pranidhananubrmhanataya). 

anubrmhayati (== Pali anubruheti), strengthens, 
makes to increase ; devotes oneself to: °hayati Bbh 394.15 
(Subham cadhimuktim) ; °hayant, pple. pres., Bbh 93.10; 
°hayisyati Mmk 154.7; °hita, ppp., Bbh 93.7; °hayet, pres, 
opt. Ud xiii.6 should devote oneself to (vivekam; so Pali, 
Dhp. 75, vivekam anubruhaye). 

anubodha (m. ; — Pali id.; cited once from comm, 
on Ap£. in pw 4.292; cf. next, dur-anubodha, and anu- 
buddhi), comprehension: SP 64.14; tenasmi buddho jaga- 
tanubodhat SP 47.6, therefore I am a Buddha, because of 
(my) understanding of the world (otherwise Burnouf and 
Kern); SP 80.9; -jnana-bala-vaisaradyanubodhaya 81.3; 
sarva-arthanubodha RP 47.6, of Buddha’s speech, having 
or yielding comprehension of all meanings ; ekaksana- 
tryadhvanubodham (buddhanarp) Dbh 55.22; 67.7; 

-balajnananubodhaya Gv 345.17. 

anubodhana (nt. ; = Pali id.; not in BR, pw; cited 
in MW without reference; cf. under prec.), comprehension: 
Dbh 26.3; sarvakaranu 0 Dbh.g. 55(81). 6; °na-vaineyanam 
Gv 349.1, of persons convertible by (logical) comprehension, 
by reason; °na-ta, at end of cpds., state of having comprehen- 
sion of ... LV 34.12; bodhisattva-Siksanubodhana-taya 
Gv 463.14. 

[anubhartsyanti, AsP 246.17, 18, 20; 247.9; 248.1, 
is apparently a strange error or misprint for anuvartsyanti, 
will follow. It is certainly a fut. and cannot be connected 
with root bharts.] 

anubhavati (in this sense = Pali anubhoti; cf. pra- 
tyanubhavati and abhisambhunati), suffices for , is 
sufficient to produce: abhayapy abham nanubhavato (can- 
drasuryau) SP 163.10; Pali equivalent nanubhonti, DN 
ii. 12.13 etc., see CPD s.v. anubhavati, and cf. passage cited 
s.v. lokantarika; in Mv parallels abhisambhunanti ; in 
Divy pratyanubhavatas. Cf. anubhuta. 

-anubhavana-ta (cf. Pali anubhavana, same mg.): 
lokanubhavanataya LV 157.7 (prose), of the Bodhisattva, 
by way of experiencing worldly life: substantially = lokanu- 
vartana, see anuvartana. 

anubhasati, shines thru: sobhati lokam imam tv 
anubhasan RP 3.7. 

anubhdta, in Gv 402.13 °tah, of the hair of a maha- 
purusa, after sujatamulah and before nispiditah ( pressed 
down firmly ?). The meaning is obscure ( lying in an ordered 
way ’l); perhaps corrupt. 

anubhoktar, enjoyer: °ta, n. sg., Mmk 157.23. 
anubhokti (f. ; expected would be anubhukti, which 
is also not recorded; perhaps corrupt), enjoyment: °ti-kriya 
LV 45.12. 

? anubfirama, conduit: perhaps in Divy 538.10, see 
s.v. bhrama. 

anubhramati, strays after: °mitum, inf. Jm 222.24; 
°manti 226.22, 

anumajjhima, adj. (M Indie for Skt. Gr. °madhyama, 
§ 22.16; mg. assigned it in KaS. seems not the same as in 
BHS; cf. also anumadhya and madhyima), (located) 
in the middle: Mv ii.262.14, contrasted with pratyantika, 

anumadhya (= Pali anumajjha), middling; between 
small and great: °dhyato madhyimam (sc. dadyat) Mv 
ii.49.20 (— Pali °jjhato, in same vs, Jat. v.387.19). 

anumarga, adj. or (°gam) adv. (cf. Skt. anumargena, 
with gen.; Pali anumagga in cpds., °ge, °gam, advs.), 
following along: sarvamarga-anumarga (one word; either 
°ga m.c. for °gam, adv., or stem in comp, with the next 

word) susthitah Gv 488.17 (vs), firmly fixed in pursuit of 
the whole (religious) path. 

anumarjati (= Pali anumajjati; not in this mg. in 
Skt.), considers, ponders thoroughly: °jan, pres, pple., Gv 
63.2; 84.12. 

anumodana (Pali id.; cf. Skt. °na, nt., rare; in Pali 
°na, nt., is much commoner than °na, which is very com- 
mon in BHS; cf. next), (expression of) thanks, gratification, 
or approval: Mv i. 297. 18 imaye °naye (of foil, vss); 298.19; 
iii.426.6 (of foil, vss); SP 346.5 (°na-sahagatam); £iks 9.18; 
Mmk 79.5, etc.; Dharmas 14, one of seven forms of wor- 

anumodanl = °na, q.v.: LV 200.10 (vs); so both 
edd. and all but one ms. (which has °na). 

anuyukta (= Pali anuyutta; see also an-anu°) (1) 
devoted or addicted to, practising (with acc.): anuyogam 
(see next) anu° LV 264.20; Mv i.96.5; KP 105.9; (jagarika-, 
bhavana-, etc.) -yogam Mv iii.383.9; Kv 73.5; ^iks 104.15; 
Samadh 8.15 ; other objects Mv iii.201.1 (see ekarama); 
Ud xv.8 (see jagarya); (2) in Mvy 7665 = Tib. brgal ba 
(see s.vv. pratyanuyukta, samanuyujyate ; ppp. to Pali 
anuyunjati in sense b of CPD). examined, questioned; see 
next (2). 

anuyoga (cf. prec.;, m., (1) devotion , addiction, applica- 
tion to (so Pali id.; not Skt. in this sense): sukhallikanu 0 
(see sukhallika); kamasukhallikatmaklamathanu 0 Bbh 
187.11-12; (atma)kaya-klamathanu 0 LV 416.20; -dyuta- 
krldanu 0 Mv i.96.5; akalananu 0 , see akaiana; (2) question- 
ing, examination (Pali id., esp. °gam dadati, passes an 
examination; Skt. also questioning; BR 5.990): anuyogo 
ca dinno Mv iii.57.1, and he passed an examination; anuyo- 
gam deti 383.2 (after a course of Vedic study). 

-anuyogin (= Pali id., only ifc.), characterized by 
devotion (anuyoga): satatanuyogi Mv i.357.12 (same cpd. 
in Pali, Pv iii.7.10, where ed. sattanuyogino, but see comm. 

anuyojya (gdve. of anu-yuj, caus.; Skt. not in this 
sense), capable of being made to be devoted (to, loc.): (etesu, 
sc. tri-yanesu) tatranuyojyah Lank 65.3. Cf. anuyoga, 

Anuraktarastra, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.141.14. 

-anuraksana-ta, ifc. (see next), state of protecting . . .: 
atmaparanuraksana-tayai LV 32.19; bahujanacittanurak- 
sana-taya Lank 247.8, 16. 

anuraksan^ (= Pali anurakkhana and °na; MW cites 
Skt. °na, nt., without reference; not in BR, pw, Schmidt), 
guarding , protection: °na-prayogena Bb'h 288.2, 6. 

anuraksa (= Pali anurakkha), protection, guarding, 
keeping; sparing: gunanu 0 Jm 189.2, preserving virtue; 
£iks 124.17; sarvasattvanu 0 127.7; mama cittanuraksaya 
Divy 82.22, 26, by way of sparing my thoughts — so as not 
to hurt my feelings : similarly, tasam anuraksaya MSV 

anuracita, prob. provided , endowed with: (bodhiman- 
davrksah . . . sarvatathagatavisayavikurvitanir)ghosanu- 
racitah Gv 270.10, provided with the sound {report, renown ?) 
of the miracles . . . ; cf. next, where the precise mg. is not 

anuracitagandhagarbha, a kind of jewel supposed 
to emit a perfume (see s.v. vibodhana): Gv 101.9 (cf. 

anu^anati (cf. Skt. anuranana), sounds in response: 
LV 318.22; 319.1; °ne, aor., Mv ii.282.10; 412.8. 

-anuravana (nt. ; Pali °na), resounding: Dbh 83.17; 
Gv 247.10; °na-ta, Gv 82.23. 

anuravita (ppp. to anuravati, Pali, rare in Skt. for 
°ruvati, °rauti; cf. °ravana), resonant, resounding thruout : 
Gv 511.20 (-manojnarutanuravitalamkaram, sc. kutaga- 
ram); Mvy 503 and Sutral. xii.9, comm., sarva-parisad- 
(Sutral. °parsad)-anuravita, of Buddha’s voice, sounding 
thruout all assemblies; so Tib. 




anurfigana (nt.; to Skt. anu-ranj-, cf. anuraga), °na, 
and ifc. f. °nl, gratification : °nam Guhyasamaja 152^13; 
°na Mvy 4302; °nl (as f. to °na), causing gratification (in adj. 
cpd.), Mvy 4316. 

anurfigatam ( = AMg. anuragayam), welcomel, ex- 
clamation of greeting following svagatam (see § 4.63) : 
Mv i.35.6; 152.2; 225.18; 273.8; ii.28.19; 38.9; iii.169.18; 
181.17; 329.8. 

anu-ra&i, m., continuous heap: MSV ii.103.6 mat- 
syanam mahanura£ih samvrttah. 

Anuruddha (so Pali) — Ani°, q.v. : Mv iii.177.2 tl.> 
son of Amrtodana and brother of Mahanama and Bhattika 
(-- Bhadrika); also v.l. for Ani° SP 207.4. 

Anurupagatra, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.140.4. 
Anurupasvara, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.9. 
anu-rupe (carati), (moves along) in (or, upon) form ; 
SsP 765.2. Not from anurupa; anu governs the loc., as in 
Pali anu-tire etc. (CPD s.v. anu, b, 6). In the parallel 
passages below Iocs, are used without anu: vedanayain 
765.11; samjnayam 765.20, etc. 

anurodha-virodha (= Pali id.), compliance and 
aversion (dvandva; one of the pairs of opposites, from 
which the perfected are freed): °dhapagatah Siks 203.4; 
°vipramuktah Mvy 425 (= Pali °vippamutto), of a Tatha- 
gata (mss. erroneously an-anu°, kept in Mironov’s ed.; 
Tib. bsnen confirms anu°, without neg. an-). 

Anurodhapratirodha, m., n. of a samadhi: Mvy 
608; SsP 1424.21. 

anu-lagnati, °nayati (see lagnati), clings on behind : 
Mv iii.73.4 °nisyati, and in prec. line 3 read doubtless 
(angajate . . . parasparasya) anulagnayisyanti with one ms. 
(or °nisyanti) instead of Senart’s avalambisyati. 

anu-lingin, adj., according to one's characteristic marks : 
yathavesanulinginam Mmk 133.7 (of a painted image of a 

anuliptaka, adj. (1) = Skt. anulipta, anointed: 
candananuliptakagatro Mv iii.412.12 (prose); (2) mg. not 
clear to me in Mmk 322.12 (of a magic formula) asahyam 
sarvabhutanam, sarvalokanuliptakam, adhrsyam sarva- 
lokanam, bhavamargaviSodhakam. 

anuloma-caryfi (see s.v. caryfi), course of conduct 
conforming (to a Bodhisattva’s vow to attain bodhi): Mv 
i.1.3; 46.7; 63.11. 

-anulomana-tfi (abstr. from Skt. °na, adj.), the 
acting conformably to: dharmanu 0 LV 35.20. 
anuloma-pranidhfina, see pranidhfina. 
Anulomapratiloma, n. of an ocean and of a moun- 
tain, Divy 102.27; 103.3-23; also of certain winds, 103.5, 
14. In first occurrence Anulomapratilomadvayam, as if 
two names compounded in a dvandva; but below only one 
name is clearly meant in each case. 

anuloma-lipi, a kind of script: LV 125.22 (confirmed 
in Tib.). 

anulomika, adj., f. °kl (= Pali id. = finu 0 , q.v.), 
conformable (to the continuation of religious development) : 
°klm (-k$fintim) Sukh 55.13 = finu 0 k$fi°. 

an-ullokita- (ppp. of ullokayati, q.v.), in an- 
ullokitamfirdhnfini surehi asurehi caMv ii.307.5, of Buddhas, 
gods and asuras cannot look up (reach by vision) to their 
heads (? v.l. anulokita-). 

anuvarga (m. ? = Pali °vagga, see below), some part 
or accessory of a city gate: dvinnfim vanjfinfim anuvargfi 
abhunsuh (sc. te?fim dvfirfinfim) Mv i.l95.(ll-)12. Cf. 
Pali Bv i.14 tula samghat&nuvagga sovanpaphalakatthatfi. 
CPD interprets anuvagga as adj., citing comm., = anurQpa. 
But this is proved wrong by Mv; like tulfi, which occurs 
in the prec. line of Mv, it must be a part of a structure. 
See Senart’s note for a conjectural attempt at interpreta- 

anuvartaka, adj. (= Pali °vattaka), conforming to, 
imitating ; following, cleaving to: lok anuvartaka LV 425.5, 

of Buddha, see s.v. anuvartanfi; samanta-bhadra-kayena 
hinanam canuvartakah 438.6, with completely excellent body , 
and (yet) conforming to (the physical life of) the vulgar ; 
utksiptanuvartakam (vacanapatham), Bhik 29 b. 1, follow- 
ing, cleaving to a suspended (monk) ; tesa . . . pathe ’nuvar- 
takah RP 39.4; tadanuvartakah Mvy 8379, one who adheres 
to him (sc. to a monk who causes dissension; this is a 
samghava£esa sin, cf. Prat 483.9 ff., with anuvartino); see 
s.v. anuvartita. 

anuvartanatfi = °tanS, q.v., conformity to, with gen. 
or loc.: °nata (caturnam aryavam£anam) RP 13.18 (prose); 
Siks 183.17 (samranjanlyadharmesu); loki (m.c. for loke) 
anuvartanatam karoti LV 48.5; janasya °natam karoti 

anuvartana (Skt. °na, nt., Pali °vattana, nt. ; see 
also VartanatS), conformity to, imitation of, with gen. or 
in comp.: (dharmanam) Bbh 107.24; 108.2; lokanu 0 , said 
of the Buddha, LV 238.3 °nam upadaya; 392.8 °nam (so 
with best mss., edd. °tinam) praty; 119.7 °na (m.c. for 
°nam) prati (m.c. for prati); acc. to the Lokottaravadin 
school, this conformity to worldly life on the part of the 
Buddha is a mere ‘imitation’ or ‘reflection’, as in a mirror, 
bimbe kanakabimbabhe esa °tana Mv i.168.15; this passage 
is a locus classicus for this doctrine; in 168.8-9 lokanuvar- 
tanam buddha anuvartapti laukikim, prajnaptim anu- 
vartanti yatha lokottarahi api; in what follows, Buddhas 
are said to imitate worldly actions (the care of the body, 
etc.), tho they have’no need to, since everything about 
them is lokottara, transcending the world. 

anuvartita- (stem in comp.; ppp.; seemingly used 
as noun), in tasyanu 0 , the samghava^esa sin mentioned s.v. 
anuvartaka: MSV iii.88:3. 

? anuvarsa (m.? cf. Vedic anu-varsati), the raining 
upon: (megho . . .) [£a]syanuvarsena karoti trptim KP 
44.6 (vs) ; so ed. ; but tasyanu may be gen. pi., for Sasyanam 
(Tib. lo tog, crops), § 8.125. 

-anuvfihin, adj., ifc., carried along by, lit. having . . . 
as that which carries along: samsarasroto-’nuvahin (read as 
one cpd.) Dbh 28.23 (°hinas); 31.23 (°hi); Dbh.g. 11(347).17 
(m.c. °srota-anuvahina). 

anuviksepa, (m.,) scattering, dispersal (cf. Pali anu- 
vikkhitta-), i. e. gradual abandonment (?): (yatra samfidhau 
sthitvfi sarva-)samadhlnam (i. e. of all other sam°?) °pam 
ekagratam upalabhate, ayam ucyate Samfidhisamatfi 
(AdP °tah) nama samadhih $sP 1425.16; AdP Konow 
MAS I 69^27.32. (Or, gradual extension = merging in each 
other *1) 

anuvicarana (nt.), the roaming thru: sarvalokadhfitv- 
anu° Gv 149.18; Dbh 16.3. 

anu^carati (= Pali id.; rarely in RV. and once in 
Skt. acc, to BR), roams along, thru; often follows anu- 
carikramati, q.v.: pres. p. °ran(to) etc. Mv i.353.12; 
ii.452.3; 454.10; 457.15; Suy 185.3; Sukh 58.12; Jm 106.5; 
130.22; 135.1; 155.23; ger< °ritvfi Mv ii.455.16; otherwise, 
°rfimi Gv 165,14; °ret Bbh 170.4; KP 129.1; °cacfira, perf., 
Jm 185.24; -rita, ppp., Jm 163.17; Gv 226.8. 

anuvicfiraga (cf. next), meditation (on, with gen.): 
(dharmasya) anuvitarkaofi anuvicfiranfi Bbh 30.13. 

anuvicfirayati, °te (= Pali °reti), meditates on, thinks 
on: RP 4.12 (buddhagocaram) °rayamfinah; ppp. °rita, 
Bbh 39.15; 396.7, following (manasfi) anuvitarkita ; 
°rayanti LV 219.18 (vs), apparent object nai?kramyaSabdo, 
(the sun and moon, at the abhini$kramana) meditate on the 
word (sound?) of (the Bodhisattva’s) departure from the 
world (?). Either °£abdo is acc. sg. (§ 8.36), or read °$abdfi 
(acc. pi.) with Calc, against all Lefm.’s mss.; or there is 
some other corruption in °6abdo, which is not found in 
Tib.: mhon par hbyuh (== abhiniskramana) la rjes su rtog 
par byed, make careful consideration of the ( world-)rennucia - 

anuvicintayati (= Pali id.), reflects on, considers: 




°tayanti Kv 65.9; opt. °tayet SP 72.10; °tayeyuh SP 31.10; 
°taye(h) Lank 11.13; impv. °tayata Kv 25.6; pres. p. 
°tayata (instr.) Divy 412.15; °tayamanah SP 108.4 (prose); 
ppp. °tita SP 76.13; ger. °tya SP 215.2, 3; LY 405.1; Divy 
94.6; 109.3; Kv 13.19; ppp. of caus. °cintayitah SP 109.2 
(prose) caused to consider , see § 34.9. 

anuvitarkana (cf. next), study , reflection (on, with 
gen.): Bbh 30.13, see anuvicarana. 

antivitarkayati (= Pali °takketi), ponders, reflects on: 
ppp. °tarkita Mvy 6684; (foil, by anuvicarita) Bbh 39.14; 
396.7; periphrastic fut. tany anuvitarkayita bhavati, he is 
to reflect on them, Dbh 25.6. 

anuvidita, adj. ( = Pali id., Sn 528, 530), experienced , 
‘who has come to thorough understanding, w ell-in formed* 
(CPD): Mv iii.397.13; 398.4 (vss), = Pali Sn (above). 

anuvidis, f. (blend of Skt. vidis and Pali anudisa), 
supplementary direction, semi-cardinal point, = vidis, in 
Bet 328.11 (— &iks 245.18, where text na tu vidisam); in 
£iks 252.15 text correctly nanuvidisam (acc. sg.); in these 
adhah and urdhvam are separately mentioned, as in AsP 
481.18-19 mordhvam madho ma canuvidisam avalokayan 
gah; but for this fact, Sukh 36.11 could easily be taken to 
prove that anu° means specifically the nadir and zenith, 
since, after the 4 cardinal points (°pascimottarasu diksu), 
it follows with adha urdhvam anuvidiksu. But the above 
passages show that adha urdhvam in Sukh must not be 
taken with anu°, which must apparently mean instead the 
semicardinal points (not otherwise mentioned here). 

anuvirajita, adj., resplendent : °sar!ro (mss. °ra): Mv 

anuvilokana (nt. ; = Pali id.), looking over thoroughly, 
examination: buddhadharmade£ananu° Gv 98.23. 

anuvilokayati ( = Pali °keti, in sense 1), (1) looks over, 
views completely: °kayati LV 62.6; °kayanti LV 62.21; 
Jm 92.16; °kayann (pres, p.) LV 101.6; (2) metaphorically, 
considers, ponders : cintayann anuvilokayan (ManjuSriyam, 
who was not present) Gv 529.4. 

Anuvaineya, n. of a settlement (nigama) of the 
Maineya people: LV 225.6. Tib. rjes su dpag pa, acc. to 
Das = anumana, to weigh, deliberate upon . No v.l.; but 
it is hard to doubt phonetic variation or corruption be- 
tween m and v here (§ 2.30). 

anuvyanjana, nt. (= Pali id.), erroneously written 
°cana SP 62.3 (WT em.), minor or secondary characteristic, 
of things in general, associated with nimitta, q.v. ; the 
Buddha (or a Bodhisattva) is neither nimitta-grahin nor 
anuvyanjana-grahin (Pali °gahi), Mv iii.52.6, 12; £iks 
357.2; also, specifically, one of the 80 minor marks or 
characteristics of a mahapurusa, esp. a Buddha: SP 259.4; 
264.3; LV 34.21; 100.2; 103.12; 270.17-18; 428.4; Mv i.38. 
14; 50.3; 237.8; 335.12; ii.38.16; Divy 46.29; 75.3; Av 
i.18.1. Lists are given LV 106.11 ff. ; Mv ii.43.8 ff. ; Mvy 
268 ff. ; Dharmas 84 ; a Pali list cited by Burnouf, Lotus 
App. VIII, 2, from the Dharmapradipika ; this I have been 
able to use only at second-hand, from Burnouf. (In Bbh 
376.11 ff. a wholly discordant list which consists simply of 
80 parts of the body.) From the five lists above mentioned 
I have tried to reconstruct, as well as possible, what may 
have been the original list; some items are conjectural. In 
order, the Pali list is quite close to Mvy and Dharmas ; Mv is 
not too remote from it ; LV is radically shifted in order. In 
my list I cite adjectival forms (applied to the Buddha), as in 
Mvy; some texts add -ta, making abstract nouns: 1. 
(a)tamra-nakha; 2. snigdha-n°; 3. tunga-n 0 ; 4. vrttanguli; 
5. anupurvanguli; 6. citanguli; 7. (ni-)gudha-£ira (veins); 
8. nirgranthi-$° ; 9. gudha-gulpha; 10. avisama-pada ; 11 
simha-vikranta-gamin ; 12. naga-v°-g°; 13. hamsa-v°-g°; 
14. vrsabha-v°-g°; 15. pradaksinavarta-gamin ; 16. caru~g°; 
17. avakra-g°; 18. vrtta-gatra; 19. mrsta-g 0 ; 20. anupurva- 
g°; 21. 6uci-g°; 22. mrdu-g°; 23. vi£uddha-g°; 24. paripurna- 
vyanjana ( sex organs complete); 25. prthu-caru-janu-man- 

dala; 26. sama-krama; 27. sukumara-gatra; 28. adlna-g°; 
29. (?) anutsanna-g°; 30. susamhata-g°; 31. suvibhaktanga- 
pratyanga; 32. (?) vitimira-vi^uddhaloka ; 33. vrtta-kuksi; 
34. mrsta-k°; 35. abhugna-k°; 36. (?) ksamodara; 37.gam- 
bhira-nabhi; 38. (pra-)daksinavarta-nabhi ; 39. samanta- 
prasadika; 40. 6uci-samacara; 41. vyapagata-tila-kalaka- 
gatra; 42. tula-(?)sadrsa-sukumara-pani; 43. snigdha- 
panilekha; 44. gambhira-p°; 45. ayata-p°; 46. (? bimba- 
prati)-bimbostlia ; 47. natyayata-vadana ; 48. mrdu-jihva; 
49. tanu-j°; 50. rakta-j°; 51. gaja-garjita-(?)jImuta-ghosa; 
,52. madhura-(?)caru-manju-svara; 53. vrtta-damstra; 54. 
tiksna-d°; 55. ^ukla-d°; 56. sama-d°; 57. anupurva-d°; 
58. tunga-nasa; 59.suci-n°; 60. visuddha-netra; 61. vi£ala- 
n°; 62. citra-paksma; 63. sitasita-kamala-dala-(? sakala-) 
nayana; 64. (?) ayata(asita?)-bhru; 65.slaksna-bhru; 66. 
(?) anuloma-bhru ; 67. snigdha-bhru ; 68. pinayata-karna; 
69. (?) sama (or, avisama)-k° ; 70.(?) anupahata-karnendriya ; 
71. (?) suparinata-lalata; 72. prthu~I°; 73. (su-)paripur- 
nottamanga; 74. (?) asita-(or, bhramara-sadrsa)-ke£a; 75. 
(?) cita (Tib. on Mvy stug pa, thick) -ke£a; 76. slaksna-ke^a; 
77. asamlulita-kesa ; 78. aparusa-ke^a; 79. surabhi-ke^a; 
80. srivatsa-svastika-nandyavarta-vardhamana-(? or, lali- 
ta-)panipada. There are of course variants for many of 
these, but except as indicated by question-marks and 
parentheses, I believe the list is substantially original. 

anuvyavalokita, continuously gazed at (by, in comp.): 
sarvabodhisattvanu 0 Gv 533.11. 

anu-vyavaharati, operates according (to something 
else): Bbh 174.(14-)15 me . . . andhasyacaksusmatah tatha- 
gatacaksusaivanuvyavaharatah, of me who am blind, sight- 
less, and who only by the eye of the Tathdgata carry on 
according (to it). Cf. next. 

arm- vya vahara (m.), regular , successive (in stages), or 
corresponding (anu) process, operation, or business: °ra- 
hetuh Bbh 97.10, 16; 99.15; 100.14; laukikarthanu°ra-tah 
140.18. Cf. prec. 

anu-vyakrta (cf. vyakaroti 2), prophesied afterwards 
(anu): Mv i.2.2, 3, 7. 

amivraja (m.?), the following after : (sc. mama) °ja- 
matrena Gv 540.24, by merely following (me). Cf. Skt. 
anuvrajana (Schmidt's Nachtrage); should we emend to 
this? The parallel nouns are -ana formations. 

anusamsa, m. ; c sa, f. ; also anusamsa °sa; and 
anrsamsa, Buddhacarita 6.12, mss. (Johnston em. anu- 
Samsa; Tib. supports anu° or anu°, rjes-su); acc. to Kern 
SBE 21.336 note 1, anrSamsa in title of SP chap. 18, but 
KN ed. has °nu° (quantity of preceding a- obscured by 
samdhi); La Valtee-Poussin, Bodhicaryavatarapahjika 22 
n. 3, assumes anr° as orig. form; Pali only anisamsa; BHS 
mss. often 0 sam6° for °^ams°; benefit, blessing, advantage, 
profit, as derived from virtuous actions of various kinds; 
Pali lists five (PTSD; other lists occur), and five are often 
mentioned in BHS, but they are different for different 
works of merit, and other numbers (as 10, 18) also occur; 
I have not found the PTSD list in BHS. Forms: anusamsa, 
m., Mv ii.81.2 eso 'nuSamso dharme suclrne; Sutral. i.3, 
comm.; Divy 437.25; Siks 16.8; 124.2; Bbh 196.6; 304.12 
ye . . . anu£amsa(h) ; Karmav 40.22 (note katame following; 
here the five are those of Pali AN iii.244.8 ff., only the 
first two being named in Karmav); anusamsa, f., Mvy 2626 
(Tib. phan yan, read phan yon); Bbh 42.12 ima(h) . . . 
anu£amsa(h); anusamsa or °sa, m. or f., Mmk 658.27 (n. 
pi.); Dbh 32.6 °sanugata-; anusamsa, m., SP 296.1 anu- 
samsa^; 391.1 bahun anu^amsan; Mv ii.324.9 
(vs), mss. anusamsa, but meter requires anu°; form app. 
acc. sg. ; Senart em. anisamsam; ii.372.16 (mss. anu^amso, 
Senart em. °sam); Av i. 21 3. 12 ime . . . anuSamsah; §iks 
121.2 anu£amsa(h); anusamsa or °sa, m. or f., SP 373.8, 
12 (°sah, n. pi.); on anrsamsa see above; anusamsa or 
anu 0 , m. (initml vowel obscured by samdhi), SP 420.11 
(prose) °sa(h), with ime; Bbh 296.21 °sah, n. pi., with m. 




pronouns; Divy 92.25 °sa(h), n. pi. (note following katame); 
302.22 pancanuSamsan; 436.17 Samadh 19.1 °sa-, in 
comp.; anuSamsa or anu°, ft, Mv iii.357.13 (prose) naiskra- 
myanusamsa-vyavadanam ; Mv ii.373.18 -sa(h), mss., acc. 
pi. (Senart em. °sam); title of SP chap. 18 °sa-parivartah; 
anu° or anu°, m. or f., SP 421.10; Divy 567.7; Karmav 
31.15 11. (all n. pi.); Bhvr. adjective, -anu° or -anu°, 
mahanu 0 Mv iii.221.5; LY 439.6; Divy 228.17; Av ii. 108.1; 
alpanu 0 Mv iii.221.3. 

-anusamsaka (or -anu°), = anusamsa, q.v., in 
Bhvr. adj. cpd. : mahanu 0 Divy 200.14, of great advantage. 

anusakya? Mv i.23.11, mss. °kya or nanusakya; 
Senart em. anusakyam (not explained); I suggest anusak- 
(k)ya or nanu 0 , ger., following , see Chap. 43, s.v. sakk; 
note avasakkanti in preceding line. 

anusaya, m. (= Pali anusaya; see pw s.v. for rare 
Skt. occurrences with similar mg.; essentially a Buddhist 
word), propensity (usually to evil), (innate) proclivity 
(inherited from former births), disposition (to do something, 
usually evil); the whole of ch. v of AbhidhK (La Vallee 
Poussin vol. 4, p. 1-118) deals with them; they are iden- 
tified or associated with klega, paryavasthana, and 
asrava, and they are the ‘root’ of bhava, renewed or 
continued existence, 1. c. p. 1. They number 7 in Pali: 
(kama-)raga, patigha, ditthi, vicikiccha, mana, bhavaraga, 
avijja (CPD); and in BHS 7 or (the two ragas being taken 
together) 6: (kama-)raga, pratigha, (bhavaraga), mana, 
avidya, drsti, vicikitsa or vimati (1. c. 2, 3); or (ibid. 9), 
dividing drsti in five, ten anusaya; or (ibidem) by further 
classification, 98 (acc. to Yogacaras, ib. 21 n. 1, 128); on 
the 98 cf. Sutral. xiv. 46, L6vi's note; LV 372.13. Clearly 
of evil propensities LV 351.8 (udghatita) anusaya(h); 363.4 
purimam (from former births) anusayam; 371.16, read 
sanusaya-mulajala with v.l. for text °jata; 373.9 mulakle- 
£ah sanuSayah; 373.17 anuSaya-patala(h) masses of anu- 
iaya , compared to clouds; Gv 387.4 bandhananusaya- 
paryavasthana-vasagatah ; Mvy 862 nanadrsty-anusaya-; 
2136 (follows bandhanam) ; Lank 140.7 ; Divy 210.5 ; 314.21 ; 
£iks 19.18 trsnanuSayah; 50.9; 232,12; Bbh 202.20; 388.8; 
Dbh 75.7 so ’nusayanam a£aya-sahaja-citta-sahaja-tam 
ca yathabhutam prajanati, the fact that the anu° are born 
with intention and thought , and see ff. (75.7-13); in Pali 
asaya and anusaya, disposition (or intention, asaya) and 
propensity , are often mentioned together as parallels, and 
are compounded; so BHS a£ayanu£aya, Divy 46.23; 47.9; 
48.12; 49.11; 209.12 etc.; Av i.64.12 etc.; in these the cpd. 
usually refers to the mental condition of persons ripe for 
conversion; Speyer, Index to Av, renders inclination of the 
heart , as if a tatpurusa, but this seems clearly wrong; it 
is a dvandva. In Av i. 169. 14 a£ay anuSayam is parallel 
with, and follows, nidanam (q.v. 2). 

anu-salya-samabrmhana-ta (cf. samabrmhana), 
state of the continuous (constant, anu) plucking out of thorns 
(i. e. evils): °tayai, dat., Gv 491.22. 

anuSaksyate (°ti), ? fut. of anu-£as, see § 31.25. 
anusasana (= °m, q.v.), instruction : Mvy 1439; [Jm 
29.5 °nam, ed. by em., all mss. °nlm]. 

anu&asanl (~ Pali anusasanl, commoner than °na, as 
in BHS; cf. also °na; in Skt. only °na, nt.), instruction, 
admonition ; hard to distinguish from avavSda, q.v., with 
which it is often compounded; LY 432.18 -mitranu 0 ; Mv 
i.277.12 = 279.21 = 281.19; 282.2; iii.51.17; 128.17; Gv 
179.11; 223.16 sarvabodhisattvanuSasanlsu ; 464.10 (cited 
Siks 36.2); Siks 2.6; 73.12 °m-gatham; 184.3; 286.4 
(Transl. for those who admonish; rather, admonitions or 
instructions); Jm 29.5, see prec. ; anu£asani-pratiharya, one 
of three kinds of miracles performed by Buddhas (see 
pratiharya), Mvy (232-)234; Mv i.238.5; iii.137.17; 
321.13; Dharmas 133; Gv 537.8 (in Pali also anusasanl- 

anu&asti, f. (cited once in Skt., BR 5.992, on Max 

Muller’s authority; = Pali hnusatthi, AMg. anusatthi; cf. 
anu&asam, and anusasti), instruction : LV 364.4 (vs) na 
ca chidyati sa anusasti; Bbh 210.5 °ti-pratiharya = the 
more usual anusasanl-pra°. 

anu&iksana (nt. ; to prec.), imitation: Siks 215.13 
°na-cetasah; Bbh 138.13 °nata£ ca; Gv 318.25 tathagat- 

anu-siksati, °te, °^iksayati, °te (= Pali anusik- 
khati; not in this mg. in Skt.), imitates, with gen. of person, 
and usually loc. (rarely acc.) of thing: foil, by virtual 
synonyms anuvidhiyate, anukaroti Mvy 8705 °se anuvi- 
dhlye anukaromi; Bhik 10a.l tesam . . . siksayam (see 
Siksa, 2) °se etc., as prec.; SP 55.14 °sase lokavinaya- 
kanam; Mv ii.315.2 mama ca anuSiksitva, and imitating 
me; RP 57.14 tasya canuSiksitva, 15 punyarasmer anu^ik- 
samanah, imitating P.; Siks 14.6 buddhanam °sisye, 17 
tathagatasyanusiksitavyam, one must imitate the T. ; 40.5 
bodhisattvasyanuSiksamanani; Gv 462.10 kalyanamitr- 
anusiksita(h), ppp. with active mg., having imitated...; 
481.22 °satho, 2 pi. impv. m.c. for °tha; with acc. of thing, 
LY 422.5 (vs) anuSiksi (ger.) tasya mune(r) virya sthamod- 
gatam, imitating this sage in regard to exalted heroism and 
power; forms in -aya-: LV 138.6 (vs) anuSiksayi (= °ye, 
1 sg.) aham pi gunesu tesam, I too (will) imitate them in 
virtues; Bhad 17 sarvajinan’ (for °nanam) anusiksayamano, 
imitating all the Jinas; Bhad 55 tesu (v.l. tesa; gen. pi.) 
aham anusiksayamano. These -aya- forms could all be 

anusiksa (to anusiksati), imitation : SP 304.8 ye 
’nusiksa-sahayakah, who are companions in imitation (text 
uncertain, see notes in KN and WT): Jm 117.23 °ksaya; 
Divy 263.29 samanuSiksas (Bhvr. adj. cpd.). 

anuSrnoti, hears (religious instruction, dharma; 
regarded by pw as sufficiently different from normal Skt. 
usage to deserve separate record, tho I question this), 
with antike or sakaSat plus gen. of the instructor: Kv 
63.16; 95.24. 

anu^ete (cf. Pali anuseti), follows upon: Sarny. Ag. 
1.3.1 ff., see anunlyate. 

anuSraya (the only recorded derivative of Skt. anu- 
Sri is °srita, app. followed, attended, BR s.v. sri with anu, 
once only), following, attendance ?: Gv 243.17 sarvalok- 
anuSraya-tam (samdarSayamanan), displaying the condition 
of having the attendance (following) of all people(l). 

anuSrava (= Pali anussava; in Skt. mg. tradition, 
cf. Schmidt, Naehtrage), report, hearsay: anusravenapi 
Srutva Bbh 238.25. 

anuSravana, nt., and °na (to next plus -ana; = 
Pali anussavana, °na), public proclamation: °nam MSV 
ii.206.13 ff.; °na Prat 475.7. 

anusravayati (= Pali anussaveti), (1) makes to re- 
sound: jayavrddhiSabdam LV 96.18; jayavrddhir anuSra- 
vita LV 112.19; Sabdam LV 101.4; 401.2; Mv i.40.11; 
239.20; 336.13; iii.303.17; 319.14; Gv 85.20; ( 2 ) proclaims: 
ghosam (q.v.) SP 123.1; LV 266.1; Samadh 8.10; ^iks 
38.1; namagotrani Mv iii.443.20; Divy 619.3 (announces): 
proclaims a condemned criminal, i. e. announces his crime 
and sentence (publicly, as he is being led to execution), 
Av i.102.8 anuSravyamana, pass., being (thus) proclaimed; 
ii.182.6 anuSravya, ger.; ( 3 ) plays (a musical instrument): 
Av i.95.12 vinam anugravitum, inf. 

anu&ruta (— Pali [an-]anussuta; ppp. of Skt. anu- 
^ru; is this used in the same sense? cf. anuSrava), tradi- 
tionally handed down : (darSanam) anuSrutam pura Mv 

i. 165.12, repeatedly heard (or handed down) from olden 
times; Senart misunderstands; purve ananu^rutehi dhar- 
mehi iii.332.13, by principles unrecorded in traditional 

anusrotam, so prob. read with v.l. for °6rotram Mv 

ii. 161.2, adv., = Skt. anusrotas, Pali anusotam, (with the 
current =) in a conforming manner: (kanthaka)jatanugaml 

3 * 




anu£rotam pelavako (q.v.) ca niskranto, and pelavaka 
(whatever this means) went forth in a way conforming 
(to K.), he who was born with and attendant on Kanthaka (?). 

anuslista (ppp. of anu-£lis, which seems unrecorded 
anywhere), clinging to, leaning on, with gen.: prakarasya 
anu61i§tam uccam 6iri$avrksam pa^yati Mv iii.71.14. 

anu$krta (ppp. of anu-kr; but there is no record of 
this mg., nor of s prefixed to kr after anu), permitted, given 
leave : mata-pitr-anu$krta Mmk 56.3 (prose), given leave 
by her mother and father. 

anu-samvarnayati (not recorded, but cf. Skt. 
samvarnayati, Pali samvanneti, the latter especially used 
in both mgs.), (1) mentions, describes : Lank 139.9 de6- 
anapathe (q.v.) ’nusamvarnitani ; (2) sanctions, approves, 
recommends : Divy 196.3 bhasitam; 263.11; MSV i.47.7; 
Prat 478.1 maranam . . . anusamvarnayet, should re- 
commend ( speak well of) death, i. e. prompt someone to 
seek it. 

[ ?anusam£aya, in Gv 472.(4-)5 ye te karunavi- 
harina£ ca na kvacid anusamSaya-darSana-viharinah, 
seems pretty surely corrupt; prob. read anuSaya-, q.v.] 
[anusamsSrya, ed., Divy 211.27; 212.13, 22; mss. 
corrupt the first and third time; in all three read anusam- 
yaya, having toured (janapad§n). This verb is so used in 
Skt. and Pali.] 

anusamsidati, (gradually) sinks down, becomes dis- 
couraged : °danti Gv 144.13. 

anusak(k)ya, see anu£akya. 

anusamjfiapti, f., explanation : °tir datta Divy 29.11. 
anusamdhi (m., = Pali id., in mg. 2), (1) (literal, 
physical) connexion: Gv 268.5 lokadhatoh . cakravad- 
Snusamdhau, in connexion with the cakravada mountain- 
range of the lokadhatu (? or possibly to mg. 3, in the serial 
line of the. . .?); (2) (logical) connexion (esp. of a text); 
application : SP 394.1 (vs) anusamdhi sutrana sada praja- 
nati, he knows the logical connexion, or application, of the 
sutras always; Dbh 42.22; 43.3; 51.21; Mvy 2176 = Tib. 
htshams sbyor ba, conforming conjunction; Lank 143.7 
svapratyatmadharmatanusamdhih katamat (I note gen- 
der), what thing is the application (logical connexion; 
virtually = meaning) of (the term) sva ot l; vasananu- 
samdhi- LV 433.19; 442.8; Gv 108.14; (3) serial line, 
series; Suv 169.7 tasya tathagatasyanusamdhau, in that 
T.’s line (of spiritual transmission, from one T. to another); 
Gv 206.13 buddhadarSananusamdhau buddhaparampara- 
nupacchedena; Lank 59.7 bhumikramanusamdhau, in the 
serial line of steps of the (ten) Stages (of bodhisattvas) ; 
211.3 -nirodhakramanusamdhi-, serial line or succession 
(of steps) in (the development of) nirodha; ( 4 ) adv. °dhim, 
Mv iii.394.19 (repeated 395.4, 9; 396.13), following anu- 
pflrvam, anulomam, and preceding anudharmam; perhaps 
prepositional cpd. (anu governing samdhi), according to 
the totality (or profound essence, see samdhi 5), but possibly 
rather with mg. 3, seriatim; the same adverb (or anu- 
saipdhi) should be read for °dhifr in Bbh 107.15, after 
anupflrvam, and before anusahitam, q.v. 

anusambandha, connexion, association : (bodhisattvo) 
mahfisattvfinu 0 SsP 1298.15, 19 (Bhvr. ad].). 

? anusambuddha (ppp. of *anu-sam-budh, no- 
where recorded), illumined or realized : Mv iii.331.8 °dh§ 
(madhyam§ pratipada, sc. tathfigatena, which read in 
prec. line, cf. lines 10, 14); but in repetitions, lines 10, 14, 
abhisambuddha, which Pali has in the corresponding 
formula. Perhaps read abhisam 0 ? 

♦anu-sahfiya, a follower-after (cf. Skt. Gr. anu- 
sahaylbhava, Patanjali, see BR 7 App., 1695), in anu- 
sahSyibhuta(h), become followers: SP 380.3. 

anu-sahita, adj. (cpd. of anu and sahita, from saha), 
attended, joined: Mvy 2169 = Tib. rjes su hbrel ba; adv. 
°tam Bbh 107.15, after anusamdhi(h) (q.v. 4). Cf. Pali 

anusadhaka, m. (cf. sarvarthanusadhin, adj., cited 
Lex., see BR 7.835; otherwise no form of anu-sadh seems 
to be recorded in any dialect; see next), assistant (in a 
magic rite): °kena Mmk 39.17; 40.1; 48.26. 

anusadhi? (cf. prec.), accomplishment: in Mmk 
59.24 ksiprakaryanusadhy-artham, in order to the speedy 
successful completion of the performance. Or should we 
read °sadhyartham (°sadhya-)? This seems implausible. 
Or possibly °siddhy-artham? No *anusiddhi has been 

anu-s£rayati, modulates (?), of music, or plays (?): 
Lank 3.8 -gitasvara-grama-murchanadi-yuktenanusarya 
(ger. ; for continuation see anupraviSati). 

anusivana (reading uncertain; cf. anusytiti, Pali 
anusibbati, and Skt. anusyuta), sewing to one another, 
patching , mending: (ganapamSukulain . . .) Silapattena 

(mss.) bhagavato °vanam (mss. corrupt; Senart em. 
otherwise) apadye (aor.) Mv iii.313.5. 

anu-sukham, adv., according to pleasure, as much as 
one likes: Mv ii.131.8; Sukh 38.16. 

anustanayati (mss. sometimes °stanay°; anu with 
Skt. stanayati; cf. Pali anutthunati), mourns , laments: 
Mv 1.341.8; 9, 11; 342.4, 5; all aor. 3 pi. °yetsu(h). 

anusmrti, f. (= Pali anussati; virtually non-existent 
in Skt., cf. BR 5.9Q3), mindfulness: there are six anu°: 
buddhanu 0 , dharmanu 0 , samghanu 0 , ^ilanu°, tyaganu 0 , 
devatanu 0 (Dharmas devanu 0 ), all listed in Pali forms in 
Vism. (CPD), and in BHS, Mvy 1148-54; Dharmas 54; 
LV 31.18-22 (each is a dharmalokamukham) ; four others 
later named in Vism. (CPD), the first three usually com- 
pounded with sati instead of anussati: marana(-sati, or 
°nanussati), kayagata sati, anapana-sati, upasamanussati; 
these, with the other six, form a list of ten in SsP 1443.6 ff., 
the last four being anapananusmrti (prob. read so with 
SsP 60.8 for text anapanusmrtir, which could also be a 
corruption for 3nap3na, q.v.,-smrtir), udveganu 0 (instead 
of Pali upasamanu 0 ), marananu 0 , and kayagatanu 0 . Of 
all these the only one often found elsewhere, apart from 
the lists, is buddhanusmrti Divy 352.21; Av i.82.3; Suv 
7.3; Gv 61.7; cf. anusmrti buddha (loc.) abhedya Siks 
4.17, 18 (vss). Other occurrences Mvy 860; 1579 (see 
anuttarya); LV 182.21, read anusmrti bhavanu; Gv 36.9. 

anusyQti, f. (cf. s.v. anusivana; Skt. anusyuta-tva), 
(lit. the being sewn together;) close connexion, logical de- 
pendence: Mvy 7505 = Tib. rjes su hbrel ba. The next 
phrase is: asmin satldam bhavati; this makes the mg. of 
anusytiti evident, and the Tib. confirms it. 

anuhin^ate, wanders thru or after: SP 102,6 (prose), 
Kashgar rec., anuhirujamfinati (Nep. mss. parye?amai?o ; 
ed. paryatamfino, with Foucaux only); Divy 574.9 pj^hato 
’nuhin^ya, ger. Cf. anvShingati. 

anuhimavanta, adj. or (nt.?) subst., (the region) 
near the Himalaya, common in Mv, not noted elsewhere: 
°tfi, abl., Mv i.232.3; °te, loc., Mv i.253.1; 272.3; 284.8; 
350.14; 351.5; 355.3; °tarp (acc.) pravitfak ii.96.13, 
entered the (region) near the H.; °te pratyudde^e iii.29.9, 
°ta-pratyudde^e 10. 

-antlccalita, ppp. of *anu-uc-cai, pursuing, following : 
Gv 72.23-24 -prapidhy-antlc 0 . 

anflnaka, adj. (== Pali and Skt. Lex. id., Skt. antlna; 
only noted in vss, may be m.c.), not deficient, not less: 
SP 44.8 pane' anfinakSh; 83.3 pancana anfinak&nfim; 
111.4 pancSSad anunakahi; Mv ii.369.11 panca antinaka. 

antipabpmhayati, steadily increases (with object 
acc.): Bbh 153.16 °hayata (cittaprasadam), instr. sg. pres, 

anfipalipta (= Pali °litta) m.c. for anupa°, see also 
anopa 0 , unstained: SP 313.3 (vs). 

an-tthata (== an-uddhrta), see Hhata. 
anptamvada, speaking falsehood: Ud xi.13. 
anrtaka, adj. or subst. m. (= anrta; in vs, perhaps 




m.c.), lying or a liar: Ud xx.19 satyenanrtakam jayet, 
one should conquer a liar (not le mensonge with Chakravarti; 
Pali alikavadinam; all the parallel words in the vs should 
also be taken as personal) by truth. 

anenja, or Sn°, = aniiijya, q.v.; adj.: MadhK 334.8 
karmani ku^alaku^alanenjani. 

anefijya = aninjya, q.v.; adj.: Mmk 476.14 virajasko 
[a]nenjya£ ca (meter requires the a- which is elided in writ- 
ing); a- or a- (uncertain because of samdhi) Dbh 48.7 
punyapunyanenjyan abhisamskaran ; and mss. at MadhK 
543.1 kuSalakuSalanenjyadi-. 

aneda, anela, nela, adj. (= Pali aneja, °la, nela, see 
CPD s.v. anela-gala, of speech or voice; presumed to 
represent Skt. an-enas; cf. anedaka, anel°), pure , perhaps 
perfect ; acc. to Tib. on Mvy 454 mi tsugs pa, not injurious ; 
recorded only in application to sounds, and chiefly to the 
Buddha's voice: LY 286.9-10, read: aneda kalaikavarna- 
sukha (i.e. kala eka°), cf. CPD s.v. anela-gala, and Levi 
Sutral. Transl. page 143 n. 2, anela kala; of Buddha’s 
voice; the em. is further confirmed by Mvy 454 anela, of 
Buddha’s voice, foil, in 455 by kala; also in Mv iii.322.2 
prob. read anela-kalaye (for mss. °kataye; Senart em. 
anelakaye), of Buddha’s speech; anela, of human speech, 
Mmk 244.20; 330.16; °lah, of a sound (nirghosa), Sukh 
38.5; nela (vak) Dbh 24.13 (follows hitakaranl); nela- 
varna (buddhasya gira) Mv i.314.14; nelaya purnaya vaca 
(of Buddha) MSV i.273.7 (vs). 

anedaka, anelaka, f. °ika, adj. (= Pali anelaka, 
°laka, of honey; cf. aneda, °la), pure ; (a) of Buddha’s 
voice, like aneda etc., Mv i.255.21 (vs) anelikam (with 
giram, in prec. line; misunderstood by Senart); on Mv 
iii.322.2, Senart anelakaye (of Buddha’s speech), see s.v. 
aneda (read prob. anela-kalaye); (b) of honey: anedakam 
(madhu, or a synonym) Mvy 5729; Mv i.339.8; 340.13 
(°ko); Av i.187.7; 243.1; Bbh 75.11; Karmav 45.14; 
anelakam Dbh 6.8; in Mv 1.341.7 Senart anelakam, but 
mss. °dakam or °lakam (of honey); see also nidaka. 

aneya, adj., hyper-Skt. (or Pkt. dial., Pischel 236) 
for MIndic (Pali) aneja (Pkt. aneja), immovable , or free 
from desire; ep. of Buddha, Mv ii.35.6; iii.93.7; 121.5; 
(not of Buddha; text fragmentary; app. firm , hard to move ) 
Mahasamajasutra, Waldschmidt, Kl. Skt. Texte 4 p. 159, 
last line. Interpretation correct in Waldschmidt; Senart 
thinks = ananyaneya, q.v., but there is no support for 
this in Pali or elsewhere. The Pali parallel to the Mahasa- 
maj. verse, DN ii.254.18, actually reads aneja, proving 
our interpretation. 

anela and anelaka = aneda, °daka, qq.v. 

Anesa, m., n. of a samadhi, not seeking : §sP 1417.14 f. 
(defined: yatra samadhau sthitva na kamcid dharmam 
esate). The Mvy has erroneously Animisa, q.v., in place 
of this. 

anairyanika, adj. (cf. Pali aniyyanika; opp. of nairy°) 
not conducive to deliverance : Bbh 13.14 and Dbh 69.32, see 
nairy° for both. 

a-naispesikata, see nais 0 . 

anokasa, adj. Bhvr. (= Pali anokasa; for an-ava- 
k5sa), having no sufficient space, crowded: Mv i.175.12 
°$a krta svarga, the heavenly worlds are made crowded (by 
Buddha’s appearance, which leads many to heaven). Most 
mss. read anakaSa, but there can be little doubt that 
Senart’s text is correct. 

Anotaptagatra, n. of two former Buddhas in the 
same list: Mv i.141.10, 15. (Cf. Anavatapta.) 

anotrapa, adj. (see next), shameless, indecent: Mv 
iU.ll. 4 °po. The short penultimate vowel may well be 
m.c.; see otrapa. 

anotrapin, adj. (= Pali anottapin; cf. prec., otrapa, 
otrapya, avatrapya), shameless, indecent: Mv i.110.8 
(prose) °pina£ ca; in Ud xx.5 prob. read anotrapi (or °api?) 
for what ed. doubtfully records as anotrapu. 

an-odaka (— Pali id., besides an-ud°, an-ud°; in 
Pali usually adj., but also noun), ( waterless ;) as subst. a 
waterless place: Mv ii.263.1 °ke in a waterless place . The 
passage is prose; o cannot be m.c. 

anopa (m.? = Skt. anupa), marsh: Mv iii.326.21; 
the mss. are corrupt but Senart’s em., paun(larlkam yatha 
varnam anope na pralipyate, seems plausible; Pali has 
anopa, f. (CPD). 

an-opapanna, ppp. (m.c. for an-upa°), not born: Gv 

an-opama, f. °ml, adj. (= Pali id.; for Skt. an- 
upama; in BHS prob. only m.c.), matchless: Mv i. 166. 12 
(°mi); 207.18 = ii.12.8; ii.379.19; iii.110.14. All vss; so 
far as meter and text-readings are clear, m.c. 

anopalambha, m.c. for anupa°, q.v.: RP 12.10; 
KP 137.11. 

an-opalipta, neg. ppp. (= an-upa°; Pali has an-Opa° 
in vss, and so also BHS; in BHS not exclusively m.c., see 
§ 3.71), not defiled: Mv ii.419.4 (prose); Siks 46.16 (so ms.; 
vs but not m.c.); may be m.c. in Mv iii.118.9 = 326.6; 
SP 14.6 (vs); LV 224.15; Samadh p. 59 1. 9 f. 

Anomiya, nt. (cf. Pali Anoma, n. of a river, see CPD; 
plays the same rdle in the Buddha’s life-history), n. of 
a place (adhisthana) in the Malla country, south of Kapila- 
vastu, to which the Bodhisattva went first after leaving 
home: it was near the hermitage of the rsi Vasi$tha (2), 
q.v.: °yam Mv ii.164.18; 207.12; iii.189.9; °yato, abl., 
Mv ii. 166.11; 189.1. (Mss. corrupt in first occurrences.) 
anollna, see anavallna. 

an-osSna (for Skt. an-avasana), without end: anut- 
panna °na(h) Mv i.314.17 (vs), of Buddhas. 

anaupamya (nt.?), a high number: °yasya Gv 105.21. 
See s.v. poma for correspondents. 

an-aupa&amika, adj. (neg. of aupa°, q.v.), not 
tending to tranquillity: Jm 181.19 °kam (grhavasam; mss. 

anta, rp. (= Pali id., see CPD 3), contrasting principle 
or opinion: anta-samudaharah MSV i.221.8 (here, discus- 
sion as to whether Buddha and his order were greedy or 

antah-kalpa, see antara-k°. 

antah-puti, adj. (== Pali anto-puti), rotten inside: 
Mvy 9138; ed. antarputy-avasrutah, as cpd., but Mironov 
anta-puti (so Kyoto ed. v.l.) and avasrutah as separate 
words; in MSV i.50.7 (antahputir), and in Pali, where the 
same cliche of which this word forms a part occurs re- 
peatedly (see CPD), this and avassuta (= BHS avasruta) 
are separate words. Applied to a bad monk; on the orig. 
literal meaning see avasruta. Also antahputi-bhava, m., 
MSV i.49.3, 11; 50.6. 

antaka, adj. (or subst.; = Pali aaj. anta [cf. 3nta], 
Skt. antya; a MIndic form; not destructions with Senart), 
low, vile (person or thing): Mv iii.186.2-3 na atapo tapayati, 
antaka tapayanti mam; antakaS ca . . . te tapenti na 
atapo. Cf. line 4 itvaram khu ayam tapo; see itvara, 
which is the clue to the mg. of antaka. 

? antakota, nt. (Senart’s em.; mss. amba°, ava°, ata°), 
n. of some product of the carpenter’s craft: Mv ii.465.2 
°tani, 13 °ta. 

? Antakota, see Anantako^a. 

Anta-giri (= Antara-giri; neither form in Pali; 
perh. cf. Antargiri, n. of a people, Kirfel, Kosm. 74, 77), n. 
of a mountain near Rajagrha, seat of ya§t!vana: °girismini, 
loc., Mv iii.441 .15 (v.l. Antar-g°); 442.3; 443.14. 

antagraha-drsti, f. (Pali anta(g)gahaka-ditthi), the 
heresy of holding extreme views (see CPD): Mvy 1956; 
Dharmas 68; Gv 469.9; in AbhidhK. LaV-P. v. 17 f. 
paraphrased by dhruvoccheda(d°), belief in permanence or 

anta-jana, m.c. for antar-jana, q.v. 

antatas, adv. (= anta&as, antamagas, qq.v.), (even) 




so much as, Ger. sogar; (once) in fact : LY 72.6 (prose; v.l. 
antaso); 257.1; Divy 142.11; 191.3; Av ii.130.4; Kv 27.15; 
Mmk 74.11; Bbh 39.15 antato yavan nirvanam iti va, or, 
in fact, up to nirvana; 156.19 even so much as; Prat 519.10 
et alibi; Bhik 24b.l. 

anta-puti, see antah-puti. 

antamasato (°sato), adv. (blend of antamasas 
and antatas, qq.v.), so much as, Ger. sogar: (Mv i.7.10, 
Senart °masato, but mss. indicate rather antasas;) Mv 

i.211.13 = ii.15.12 °masato (vv.ll. °6ato, antamato); 
iii.92.14 °sato; in Mv i.211.5 Senart antamasato, mss. 
corruptly anasato; parallel ii.15.5 antaso. 

antamasas, adv. (= Pali antamaso; BHS also 
antasas, antatas, antama£ato, °sato), -{even) so much as, 
Ger. sogar : KP 4.4 (prose; cited Siks 52.18 as antasas); 
21.3 (prose); Liiders ap. Hoernle MR 146 antamasas for 
SP 263.11 antasas, both edd. 

anta-yugika, adj., of the last age: Bbh 14.23. 
antara (1) nt. (= Pali id., defined by karana; see 
CPD s.v. 2 antara, A, 3, kim antaram = kim karanam, 
what’s the matter ?, not well defined in Dictt.), state of the 
case, circumstance , matter, reason: Mv i.360.11 ko janati 
kim atra antaram, who knows what is the matter ( reason , 
circumstance ) in this*!; ii.66.15 na paribudhyami kim atra 
antaram, I do not understand what is the matter here; (2) nt. 
and m. (essentially = Skt. id., nt., noted here as somewhat 
peculiar idiom), interval, space between: Mv ii.101.13 
(janapadasya) antaram nasti, there was no interval of 
(space between) people, i. e., they were closely crowded 
together; Mv ii.113.9 antaro janasya nasti; (3) see triy- 

antara- kalpa, m. (== Pali °kappa), internal (sub- 
division of a) kalpa or aeon, or intermediate kalpa (period 
between major kalpas). In AbhidhK. iii.181 the var. 
antahkalpa is recorded, along with this; it seems to point 
to the first definition above, and La Valine Poussin, ad 
loc., considers this the only correct definition; there are 
80 in a mahakalpa, op. cit. 187 (in Pali 64, CPD). On the 
other hand Mvy 8281 renders antara-(kalpa) by Tib. bar 
gyi, intermediate, and similarly Sastrantara-, rogantara-, 
durbhiksantara-k° 8282-4; these suggest that antara- 
kalpas are periods of destruction or disaster for people, 
cf. CPD s.v. °kappa, a (short) intermediate period (of 
destruction of mankind). CPD recognizes both the above 
meanings, and this seems provisionally probable. It is 
often not clear which appears in specific cases; in Gv 
325.15 perhaps the second: dvadaSanam antarakalpanam 
atyayena SP 67.1 ; prabhasate taj jina agradharman . . . 
antarakalpasa§tim SP 25.8; cf. Dharmas 87 (see s.v. 
kalpa 4); SP 159.3 ff. ; Mmk 295,9 (°pam jivati). In SP 
68.10 text manujanam abhyantara-kalpa (== antara 0 ), 
but prob. read °jan' ap! antara 0 (see WT). 

antara-dvipa (m.; = Pali °dipa; Skt. *antar-dvlpa), 
island in the midst (of a body of water): Mv i.221.6 = ii.23. 
11 (prose). 

antara- dhayati (= Pali id., to Skt. antar-dhatte, 
-dhlyate; see Chap. 43, s.v. dha (8); also antara- hayate 
and ff.), disappears: °dhayisuh (v.l. °su), aor., ,LV 397.21; 
ppp. antara-hita Mv i.50.14 (cf. antarhita in similar phrase 
51.10); i.206.6 ,= ii.9.22; i.340.14; ii.101.8; 179.8; iii.116.2 
ff. ; Gv 325.16 (prose!) °hitesu. Cf. also antardhita. 

antara- hapayati (sometimes antar-h°; cf. Pali 
antara-dhapeti ; caus. to °hayate, °ti, q.v.), causes to 
disappear: impv. °hapaya Mv i.75.14, so Senart, app. with 
1 inferior ms. ; most mss. °hayana or °na; fut. °hapayisyanti 
RP 17.15; ger. °hapayitva Mv ii. 431.1 (and see Mv iii.6.9, 
under °hayate); antarhapayitva (semi- Skt.) Divy 329.12; 
ppp., read °hapifam for antara-hayitam (v.l. antarhay 0 ) 
caused to disappear Mv iii.424.16. 

antara- hayate, °ti, antar-ha° (= antara- dhayati, 
q.v. ; except the ppp. °hita, for which see antara- dhayati, 

no form of this verb with h for dh seems to be recorded 
outside of BHS), disappears: Mv i. 175.9 °hayate or (un- 
metr.) °ante (mss., Senart em. °yatu); °hayati Mv iii.410.12 
(prose); impv. °hayatu Mv iii.346.21; aor. antarhayetsu, 
v.l. antarahayetsuh Mv i.231.2 (prose) ; antarahaye i.339.18 ; 
340.11; °hayi ii.256.11 (prose); °hayitha (3 sg. ; v.l. °tha) 

ii. 240.17; °hayetsuh (3 pi.; cf. above) ii.258.3; 259.2; 

iii. 93.2; °hayisu (3 pi.) Suv 158.1 ; inf. °hayitum Mv ii.97.10, 
20; ger., apparently in caus. sense, concealing, iii.6.9 an- 
tarahayitva .(br|hmanavesam, his brahman’s garb; but the 
mss. are Reported as reading °hayatva; prob. -ya- is an error 
or misreading for -pa-, and the true reading is °hapayitva; 
see °hapayati); see also next two. 

antara- hayita, caused to disappear, Mv iii.424.16; 
read °hapita, see °hapayati. 

antara-hiyati (for °te, equivalent to Skt. antar- 
dhiyate, pass, to antar-dha; cf. antara- hayate), pres, 
pple. °h!yanto being covered over (in a basket) Mv ii.178.3 
(mss. °nti, °ntl). 

antara (= Skt. and Pali id.; see also antarat) be- 
tween, with acc. and gen., once app. nom. (!); repeated 
(usually with ca after antara both times) with each of two 
nouns; so Pali, but not Skt.; Lat. inter may be thus used 
twice, with each noun; after the double phrase, atrantara 
(°rat, or °re) is often added: gen., Mv ii.264.5 an° ca 
bodhiyastiye an° ca nadlye, between the Bodhi tree and 
the river; acc., Jm 19.21 an° ca tarn bhadantam an° ca 
dvaradehalim ; foil, by atrant 0 , Divy 94.1 an° ca sravastim 
an° ca rajagrham atrantarat; 151.5, 7 an° bhadanta (in 
7 an° ca) Sravastim an° ca jetavanam atrantarat; 275.26 
an° ca rajagrham an° ca campam atrantare; Av i.256.6 
an° ca rajagrham an° ca venuvanam atrantare; nom. (?) 
Divy 514.11 an° ca varanasi (but read °sim?) an° codyanam 

antara- katha (= Pali id.), mutual talk y conversation 
(CPD thinks antara should be treated as a separate word, 
and so Divy 143.14 is printed, but it seems to me difficult 
to take it otherwise than as a cpd.): Av i.230.12 anandasya 
subhadrena parivrajakena sardham antarakatham (mss. 
°tha) viprakrtam (mss. °ta; Pali also uses vippakata with 
this word, see CPD) asrausid; antara-katha-samudahara, 
m., ibid., Divy 143.14; Av i.230.15; Pischel, SBBA 1904 
p, 818, fol. 173a; MSV i.37.9. 

Antara- giri = Anta-giri, q.v.: °girismim Mv 


antarat (= Skt. Pali antara; prob. false hyper-Skt. 
for this, interpreted as MIndic abl.), (1) adv., in the mean- 
time: SP 159.6 (prose); 161.9 (vs; here ed. em. °ra; Nep. 
mss. quoted 'ntaran (before k-), read doubtless °rat; 
Kashgar rec. °re); (2) prep, with gen. and loc., between: 
atha gayayam bodhimandasya cantarad LV 405.3, be- 
tween Gaga and the Bodhimanda ; also follows yavac ca . . . 
yavac ca . . ., from . . . to, Divy 386.9-10, see yavat (3); 
repeated, like antara, with both nouns, and both times 
followed by ca, antarac ca rajagrhasyantarac ca gayaya(h) 
LV 246.3 (read, however, gayayam as in 405.3 above, 
with all mss. and Calc.); with antare instead of the first 
antarat, antare ca mucilindabhavanasy antarac caja- 
palasya, between M.’s dwelling and A.’s (fig-tree), LV 380.11 ; 
(3) after, with gen. (not in Pali; cf. Skt. nimisantarat 
after a moment, pw s.v. antara, 2 g); SP 67.3 (prose), mss. 
mamantarad (so read) or °ram, after me; KN em. mamat- 
antaram, intending mamanan 0 ; WT em. mamottaram; 
Tib. cited by WT as (nahi) hog tu, after (me). 

antarantaram (?), °rat, °rS (?), adverbs (= Skt. 
°ra, see pw s.v. antara; Pali antarantara, in temporal 
sense), (1) from time to time, now and then: SP 323.3 
(prose), text °r am, vv.ll. (apparently) °ra and °ra (or does 
the note intend °ram?); I would read °ra, possibly with 
‘hiatus-bridging’ -m added; (2) local, here and there: °rat 
Divy 155.25. Cf. antarat (= Skt. antara). 




antar-apatti, f. (= Pali id.), a (repeated) offense 
performed during probation (parivasa) and concealed: 
MSY iii.34.15 °tim purvapattipratirupam praticchannam; 
35.2, 5 etc. This leads to mtilaparivasa. 

antara- parinirvayin, adj. (= Pali °nibbayl), acc. 
to Tib. on Mvy 1015 (bar ma dor, for antara) attaining 
nirvana in the intermediate state (between death and re- 
birth; i. e. before the soul can be reborn in a new existence); 
Dharmas 103; Mv i.33.6. Acc. to CPD, rather entering 
nirvana before the term , i. e. before having passed the first 
half of life (in the middle of life). This seems to be the 
orthodox Pali interpretation, but the Tib. interpretation 
was also known (cf. CPD s.v. antarabhava) ; it is refuted 
in Kathavatthu viii.2 (Transl. pp. 212-3). 

antara- purna-ta, state of being full in the middle : 
Gv 64.12 (mahasagarasya). 

antara- bhava, m. (= Pali and Skt. Lex. id.), inter- 
mediate state of existence (between death and rebirth; in 
standard Pali rejected as a heresy, see antarapari- 
nirvayin): Mvy 7680; Bbh 390.19 ff. (discussion); Lank 
160.5; 177.4; 370.14. See MadhK p. 286 note 1, and next; 
AbhidhK. LaV-P. Index s.v.; Sutral. xviii.84-88, comm. 

antarabhavika, adj., . of or belonging to the inter- 
mediate state (between death and rebirth; see antara- 
bhava): Lank 355.13; 370.13. See also antarabhavika, 
which MadhK 286.9 reads by em., but mss. antar°. 

antara- marSana (nt.), stroking inside (the garments; 
of a woman, by a man); Bhlk 28a,l ya . . . adhaS caksusor 
urdhvam janvor °nam (text °marsanam) paramarSanam 
(text °marsanam) svikuryad. (Perhaps less specifically 
intimate stroking 1). 

antaraya, nt. (only m. in Skt. and Pali), hindrance: 
LV 111.6 (vs) na cantarayam iha. (Could perhaps be 
analyzed as °raya-m-iha, with 'hiatus-bridging' m.). 

[antarSyana, nt., often in AsP (e. g. 495.5) erroneously 
for antarapana, market.] 

antarayika, adj. ( = Pali id.; also antar°, and neg. 
an-antar°, qq.v.), connected with hindrances ; causing 
obstacles or obstruction , regularly with dharma, obstructive 
conditions (so in Pali with dhamma): °ka-dharma Mvy 
133; 9324; °ka dharmas Prat 514.5 ff. 

? antaravSsa (m.?), interval : Mv i.258.20 (prose), 
ardhayojanikenantaravasena, at intervals of half a yojana 
(but mss. °antarvas°, °antavas°; em. Senart). Cf. Pali 
antaravasa, Dip. 5.80 Tambapanni-antar 0 , apparently 
interval of time ; interregnum (so Oldenberg, CPD). 

antarika, adj. (to Skt. antara), neighboring, situated 
near: Mvy 8593, 8594. 

antarika (= Pali id.; in Skt. cited from Kaut.A., 
see Schmidt, Nachtrage; cf. antarika ; see also lok- 
antarika, separately), space between , interval , interstice ; 
in some of the following ant° may be intended, samdhi 
ambiguous: Mv i.13.12 tesam (sc. parvatanam) antarikam 
(all mss.; Senart em. °kam!) . . . praveSitah (so read); 
i.21.1 parvatantarikam (all mss., perhaps to be kept as 
adv. from cpd., in between the mountains; Senart em. °ka-); 

i. 21.3 parvatantarikam (so Senart with most mss., but 
C, one of the best, °ka; read °ka or °kam) praviianti; 

ii. 300.19 sapta parvata dvlpantarika (cpd. adj.), the 7 
mountains between the continents; Dbh 58.13 bodhisattva- 
caryantarika, of the dividing line between the various 
bhumi; SsP 1442.20 prathamasya dhyanasya dvitlyasya 
dhyanasyantarika, the interval between the 1st and 2nd 

antariksa, adj. (= Skt. ant°), of the atmosphere, 
atmospheric , of a class of gods, see deva; also antariksa, 
and under antarlksecara, q.v. : LY 367.7 (devas); Av 
i.109.7 (devasura . . . mahoragah; Speyer em. ant°). 

[antari, implied in LV 28.18 kuto ntari; should be 
read kutottari, i. e. -uttarl, how much less (a woman) 
superior (to Maya); see §11.3.] 

antariksa, adj. ( = antariksa; Skt. ant°), of the 
atmosphere, a class of gods, see deva: LV 266.1, 4; 396.14; 
401.1. As noun, antariksa also occurs in Skt., but much 
more commonly in BHS (= antariksa): e. g. SP 23.14; 
69.10; LY 75.7; 218.18; Mv i.31.4; 33.5; 179.10; Divy 
324.28; 340.5; Suv 84.9; RP 45.20; Gv 117.15. 

antarlksadevalipi, a kind of script: LV 126.4. 
antarlksecara, adj. m. (with deva; cf. Pali antalik- 
khacara, which seems not to be recorded of any class or 
category of gods), moving or living in the atmosphere, n. 
of a class of gods, see deva; = antariksa, °iksa, antar- 
iksavasin: Mv i.40.14; 229.15; 240.4; ii.138.12; 348.16; 
in all after bhumya deva, and before other classes of 
kamavacara- gods. 

-antarlya (1) adj. ifc. (from Skt. antara), belonging 
to a different . . ., see gotrantariya, and cf. -antarlyaka; 
[(2)? nt. (= Skt. Lex. and Pali Lex. id., Pkt. antarijja; 
once in Skt. literature, see Schmidt, Nachtrage), under- 
garment: SP 212.12; 213.2 baddhva (mss. in 212.12 bad- 
dho) 'ntarlye. But WT cite ms. K' both times as bad- 
dhvottarlye, supported by Tib. bla gos, upper garment 
(Skt. uttarlya); doubtless read so.] 

-antarlyaka, adj. ifc., = -antariya, adj.; see jaty- 

antare ( — Skt., BR s.v. antara, 2e), prep, with 
gen., between; paralleled by antarat before the second 
noun, LY 380.11, see s.v. antarat. 

antarena, instr. of n. used as adv. and prep, (in 
this sense nowhere recorded in Skt. or M Indie), (at a) 
later time (orig. interval ): yena antarena aham prasuta 
bhavisyam tato gamisyam Mv i.365.3, at what later time, 
after what interval, when (later) . . .; adv., afterwards, after 
(this) Mv ii.362.8 (with no dependent noun; Senart wrongly 
in the interval ); atrantarena after this Mv i.96.6 (so mss., 
to be kept, Senart em. wrongly); mam antarena after me 
SP 26.4 (vs); LY 39.4 (prose); yo (e)tasya (mss.) mrglye 
antarena Mv i.362.5, 7, who (comes) after this doe (here 
Senart correctly recognizes the mg., referring to Burnouf 
on SP 26.4, where the right interpretation is already 
given). (In Mv ii.209.6 mamantarena means with reference 
to me; Senart misunderstands. Skt. uses antarena in this 
sense with acc. and also with gen., see BR 5.997.) 

antaroddana, nt. (see uddana), internal , inserted 
summary of details of contents (in the midst of a story, 
referring to an episode), Tib. bar sdom (bar = antara, 
°ra-): Mvy 1475; Divy 102.27 (a mark of punctuation 
should be put before and after °danam; what follows is 
a tabulation of the proper names occurring in the following 
episode); MSV i.69.16 (referring to a minor part of the 

[antargata, Skt., see antogata.] 
antar-jana, m. (once antajana, m.c. ; = Pali anto- 
jana), people of the inside, family, household: LY 135.4 
antajanam (m.c.; v.l. antarj 0 , unmetr.); otherwise always 
antarj 0 : LV 157.11, 14; 302.18; Mvy 3916; Divy 301.12; 

antardhani (f.?; cf. Skt. °dhana, Pali antaradhana; 
more particularly cf. AMg. antaddhanl, the art of making 
oneself invisible; and see next), disappearance : Bbh 14.13, 
21 saddharmantardhanim (acc. sg.). 

antardhanika, adj. (to prec., q.v.), causing to dis- 
appear (by magic), ep. of mantras, cf. Pali antaradhana- 
manta: Mmk 151.20 °ka-mantra(h) ; usually as subst. 
without expression of mantra, a magic charm having this 
effect, Mmk 670.2 °kam (sc. mantram) bhavati; 705.29; 
sarvantardhanikanam raja (696.10 prabhur) bhavati, he 
becomes master of all (charms) that cause invisibility, Mmk 
291.24; 295.8, 14; 696.10; 719.2. 

antar-dhita, ppp. (hyper-Skt. — Skt. antar-hita, 
BHS antara-hita; see antara- dhayati), concealed: Gv 
444.13 (prose). 

antar- puti 



antar-pdti, see antah-puti. 

antarmukha, adj. (pendant to Skt. bahirmukha), 
turned towards (loc.): antarmukho nirvane bahirmukhah 
samsarad MSV iv.22.6; this (perh. with MIndic antemukho 
or antomukho?) was surely the orig. reading in Divy 
1.18 (delete na; construe bahirmukhah with the abl. as 

antarvartinl (? possibly cf. Skt. antarvatni, f. to 
°vant, Pan. 4.1.32; but the word has the aspect of a 
cpd. of Skt. antar with -vartin), pregnant : patni antar- 
vartini samvrtta Divy 234.17. 

antarvar§a, or °§a, m. (= Pali antaravassa, anto- 
vassa), the rainy season : °sa Mvy 9424; °sa MSV iii.27.16, 
17; 28.3, 4. 

(antarvasika, m. [prob. = Skt. id., rare, see pw 
s.v. ; elsewhere Skt. antarvanisika], superintendent of the 
inner apartments (harem): Mvy 3690 = Tib. nan pahi 

antar- hapayati, °hayati, °te, see antara-ha°. 

antavasin (= Skt. Lex. id., for the usual antevasin), 
pupil : Sukh 3.5 karmarantavasina, instr. 

antaSalya-, see antahSalya-. 

anta&as, adv. (== antatas, antama^as, etc., qq.v.), 
so much as, Ger. sogar: Mvy 6331 = Tib. tha na; SP 
108.3; 224.6 ff. antasa ekapi gatha, so much as a single 
stanza ; 263.11 (Kashgar rec. antamaSah, q.v.); 277.6 
nantaso dharmasamragenapi, not even with passion for the 
Law ; 277.7; 286.3; 349.4; 372.2; Mv i.104.6; ii.15.5 (see 
s.v. antama£atas) ; Divy 161.24; Av i.314.6 (kecit suvar- 
nam kecid antaSah karsapanam, some gold , some as much 
as,' i. e. at least, a karsapana ); Suv 6.12; 89.5 (foil, by 
prag eva, not to speak of...); 125.10; 129.2, 5; 132.9; 
RP 57.12; Siks 16.13 etc.; Gv 160.3-4; 175.20; Dbh 
23.14; Sukh 71.14 etc.; Lank 255.3 tato ’ntasah (so read 
with citation Siks 135.6 for text dasa-) prakrtimrtany 
api; Vaj 25.2 etc. 

antagcalin, going within (to the heart, reality, of 
matters): Lank 10.7 °calina, na bahyarthadrstyabhini- 

antahSalya- (once in SB, once Cl. Skt., see BR, 
pw), inner dart, fig. internal torment, anguish: only noted 
in cpd. antahSalyaparidaghajata (also anta£°, antos°) 
afflicted with the anguish of internal torment Mv i.42.3 = 
230.11 = 240.20; ii.163.2; 268.9, 12; 276.16. 

-antika, adj. (from anta; = Pali id.), ending in . . .: 
abhisamayantika, ending in abhisamaya, q.v. (1): °kam 
kusalamulam Mvy 1208; °kah (without noun, context 
not clear; sc. margah?) Mvy 6891; belonging to, related to, 
connected with, occasioned by, (prakramana-, etc.; corresp. 
to Pali list Vin. i.256,20 ff.) MSV*. For other 
cpds. see s.v. -amSika, and &akhslntika. 

antikat, adv., postpos. (1) than, with gen.: mam- 
antikad abhirupatara Divy 75.1, 6; purvikanam antikad 
Divy 115.14; 117.14, 28; tavantikat Divy 85.29; (asya . . .) 
punyaskandhasyantikad asau paurvakah punyaskandhah 
satatamim api kalam nopaiti Vaj 35.7, in comparison 
with this . . .; (2) on the part of, with gen., substantially = 
by: SP 109.5 tathagatasyantikad esu dharmesv abhiyuk- 
ta(h), charged, employed in these (inferior) conditions of 
life on the part of (i. e. by) the T . ; wrongly Burnouf and 

antikavacara, in. (= Pali santikavacara, DN i.206.2), 
(one who lives near, i. e.) companion, close associate: Mv 
i.67.20 °kah kaSyapas. 

antike, adv., postpos., in reference to, with gen.: 
SP 107.4-5 daridrapurusas tasya grhapater antike pitr- 
samjnam utpadayet, would conceive the notion of father 
in reference to that householder, i. e. would think of him 
as his father; similarly SP 286.1; also LV 244.1 naisa 
mamantike viSistasamjno bhaven (see samjfia 5); Mv 
i.30.9 devanam . . . antike cittani pradusayitva, because 

they conceived evil thoughts in reference to the gods; Divy 
212.2 sattvanam antike . . . anukampa; Av i.264.10 bha- 
gavato "ntike cittam prasadayam asuh, in reference to the 
Blessed One; Av i.287.1 arhato ’ntike. 

antistha-, in Mv ii. 390.1, Senart antistha-guptain 
(but mss. °guptam or °uptam) bahusalimadhye, apparently 
epithet of rajadhanlm, capital city. The following word, 
in the midst of much rice, suggests that a form of upta, 
sown, may be the true reading, with v.l. ; antistha- could 
be superl. to Pali anti(m), close by, near (Ved. anti): sown 
very close (up to the city-limits), in the midst of abundant 

ante, adv. (= Pali id., Skt. antar), within (cf. also 
next), contrasted with bahis; ante nidhih bahir nidhih 
etc. Mv ii.436.8-9, repeated 437.4 etc. 

ante-pura (nt., = Pali id., Skt. antahp 0 ; cf. prec.), 
inner apartments, harem: Mv ii.159.11 °pure (v.l. antah- 

antevasika, m. (= Pali id.; Skt. antevasin), pupil: 
Gv 464.19 (prose); Lank 48.8 (vs). 

antogata, adj. (= Pali id., Skt. ahtargata), turned 
inward, of the indriyas (so in Pali): Mv i.237.10 antogatehi 
indriyehi abahirgatamanasena (of a Buddha). 

antodaka, adj. (for anta(r) or Pali anto, within, 
plus (u)daka water, prepos. cpd.), within the water: Mv 
iii.318.7 (prose) antodakani (utpalani etc.); in Mv ii.121.9 
antodake, perhaps in (a place th&t is within the) water; 
this could be two words, = Skt. antar udake, but the 
parallel suggests that it too is a cpd. 
antosalya-, see antah£°. 

antra- guna, m., nt. (= Pali anta-guna, nt. ; cf. 
guna 2), intestinal tract, mesentery: Mvy 4025 °guna, — 
Tib. gne ma the twisted part of the colon or great gut (Jaschke) ; 
the coiled intestine (Zam. ap. Das); Mv i.8.8; Divy 375.14 
°gunan; Siks 81.13 (read with mss. antrany antragunam ; 
n. sg.); 209.9 antrany antraguna(h); Gv 328.19 °guna-, 
stem. See also antraguna. In BHS seems to be masc. 
except in Siks 81.13, and sometimes pi. 

■ antra (1) (Skt. and Pali only nt. antra, anta) intes- 
tines: antrayam, loc., Divy 409.15; (2) a high number: 
Gv 106.7 (could also intend antra). 

andhakara-tamisra (= Pali °timissa), deep ( blind- 
ing ) darkness, in the passage treated s.v. lokantarika, 
q.v.: SP 163.8; LY 410.14 (in 51.11 andhakaras tamisra; 
prob. haplog. for °kara andhakara-tamisra both times); 
Divy 204.23 (and repetitions); SsP 102.17. 

andhakara-tamisrita (ppp. denom. from prec.), 
made completely dark: °tam Mv ii.266.9; so I would emend; 
mss. corrupt; Senart’s em. surely wrong. 

andhakarapita-tva, nt. (abstr. from caus. pple. to 
denom. verb from andhakara, darkness ), state of being 
darkened; so (or, possibly, andhakarayita-tva, from non- 
caus. denom. pple.) I would read at Mv i.41.5; 229.20; 
240.9; ij. 162.9; iii.334.7; 341.12. The mss. are corrupt in 
the entire passage (see lokantarika) and particularly at 
this point; Senart reads °kararpita, but there is no support 
for the -r- in the mss. The Mv seems to have read an- 
dhakara andhakarapitatva (? °yitatva), tamisra tamisra- 
yitatva (q.v.), darknesses, darkenednesses, glooms, begloomed- 
nesses. Only Mv has the second member of each pair (the 
derivatives of denom. pples.); the other parallel passages 
point to something like andhakara andhakaratamisrah, 
q .v. 

andhakala (m. or nt.), (1) time of being blind: Kv 
59.4, said of a son by his parents, (jarakale yastibhuto) 
andhakale margasyopadarSakah (so read for text °opa- 
mardakah; foil, by maranakale pindadata); (2) n. of a 
hell: Kv 18.14 (read Andhakara? but this is not recorded 
as n. of a hell). 

andhala, adj. (to andha; recorded only as Pkt. in 
Hem. 2.173), blind: Mvy 8873. 




andhara (in. or nt. ; §3.118; = AMg. id., Skt. and 
Pali andhakara), darkness: Mmk 61.3 samsarandhara- 
carake, and 66.25 °carinam (both vss, may be m.c.). 
Cf. next two. 

Andharavasini, n. of a yaksinl: Mmk 567.10. Gf. 
prec. and next. 

Andharasundari, n. of a yaksinl (= Tama(h)- 
sundarl, q.v.): Mmk 567.5. Cf. prec. two. 

anyajanmika, adj. (from Skt. anyajanman), belong- 
ing to another birth: Bbh 100.19, 25. 

anyatama, adj. (1) (in this sense not precisely 
paralleled; cf. BR 7.1697, with Sri, another , a second Sri), 
other , = anya: Av i.95.13 raja prasenajid anyatamas ca 
mahajanakayah, King P. and the other people , a great 
multitude ; (2) at end of cpd., in (devo va) devanyatamo 
va MSV i.50.5, = Pali devo va devannataro va, acc. to 
PTSD (a god or) one of the retinue of a god. Neither the 
context nor the Pali citations give any clue; it would 
seem to mean lit. some one of the gods. 

anyatamaka, adj. (to anyatama), belonging to an- 
other: Sukh 58.15 (nasti tesam) anyatamaka-samjna nasti 
svaka-samjna, they have no notion of what is another's 
nor of what is their own. 

anyatamanyatama, adj., = anyataranyatara : 
MSV ii.99.3. 

anyatara, adj., like Pali annatara (and cf. katara, 
q.v.) is very commonly used without its Skt. limitation 
to one of two ; rather, as equivalent of Skt. anyatama 
(which is also used in BHS in the same way, notably in 
Divy and Av), and chiefly (1) in the mg. a certain ; (an 
unspecified) one (of many): Mv i.36.10 (here could be 
interpreted in mg. 2); 343.4; ii.31.19; 65.1; 96.15; 145.4; 
171.9; 461.14; iii.15.7; 53.13; Divy 102.8; 226.19; 227.26; 
254.6; Av i.137.11; 208.8; 235.6; 244.3; Suv 214.4; RP 
39.16; Siks 39.1 (wrongly rendered another by Bendali 
and Rouse); Gv 84.17; Karmav 32.12; 35.16; Lank 
176.8; (2) much more rarely, another, any other (of an 
unlimited number); so possibly (but not probably) Mv 

i. 36.10, above; and RP 56.19 sarvathanapekso 'bhut kaye 
jivite ca, prag evanyatarasmin bahyavastuni, . . . how much 
less (not to speak of) in regard to any other external matter ; 
(3) some (one or other), one or another, substantially = 
anyatar5nyatara, q.v.: Mmk 304.16 anyatarena sucina 

[anyataragra-, read abhyantaragram ; see this.] 
anyataranyatara, adj. (= Pali annatarannatara), 
one or another (of many, or more than two)- Mv ii.362.9 
°tarena yanena, by one or other of the (three) vehicles ; 
Mv iii.73.2 °tare va angajate, or to one or another sort of 
member (of the horse's body); 74.4 (pancanam vanijaka- 
satanam) °taro vanijako; Siks 98.20; Vaj 28.16; MSV 

ii. 199.13. 

anya-tlrthika (cf. Pali anha-titthiya), see tirthika. 
anyatra, adv., (1) on the contrary (this mg. seems 
exclusively peculiar to BHS); always after negative ex- 
pressions: SP 73.10 anyatra tena tenaiva dhavanti, (they 
pay no attention and do not understand ;) on the contrary, 
they run this way and that; 102.9 na kasyacid acaksed 
anyatraika evatmanadhyatmam samtapyed, he would not 
speak of it to anyone; on the contrary, he would all alone 
be grieving himself by himself; 284.9; 378.4; LV 71.6 
(Maya felt no heaviness of body, gurukayatam ;) anyatra 
laghutam eva, on the contrary, nothing but lightness; 259.16; 
260.8; 268.15; Mv iii.66.8 and 15 (there is no soul nor 
anything resembling a soul;) atha evam anyatra karma 
caivaricarmavipakam ca hetus (first time, hetum) caiva 
hetusamutpanna ca dharma(h), but rather , on the contrary, 
only action etc. (see under atha) ; Lank 9.7 (see s. v. vikalpa ; 
wrongly Suzuki); 39.7 anyatra karanatah, on the contrary, 
from a cause (wrongly Suzuki); 119.6 (place danda be- 
tween evam and anyatra); 152.1; RP 42.4; Samadh 22.39 

(wrongly Regamey); Siks 147.3 (and several times in 
Siks followed by yavad eva, just simply , q.v.); the negative 
may be repeated just before anyatra, but only as resuming 
the neg. of the preceding clause, not negating the clause 
containing anyatra: Bbh 121.(19-)21 (a Bodhisattva does 
not give a petitioner the trouble of asking repeatedly 
before he gives him a gift;) nanyatra yacitamatra eva, 
no; on the contrary, (he gives) the very moment he is asked; 
(2) except; in Skt. and Pali hardly used except as pre- 
position (with abl. in Skt., Pali annatra also with instr. 
and gen.); in Skt. very rarely as adverb, the noun being 
construed with other words in the sentence (see BR 1.266 
and pw 3.251). In BHS I have noted a single case, not 
wholly certain, of anyatra as preposition with instr. (as 
in Pali, instead of abl. as in Skt.): RP 40.4 ratrimdivam 
bhavantibhir nanya katha karya, anyatra nrttagitavad- 
itena, you are to say nothing else, except dance, song , and 
instrumental music (?). But the adverbial use in this mg., 
so rare in Skt. and not recorded for Pali, is well established 
in BHS; in the following cases the form and construction 
of other words in the clause is totally unaffected by 
anyatra; often it may be translated as if it were a con- 
junction, except that . . . It almost always follows a negative 
expression (or interrogative, rhetorically equivalent to 
neg.); and this is sometimes resumed by an additional 
na before anyatra (as in the last case under 1, above): 
Divy 6.28 sartham na paSyati nanyatra gardabhayanam 
eva, he didn't see the caravan, not except only a donkey- 
cart; and with anyatra as quasi-conjunction, Mv ii. 90. 14-1 5 
nasti anyo upayo nanyatra etam samudram utsicami, 
there is no other means, not (any) except (that) I bale out 
(exhaust) this sea. In the next the na before anyatra goes 
with the main verb (or rather ppp.): SP 318.4 nanyatra 
sattvanam paripacanartham avataranartham ete dharma- 
paryaya bhasitah, these dharmaparyaya are not spoken 
except (i.e. are spoken only) to mature creatures and make 
them arrive at comprehension. Otherwise, after negs. : LV 
149.1 (nanyah . . . samvidyate ya etam gananam prajanaty) 
anyatraham va yo va syan madrsah, except (it be) I or 
someone like me; SP 276.6-7 na ca taih sardham sam- 
stavam karoty anyatropasamkrantanam . . . dharmam 
bhasate, and he has no association with them , except that . . . 
he preaches the Law to them when they come to him; similarly 
276.9-10; 324.8 yuyarn ca sabdam na srnotha mahyam, 
anyatra so nirvrtu lokanathah, and you do (would) not 
listen to my words, except (i. e. unless; sc. you believed 
that) the Lord of the World has entered nirvana; Sukh 
42.(10-)11 (na ca . . . nanatvam asty) anyatra . . . sain- 
khyam gacchanti, except that Lank 19.8 (a passage 
badly misunderstood by Suzuki; e. g. in 7 read 'dharma ==... 
adharmah) na laksanatah kalpyah (delete daiida) te 
'nyatra samvyavaharartha abhidhiyante, they (impos- 
sibilities like the son of a barren woman) are not conceiv- 
able by way of characteristic marks, except that ( ? or possibly 
on the contrary, to 1) they are spoken of as terms of common 
use (they have existence only as words); Lank 20.1 anyatra 
. . . vibhavyate, except that it is discussed . . . (after neg.); 
after interrog., Av ii.121.4 kanya putrasya gatir anyatra 
inatapitarav eva, what other recourse could there be for a 
son (i. e. there could be none), except his parents; no 
negative (except by vague implication), Divy 293.(15-)16 
(annadyam parikslnam) anyatra . . . eka manika . . . ava- 
sista, (edible things were destroyed, i. e. there were none), 
except that . . . one m. was left ; Gv 206.5 (see s.v. upad- 
aya Id). 

anyathatva, nt. (= Pali annathatta; Pali adv. 
annatha is correspondingly used; neither used in this mg. 
in Skt.), ( change for the worse,) depression, distress, disturbed 
(mental) state: Divy 49.22 aparesam bhavi§yaty °tvam, 
the others will be distressed; 51.11; Sukh 4.13 na mu- 
khavarnasyanyathatvam bhaven (? may perhaps be 

anyathlbhSva 42 

rendered simply alteration, but certainly for the worse is 

anyathlbhava (m.; in Skt. and Pali only anyatha- 
bhava, anna 0 ), alteration, altered state or condition : LV 
423.11-12 -ananyathlbhavam (Bhvr. cpd.); Bbh 243.8 
°bhavad; Ud iii.12 °bhavo (Bhvr. cpd.; v.l. -anyatha 0 ); 
and in Mv ii.146.14— 15 read, na viparinamanyathlbhavo 
bhaveya (mss. °manyarthl°; Senart em. °manyarti°). 

anyapaksikam, mss., Mv ii.80.17; Senart em. 
ananyapaksika (with jnatayo), perhaps rightly (better 
meter, and a n. pi. seems required); Senart harmonious; 
better not adhering to other (heretical) sects'! 

anyamanya, adj. or pron. ( = Pali annamanna, in 
both mgs.; cf. anyonya), (1) one another; as pron., adj., 
or adv. (^nyam) or in comp., mutual, reciprocal (= an- 
yonya): SP 209.5 (vs) parampara eva tathanyamanyam te 
vyakarisyanti ; 359.2 (vs) ye canyamanyasya karonti 
ghosan; LV 176.9 (vs) anyamanyopacayena, by mutual 
assistance; Suv 16.12 (vs) anyamanyanukulena; RP 38.11 
(vs). In prose of most texts replaced by anyonya; but 
Mv has it often in prose. Note anyonya SP 163.11, 12; 

LV 51.16; 410.19, 20; while in the same passage (prose) 
anyamanya is used in Mv i.41.8 = 230.3 = iii.334.11 = 
341.15 (but in i.240.13 anyonya). Inflected like anyonya 
in Skt: °nyam, acc., Mv i.10,12 (here adv.); 13.8; ii.436.16, 

17; iii.453.7; °nyasya i.27.7; 266.1; °nyasmim i.16.10; 

(2) like Pali annamanna and like anyonya in BHS, also 
various, different, with no reciprocal sense: SP 125.14 (vs) 
°nyehi arthehi; 358.11 (vs) ghosams tatha canyamanyan; 
in this mg. also replaced by anyonya in prose generally, 
but in Mv retained in prose: iii.390.5 °nyahi parivrajikahi. 

anyavada- (m.?; cf. Pali anfiavadaka, adj. and n. 
nt.), talking about something else , shuffling and evading the 
question (CPD); in anyavada-vihethana, nt., (a monk’s) 
causing annoyance (to the community) by doing this , v.l. 
in Kyoto ed. of Mvy for 8433, text ajna-vihethanam (so 
Mironov without v.l.; Tib., Chin, and Jap. violation of 
commands; for the v.l. the Jap. editor gives the correct 
interpretation, as above); Prat 505.1, text anya-vada 
(-vihethanat), which Finot would em. to anya°; Chin 
‘si un bhiksu ennuie les autres en donnant des r^ponses 
a cote’ ( = anya°). The corresp. Pali, Vin. iv.36.3, 18, 37 
etc., has anna-vadaka, which certainly means what is 
stated hove (the context proves it clearly). Mvy ajna- 
(-vada) is evidently an ignorant and secondary hyper- 
Sktism, based on a M Indie form of any a- interpreted as 
ajna- (cf. § 2.15). It is, however, very curious that the 
text of Prat reads any a- with long stem-final a! 

anyataka, adj. (§2.15; = Pali annata, °taka; AMg. 
annaya; from Skt. ajnata, in Mlndlc stranger), belonging 
to another or others; the word was unhistorically Sktized 
by association with anya, other : Mv i. 346.11 ff. (repeatedly), 
e. g. adinnam anyatakam salim, rice belonging to others 
and not given (by them). In MSV iv.107.11 spelled anya- 
dakam (ed. em. ajnatakam); Tib. (Dutt, 108 n. 1) gzan 
gi, of another (anya!). 

anyaya, see aftfiaya. 
anyavada, see anyavada. 

anyasi (representing Pali annasi? quasi-M Indie for 
semi-MIndic ajnasi, which Senart reads by em., or aj°), 
aor. of jna-, knew: Mv iii.386.18 (vs); §2.15. 

anyena, adv. (1) elsewhere, to another place: Mv 
iii.425.13 aho punar me aSramato . . . anyena prakrameya, 
but I wish he would depart elsewhere, away from my hermit- 
age; (2) anyena . . . anyena ( = Pali anhena . . . annena), 
by one way ... by another: Mv iii.59.18 anyena sariputro 
. . . anyena maudgalyayano. 

anyonya. adj. (generally used as in Skt.; but also) 
various, different (= anyamanya, 2, and Pali annamanna); 
replaces anyamanya in prose of most texts: SP 132.3 
(prose) na santi . . . trini yanani, kevalam anyonya- 


caritah sattvah, there are not three vehicles, only creatures 
with different courses of action; 134.6 (prose) anyonya- 
dravyasamyuktam, mixed with various substances; 137.13 
(prose); 221.7 (prose) anyonyasu lokadhatusu; 242.8 
(prose) °nyesu buddhaksetresu . °nya-namadheyas (Bhvr., 
of various names); Mv i.62.8 (vs) sugatanam anyonya- 
namadheyanam (as in SP 242.8); in the prose corresp. 
to this, i.58.16, we should surely read nana-nama° (mss. 
corruptly nanam-nama°; one ms. by haplogr. na-nama°; 
Senart em. anyonya-nama 0 ). 

anvardhamasam, adv. (=t Pali anvaddha 0 , anvad- 
dha°), every half month: Av ii.21.12; Prat 476,7; Bhlk 
5a.l; 5 b. 5, etc. 

anvadisati (cf. AMg. annaittha, ppp., Ratnachandra 
v. 4; otherwise not in this mg.), commands; Jm 117.25 
svam purusam anvadidesa; 133.4. 

anvavartayati (caus. of anu-a-vrt; not recorded in 
this sense), converts (so in all the following; wrongly Divy, 
Index): °yati Divy 128.1; 263.2; °yisyati 128.2 (nanva°, 
question, will he not convert!); 164.18; °titah MSV i.211,5. 

anvahindati, °te, rarely °hindayati, °hindyate 
(= Pali °ti; cf. anuhindati), roams thru: °ti Divy 249.11; 
°nti Mmk 139.19 (so read for text anda hi°); 249.10; °date 
Av ii. 116.10; °dyante Divy 175.12, 15; pres. p. °danta, 
n. pb m., Mv i.20.3; °data, instr. sg., Divy 237.24; °damana 
Av i.242.6; ger. °hindya LV 16.4; Mvy 5116; Divy 68.23; 
139.3; Av i.5.10; °hindayitva Mvy 6942. 

(anvesati, seeks, occurs in Epic and perhaps other 
Skt., see pw, which associates this with isyati, but see s.v. 
esati: Mv ii.179.2 (prose) tam nagarajam anvesiya (ger.), 

anvodahana, nt. (cf. Pali odahana; to *anv-o(ava)- 
dahati, as in Pali for -dadhati, -dadhati; cf. samodahana), 
penetrating consideration: Mvy 7474 °nam = Tib. rjes su 
rab tu rtog pa. 

? apakara, false Skt. or (more probably) error for 
Skt. avakara, rubbish: Mmk 131.21; see samkara (1). 
apakarsa, in mulapa 0 , see mula. 

-apakarsana-ta (Skt. °na), state of removing: LV 
32.3 (prose). 

apakarsanS (Skt. only °n a, nt.), removal: Siks 183.5. 
apakar^ika (cf. Pali avakaddhati, is depressed, 
downcast; perhaps read ava°?), depression, lowering (with 
implication of grief): LV 227.9 (prose) slrsopakarsikaya 
(rudanti), with bowing of the head (v.l. ^iro-pa-, more 
regular), see £lrsas. 

apakarsitaka, adj. (ppp. of Skt. apakarsayati plus 
specifying -ka, §22.39), which had been removed: Mv 
i. 353. 15. 

-apakar^in, adj., removing: LV 281.11 (prose) 

sarvaklesapakarsinya (prabhaya). 

[apakubjaka, adj., text in Mv ii.126.6; 283.1, but 
read avak° with v.l. both times.] 

[apakotana, var. for akotana, q.v.] 

[apakka, °kv5, or with final -a, see s.v. ayakva, 


[apakranta, text in Divy 272.16, 21, acc. to Index 
abused. But read (tatha) pra° with all mss. in 16 and 
one in 21 : treated , behaved towards.] 

*apakrantaka, see avakrantaka. 

[? apaksana, m., acc. to Kyoto ed. c nah in Mvy 
7069, and alleged (l.c.) to be indicated by Chinese versions 
instead of apaksala(h) Siks 145.6; but Mironov has 
apak$3lah, with v.l. of Kyoto ed., and this (q.v.) seems 
prob. the true form.] 

apaksala, m., fault, defect , failing , sin: Bbh 351.17 
(catvarah) °lah, te prahina bhavanti (they are then listed ; 
as a result of the riddance, the vihara becomes supari- 
suddha, line 21); 352.23 sarvapaksalapagata-; cf. Wogi- 
hara, Lex. 17; in Mvy 7069 v.l. for Kyoto ed. apaksana, 
q.v. (Mironov reads apaksdlah, with v.l. only avaksayah); 




Tib. skyon, regularly = dosa; Chin, transgression, evil ; 
Jap. evil, calamity ; Siks 145.6 ata evodarakusalapaksa- 
vivarjanata 'paksala ity ucyate (Bendall and Rouse 
throwing away, but the above meaning would fit well; 
Tib. ma bsruns pa, could mean non-observance)', but acc. 
to the Kyoto ed. of Mvy (above), Chinese versions of 
Siks prove that its text had a form of -ksan- (which is 
said to be phonetically reproduced in the Chin.). Bendall 
and Rouse compare Pali khalayati, in Jat, iv.205.13 
(correct their ref.) khalayatha; comm, khalikaram papeiva 
niddhamatha. Cf. also Pali avakkhalita, mistake, offense 
(CPD), which is connected with Skt. skhal-. Is apaksala 
an unhistorical back-formation from a M Indie word 
related to this latter? Despite the alleged Chinese support 
for apaksana, it seems a questionable reading, and apak- 
sala should prob. be read, with Mironov in Mvy (as well 
as in Siks, for which no v.l. is recorded). 

? apaksya, adj. (cf. Skt. paksya, adherent of a party , 
as deva-p°), having no adherents : doubtful reading, LV 
301.4 (vs), Lefm. apaksyapaksyo, but many mss. apaksa- 
pakso; we must read certainly pakso, and before it as 
a separate word apaksya or apaksa (n. sg. m.), your (Mara's) 
party is without adherents. The form apaksa occurs in Skt. 
(Mbh. Crit. ed. 1.134.24) and in LV 273.3 samsara- 
paksapaksa-karana-gatih, with the gait of . one who makes 
partisanless the party of the samsara; LV 302.13 (Marah) 
svapaksam capaksam apasyat, saw his party without 
adherents (i.e. annihilated)', also in Pali as apakkha (which 
however could of course = apaksya); whereas apaksya 
has not been noted elsewhere. 

apagata-kalaka, adj. (= Pali °kalaka; cf. kalaka 2), 
having no black spots, of a garment: Divy 617.8 vastram 
apa° (in Pali also vattham apa°); MSV iii.142.19 id.; 
also (as in Pali) free from moral guilt (a delinquent monk 
attains this state when all his penitential rites have been 
correctly performed), MSV iii.76.18; 79.1. 

apa-ghatayati, closes, shuts : LV 186.18 °yanti 


apacaya (m., = Pali id.), in good sense, diminution 
(sc. of karman, or worldliness; in Pali sometimes virtually 
= nirvana): Av ii.188.10; 189.6 °yaya, dat. ; see samcaya. 

[*apacayati = apacayati, honors : in Mv iii.138.8 
(prose) ger. apacayitva, so printed without v.l. or note. 
But elsewhere, as i.44.12, apacayitva is printed in the 
same phrase, and this should probably be read here. 

[apacaraka, m., v.l. for ava°, q.v. : Mvy 3807. 
Mironov ava° without v.l.; apa° mere error.] 

-apacayaka (to next), honoring, one who honors, in 
kulajyesthapa 0 Mv i.46.9; 198.6 = ii.2.3; Bbh 252.22; 
in Divy 293.26 text akulejyesth 0 , q.v. 

apacayati (only in Ved. and Br. language and in 
Pali id.), reveres, honors : °yanti Mv ii. 259.10; 260.3; 
°yet AsP 57.9; °yisyanti Mv iii.424.14; °yitva Mv i.44.12 
( = iii.138.8 where text °cay°, q.v.); °yanlyah AsP 57.2; 
apacahi Mv ii.335.12 (vs), so mss. (§ 28.54); Senart em. 
apacinohi, metr. impossible; object smrtim; addressed to 
Mara: respect, have regard for (proper) mindfulness (wrongly 
Senart). For ppp. apacayita see s.v. : Class. Skt, has apacita. 

apacayana (= Pali id.), the paying of respect, honoring : 
SP 144.3; 148.6; 151.5; 161.3: Mvy 1758; AsP 59.3. 

apacayita, ppp. of °cayati, q.v. (Pali id,; cf. Pan. 
7.2.30 and Kas.), honored : SP 5.8; 22.8; Mv ii.139.10, 12; 
Siks 1^7. 11 (all prose). 

apacita, honor, respect : Mv ii.259.9 paramaya apa- 
citaya, and 260.3 °maye °taye, both instr. sg. I do not 
find the stem (— °citi) so natural as Senart does (ii.o‘44), 
and it seems to be unrecorded elsewhere; but there seems 
no doubt of its reality. Cf., perhaps, § 10.142. 

apanyi-jata, adj., Divy 170.1; and -bhuta, 172.20; 
174.17: become unmerchandisable (to Skt. apanya). 

apatana (m. or nt. ; in Skt. apatanaka, m.), cramp 
(due to famine): na sukaram °ne pragrahane (in the cramp- 
convulsions of hunger, ed. p. 710) yapayitum Divy 471.4 
(cited by misprint as 171.4 in pw 7.302, and copied as 
such in Schmidt, Nachtrage). 

a-pattana (nt.), lit. no (proper) city : Divy 276.14, 
16; 277.13 ff. (ghosayati), proclaims a disgraceful town. 
[apatthadayin, see aparipanthadayin.] 
apatrapitavya, gdve. to apa-trap-, of which one should 
feel abashed: Bbh 223.12 °vyesu (sthanesu). 

apatrapya (once, Mv iii.53.1, °trapya, Senart, but 
v.l. contains -apya-; if correct, short -a- must be MIndic 
in nature), nt. (= Pali ottappa, otappa; see under an- 
apa°, otrapa, an~o°, an-otrapin), modesty, bashfulness, 
shame (rarely shame in the other sense which the word 
now commonly has in English; so Av i.216.10; Siks 12.1); 
Av ii.167.4 (read °pya-parigrhitam as cpd.); almost always 
associated with its virtual synonym hi I, Mv iii.53.1 hri 
capatrapyam (cf. above) ca; Mvy 1569 (fourth of the 
dhana, q.v., hri being the third); and usually compounded 
with it, hry-apatrapya- LV 25.14; 27.2; 430.1; Gv 
146.23; Dbh 13.18; 19.15, etc.; or hrlr- apatrapya (q.v. 
for explanation of the form) Siks 136.1 (prose; here as a 
reason for wearing a loin-cloth); 192.1; Karmav 89.3; 
RP 28.17 (read with ms. hrir-apatrapya-sila-). Cf. also 

apada, adj. (== Pali id.; not in Skt. in this mg.), 
trackless, that cannot be traced: Mv iii.91.20 (= Dhp. 179 
id.) buddham . . . apadam; AsP 306.7, of the (Buddha's) 

[apadarsayati, misprint or error for upa°: £iks 57.7 
grhitvapadarsayanti, read °tvopa°.] 

apadesa, m. (= Pali °sa; hardly Skt. in this sense), 
expression: Mvy 7619 kapa°, 7620 yapa 0 , the interrogative 
( relcdive ) pronoun (-expression) ', Bbh 403.7, 9 bodhisattva- 
padesah, the expression Bodhisattva. See also kaiapadeSa. 

[apadruta, wrongly assumed by Calc. 214 n. 5 as 
contained in klesapadrutam LV 178.22 (vs), which CLalc. 
interprets as for klesapa 0 ; but it stands for klesopadrutarp, 
afflicted (upadruta) with depravities; §4.16.] 

apanamayati (= Pali apanameti), removes, takes off 
or away: °yati Mv i. 181.9 ; ratnajalikam apanamya, ger., 
LV 209.13 (prose), so read with ms. A, proved right by 
Mv and Pali; both edd. with other mss. avanamya. 

apanaya, nt. (cf. AMg. avanaya, censure, abuse), 
rebuke (?): RP 40.6 (prose) na ca kasyacit sattvasyapana- 
yam vaktavyam. 

apanita, ppp. of apa-ni, as adj., epithet of dhyana, 
prob. removed, remote, abstract: LV 250.16. Tib. sems pa 
med, rendered by Foucaux sans vitalite, but it seems 
rather to mean without thought, or possibly without con- 

[apanthadayin, see aparipanthadayin.] 
apapa, m., n. of a (cold) hell: Dharmas 122 (replaces 
hahava, q.v., of other lists.) 

apapravrajana (nt. ; presumably = Skt. pravrajana; 
perhaps formed ad hoc, m.c.), banishment: Siks 66.19 (vs) 
°nena ca (of a member of the order; Bendall aiid Rouse 
understand expulsion from the order, but this is supported 
by nothing in the context and is unlikely; parallel are 
such things as stealing his robe, beating, and putting 
him in prison). 

apabadha (m. or nt.), pressure, oppressive influence: 
purvakarmapabadhena MSV i.60.2. 

? a-pabbhara (MIndic, intended by mss.?), see 


apa-matsara, adj., unenvious: Jm 128,23. 
-apamardana, nt. (— Skt. ava°, Pali avamaddana), 
crushing, ruin, destruction: rastrapa 0 Divy 63.1; 548.9. 

apamargaka (m. ; from Skt, °ga, wrong way), 
adherent of a wrong way , or perhaps wrong way: Mv i.176.8 




(prose) apamargaka (mss. °ka)-kutsaka, said of Buddhas, 
contemners of . . . 

apara, adj. (used like anyatara 1, q.v.), a certain : 
Mv ii.234.19 aparo ca nllako nama lubdhako, and there 
was a certain hunter named N. (no hunter has been men- 
tioned, only a deer); 244.6 apara-malakarasya, of a certain 
garland-maker ; 251.2 aparo sakuntako. 

aparakiya, adj. (from *aparaka, nowhere recorded, 
= Skt. apara, with suffix iya), belonging to outsiders , 
foreign : Av ii.196.1. 

? aparaksa, adj., (cf. AMg. aparaccha; for Skt. 
a-paroksa; ending influenced by pratyaksa; [stealing] in 
the presence of the owner or others when inattentive , Ratnach. ; 
cf. also Sheth s.v. aparaccha), manifest , ep. of dhana, 
wealth : Gv 407.2 (vs) ma te (’)paraksesu dhanesv abhidhya, 
have no covetousness for property in the presence of the owner . 
But perhaps better paraksesu, when (the owner) is absent , 
tho this is not recorded. In any case a M Indie form, for 
(a-)parok§a, q.v. 

Apara- gaya, n. of a place, the other (further, or 
western) Gaya (qy: = Buddha-gaya?): Mv iii.324.21 
(gayato) aparagayam gacchati. 

Aparagodanlya (usually m., rarely nt., Divy 214.24 
IT.; no °godana, corresp. to Pali °goyana, occurs; other 
variant forms, see below, and cf. Godanlya), one of the 
4 Buddhist continents, see dvipa. The regular form is 
°danlya, while only °yana occurs in Pali (but also Goyan- 
Iya, without Apara); for occurrences see s.v. dvipa. Of 
the passages there listed, the following show variant 
forms, aside from Godanlya, q.v. : avara-go° MSV i.94.4 ; 
aparagodanl-lipi LV 126.5 (v.l. °nlya-lipi; apparently all 
mss. d!); °danika Mv ii.158.18; iii.378.2; aparagodanir 
(n. sg. m.) Dharmas 120. 

Apara- cSmara (cf. Camara), n. of a country or 
part of the world: Mvy 3053. 

aparajjukato, adv. (cf. Pali aparajju = Skt. apare- 
dyus), on the next day: Mv ii.456.9 (no v.l.); in iii.255.14 
v.l. for aparejjukato, q.v. 

Aparapuramjaya, n. of a yaksa: May 62. 

a-para-pratyaya, adj. ( = Pali a-para-(p)paccaya, 
given as a masc. noun in CPD, but occurs only in adverbial 
forms, instr. and abl. ; prob. really adj., as certainly in 
BHS\ not dependent on others : Mvy 2396; Divy 617.15; 
LV 275.1; MSV ii.46,18. 

apara- matar, f. (lit. other mother : nowhere recorded), 
step-mother , father’s second wife : Mv i.244.7, 8; MSV 
ii.40.15 ff. 

Apara- raj a vavadaka- sutra, nt., n. of a work: 
Siks 9.12; see RSjavavddaka. 

Apara-6aila, m. pi. ( = Pali Apara-seliya, m. pi.; 
cf. Purva-£°), n. of a (heretical) school: Mvy 9091. 

? apara- svara (m.), perh. different, strange sound, 
said of the distressed cry of a very sick person: °ram 
akarsit MSV ii.128.14 = Tib. skad (voice, sound ) na 
(jsickl) bton pa (emitted); his words are then quoted. 

Aparajita, (1) n. of a Bodhisattva cakravartin: Mv 
i.112.11; (2) n. of a former Buddha: Mv iii.230.10 f. ; 
(3) n. of a yaksa: May 1; (4) (m. or nt.?) n. of a medi- 
cament (-bhaisajya; cf. aparajita, n. of plants in Pali 
and Skt.): Gv 497.5 (prose). 

AparSjitajfianasthama, n. of a Tathagata: Gv 

Aparajitatejas, n. of a Bodhisattva: Mvy 732. 

Apar£jitadhvaja, (1) n. of a former Buddha: Mv 
i.1.4; (2) n. of a Bodhisattva (? hardly the same as 1): 
Gv 115.9. 

Aparajitadhvajabala, n. of a Buddha: Gv 285.20. 

Apar&jitameru, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.3. 

Aparajitavratadhvaja, n. of a Buddha: Gv 284.26. 

Apar£jita, (1) n. of a devakumarika in the eastern 
quarter: LV 388.9 = Mv iii.306.8; (2) n. of a goddess: 

Mmk 312.6 (here text by error Ary aparajita); 318.12; 
*396.1 f. ; Sadh 352.6 et alibi (a different personage?); 
(3) n. of one of the four Kumari, q.v., or Bhagini (hardly 
to be identified with 2): Mmk 537.9; 540.5; 543.19 et alibi, 
a-parajita, adj. (m.c. for °jita), unconquered : Gv 

57.18 (vs). 

aparadhika, adj. (== Pali id., and Skt. id. acc. to 
pw but with wrong reference; cf. saparddhika), guilty 
of offense : Av i.102.7; ii.171.1 (by em.); 182.5; Bbh 255.14. 

aparddhyati (cf. AMg. avarajjhati (2), to be destroyed, 
to be ruined, Ratnach., nasta hona, Sheth; naSyati often 
means disappear I), disappears : Mv ii.137.9 (Sakunta . . .) 
aparadhyetsuh, aor. ; so mss., Senart em. apavidhyinsuh, but 
this could only mean were thrown away, which is completely 
inappropriate; in Mv ii.139.4, in identical context, mss. 
aparijhimsuh (°nsuh), Senart em. °vijhinsuh; read perhaps 
M Indie aparajjhimsuh, cf. AMg. above; in any case some 
form related to apa-radh, aor.,' disappeared. 

aparanta, m. (= Pali aparanta; sometimes contrasted 
with purvanta, q.v.), the future : °ntah, n. sg., Mjvy 8307; 
RP 4.17 aparanta-kalpa-kotibhir api nasti buadhanam 
. . . gunaparyantah ; Sal 98.2 °ntam, acc. (adv.?), cited 
Siks 227.8; Gv 37.17, 18; 49.25 (read purvantaparanta-) ; 
242.16 aparanta-kalpa-; 242.19 same, 1st ed. misprinted 
aparanta 0 ; corr. 2d ed. ; Dbh 31.5. See aparanta- koti. 

apardntaka, f. °ikd, adj. of the western border, or of 
the country called Aparanta ; used of cloth or garments, 
also as nt. noun, (cloth or garments) of Aparanta Mvy 9179; 
°ka- in cpd. Divy 316.26, of garments (adj. or noun?). 
In Divy 20.22-23 perhaps read aparantikaya guptikaya 
in the style of Aparanta (? see guptikd); text asmat 
paranti 0 . In Divy 1.3; 18.6; 19.16, 19, 23; 21.2, 12 the mss. 
read corruptly, and with much variation, a text discussed 
by the editors on p. 703; they read asmat parantaka- 
and interpret as a synonym of pratyantima, except in 

19.19 where they read asmakam aparantaka-, interpreting 
(with privative a-) as the opposite, not distant , near. The 
forms are troublesome; without much confidence I suggest 
that forms of aparantaka may have been found in all, 
meaning something like of the western border (if not speci- 
fically of the country Aparanta). But Tib. (Bailey, JRAS 
1950.172) on 19.19 points to A£m3par3ntaka, q.v.; and 
this seems to have been the regular Tib. form acc. to 
Schiefner, cited Divy p. 703. 

aparanta- koti, f., esp. acc. sg. adv. (see koti, and 
cf. purva-koti, of which this is the opposite; corresp. 
to Pali pacchima-koti, the farthest (future) end, in Pali as 
here of the samsara), the future end , the utmost limit (of 
existence, samsara); Siks 14.8 aparantakotim (adv., so 
read with ms.) sthasyami sattvasyaikasya karanat, I will 
remain (in existence) to the utmost limit for the sake of a 
single creature; 167.16 aparantakotih samsaritavya sattva- 
nam paripacanahetor iti, one must subject himself to the 
round of existences to the uttermost end in order to bring 
creatures to maturity; 186.12 sacet punar mamaite sarva- 
sattva aparantakotim chindyur . . ., but if all these creatures 
should split me, up to the end of time (adv. ; Bendall’s note 
on 14.8 and Transl. misunderstand the word); -aparanta- 
koti-nistha, Mvy 372 (ep. of a Tathagata). 

aparapara, adj., (— Pali id. ; cf. Skt. aparaparotpatti, 
pw), one after another, other and other , various : Mv ii.434.16 
sarvasilpayatanehi aparaparehi; Mv iii.402.3 aparSpare, 
n. pi., various , ever other, people; Gv 184.15 aparapara- 
krimiko (vyadhir), (disease) due to one or another worm, 
to various worms; 521.10 °rair akarair, with various forms. 

a-par3m;*sta (neg. of para°, q.v.; = Pali °mattha), 
unaffected (by anything unfavorable), uninfected, un- 
tarnished: Mvy 1625; 7032; AsP 292.18 and 293.5 (cited 
s.v. paramfSati). 

a-parikanksin, see pari°. 

a-parikhinna (neg. of Skt. pari°, ppp. of pari-khid), 




unwearied : Dbh 19.11 (see next); SP 77.9 °na-manasah 
of unwearied mind (wrongly Burnouf and Kern); °ta, 
state of being..., Gv 464.6 nausamacittena gamanagama- 
naparikhinna-taya (so read for text °na-pari°), with mind 
like a ship , because it is unwearied in coming and going . 

a-parikheda, m. (neg. of Skt. pari°; cf. prec. and 
next)) non-lassitude: Mv i.78.16 (one of the 8 samuddc£ra, 
1, q.v.): Dbh 19.10 f. aparikheda-cittam (here apari 0 may, 
but need not, be a Bhvr. adj.) utpadayati; evam asya- 
parikhedah (here certainly n.) sambhavati. 

a-parikhedana- (nt.? cf. prec. two; only in comp., 
and in next), non-lassitude: LV 432.19 (prose; but v.l. 

a-parikhedana-ta = prec.: SsP 1462.8. 

? a-paritamana-(ta), in Gv 463.25 dhatrisamacittena 
sarvakleSaparitamanataya, with mind like a nurse , because 
of not being oppressed by all impurities. BR record pari-tam 
once in SuSr. as beklommen werden , which yields a possible 
sense. Yet I suspect a graphic corruption for a-paritasana-, 

a-paritarsanS (if neg. to BHS paritarsana, q.v.), 
not craving (so Bendall and Rouse): Siks 183.5 cittasyana- 
valinata 'navamrdyata 'paritarsana. There is no doubt 
that BHS paritarsana means desire. But GPD derives 
Pali (a)paritassana from root tras (while noting that 
comms. derive from trs), and this seems to get some 
support from the two preceding and parallel nouns in 
Siks; perhaps, then, after all, the not being wearied , depres- 
sed, or anxious. Cf. paritasyati. 

a-paritasana- (nt. ; = next, q.v.), the not being 
wearied or exhausted: Bbh 143.21 duhkhasahisnur aparita- 
sana-jatiyah; see also s.v. a-paritamana, and paritasana, 
to which I have (with hesitation) attributed a different mg. 

a-paritasyana (or °nS), °na-t& (= prec.; neg. of 
n. act. to paritasyati, q.v. with discussion and references; 
cf. Pali aparitassana, °na), non-exhaustion , lack of discoura- 
gement, not being wearied or troubled in spirit: aparita- 
syanabhimukhenakhedacittotpadena (so ms., ed. em. 
aparitrasya 0 ) Siks 25.7, not turned towards weariness 
(note a-kheda-); aparitasyanataya, ms. at Siks 35.6 for 
aparinamanataya which ed. reads with Gv 463.21 (the 
source of the citation; see parinamana); nausamacittena 
gamanagamanaparitasyanataya (so mss., ed. em. °trasya°, 
without good reason) £ik§ 35.9, with mind like a ship 
because unwearied in going and coming ; this is cited from 
Gv 464.6 which reads parikhinnatayfi, certainly an error 
for aparikh 0 , a synonym of aparitasyana(ta), cf. akheda- 
above on Sik$ 25.7, and s.vv. paritasyati, °tras°. 
Wogihara, Lex. 32 note 1, assumes that the original form 
of these nouns contained °tasy° and that (a-)paritasana 
(prec.) is a 'purism'. This can hardly be assumed in view 
of Pali paritasati beside °tassati, and BHS paritrasati 
beside °syati. 

Aparitf$ita (cf. paritf$ita), n. of a former Buddha; 
Mv i.141.13. 

a-paripantha-dfiyin, adj., not causing fear or danger , 
not a source of alarm (to anyone? to himself?), said of a 
successful performer of certain magic rites (cf. Skt. bhaya- 
d&yin, and BHS paripantha which as in Pali is a near- 
synonym of bhaya): so read in Mmk 291.13 (text apantha- 
dfiyl, n. sg.) ; 297.28 (text apatthad&yl) ; 299.3 (text 

Aparibhinna, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.137.4. 

aparimSna, nt. or m., a high number, Mvy 7804 
(m.); 7*136 (nt., cited from Gv); 8044, (nt.); Gv 106.21 
(°nasya); 134.7 (nt.). 

aparim£na-parivarta, m. or nt., square of prec., 
Mvy 7937 (ml, cited from Gv); 7805 (m.); Gv 106.21 
(°tasya); 134.8 (nt.). 

a-parimanavant, adj. (Pali aparimana), opp. of 
pari 0 , q.y, 

aparimita, nt., a high number: Mvy 8043. 
Aparimitagunadharma, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 

Apari£rotavahana, n. of a former Buddha: Mv 

a-parisrava, see pari°. 

a-parihaniya, adj. (= Pali id.), not connected with 
loss (GPD): with sapta . . . dharma, as in Pali (satta . . . 
dhamma), (seven) conditions of welfare (GPD), MPS 1.14 IT. ; 
listed 2.5 ft., several lists. 

aparejjukato (but v.l. aparajju 0 , q.v.), adv., on the 
next day: Mv iii.255.14. 

aparoksa (= Skt.) in °ksa-vijnana LV 403.5, 9 (of 
Rudraka Ramaputra) and °ksa-jatiya Mv iii.322.11, 14 
(of Udraka Ramaputra) or -jatika Mv iii.415.10, all 
Bhvr. adj., of manifest, open understanding (LV), or 
manifest, open (? not obscure ? precise mg. not very clear) 
in nature (Mv). Tib. renders LV rnam par £es pa ( = 
vijnana) lkog tu ma gyur pa, (having) not secret intelligence 
(wrongly Foucaux). Cf. aparaksa. 

[aparodha (m.?), trouble, acc. to KN in SP 321.2 
(asmad atmano) 'parodhad garad va visad va, with no 
v.l. But WT with their ms. K' (asmakam asmad) atmopa- 
rodhad etc., which is supported by Tib. (uparodha = lus 
hjig par byed pa); even avarodha, for which apa° might 
be regarded as a hyper-Sktism, is hardly used in this 
sense in Skt., and certainly not in Pali.] 

aparyanta, m. or nt., a high number: Mvy (m.) 
7806, 7938 (here cited from Gv); Gv 106.21; 134.8 (here 
nt.). (On LV 147.2 see s.v. paryanta 3.) 

aparyanta- parivarta, m. or nt., square of prec.: 
Mvy (m.) 7807, 7939 (here cited from Gv); Gv 106.22; 
134.9 (here nt.). 

Aparyantabhadra, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.9. 
a-paryatta, a-parySdatta, and a-pary&dinna (all 
ppp. to pary-a-da with neg. a-; = Pali apariyadinna ; 
cf. paryadadfiti, paryadana), not overcome, not mastered 
(by disturbing or hostile elements or entities) ; not exhausted ; 
in the latter sense (1) Gv 502.15 aparyadatta, said of a 
light which is not exhausted by the lighting of many other 
lights from it (see s.v. niryfina); but (2) regularly applied 
to citta or equivalent (so also in Pali), with mind (thoughts, 
or the like) not overcome (by deleterious influences) : 
aparyadinnadhyaSaya Mv i.85.6; 86.12 (defined 86.13-14, 
where in 13 °dinna-citta is included in the definition); 
°dinna-citta Mv i.133.10; °datta-citta KP 161.2; Gv 202.3; 
°datta-cetana Gv 151.20; °datta- (with citta in later part 
of cpd.) Gv 246.19 (1st ed corruptly °danta-; corr. 2d. ed.); 
aparyStta-vedita-citta £ik$ 24.11 (see s.v. vedlta). 

apalak$ana, adj. (Bhvr.; = Pali avalakkhaija ; not 
noun, as it is stated to be used in pw), having inauspicious 
marks: Jm 82.5, 18. Cf. avalak$ana. 

Apalfila (== Pali id. or °]dla), n. of a nfiga king: 
Mvy 3273; Divy 348.20; 385.3; Mmk 18.12; Atflnfitiya 
Sfitra, Hoernle MR 27.3 ; Samadh p. 42 line 27 ; May 
221.24; 247.3, MSV i.2.6. 

[apava, m., Mvy 7903, is doubtless a false reading 
for ayava, q.v., a high number.] 

apavljjhati (M Indie for Skt, apavidhyati), throws 
away , rejects: ger. apavijjhiyana Mv ii.104.4 (rajyaip). 
Acc. to Senart, apavijjhati or °vidhyati would also mean 
disappears; see aparSdhyati. 

apa-vivSra, adj., not characterized by wide opening of 
the mouth passage in speech (see vivara in BR): Gv 401.4 
°rah, said of the Buddha as possessing the laksana simha- 
hanuta; in the same passage he is called su^nispidihanuh, 
see ni$pldin, which confirms the mg. as stated. Evidently 
his speech was tight, not loose. 

apa&cimaka, adj., (1) having no later, last (so Skt. 
apaScima): Divy 209.1 (vs, but not m.c., in fact -ka spoils 
meter!), 4 (prose); MSV i.112.18; (2) perhaps — a$esa, 




complete (? or at the least , not containing less than ' the 
number stated*} ): Bhlk 18b. 5 sarvabhiksusamghe . . . 
apaScimake va bhiksunam dasavarge mandalake, sarva- 
bhiksunisamghe . . . (19a.l) apascimake va bhiksuninam 
dvadasavarge mandalake; MSV iii.94.15 °kena bhiksuna 
parivaso deyas caturvargamandalakena. 

a-pasyana (neg. n. act. to pasyati, cf. pasyana, 
anupasyana), the not-seeing : SP 137.12 °naya, by not- 
seeing; Kern as if he were not seeing, not quite rightly; 
Burnouf is farther from the truth. ‘Sight’ is false, illusory; 
one must not-see to truly see. Confirmed by verse version 
SP 143.2; and cf. Lank 9.8 ye paSyanti yathadrstam na 
te paSyanti nayakam. 

a-pasyamya, adj. (neg. gdve. to pasyati), hideous 
(lit. not to be looked at): Mv ii.447.9; 491.18. 

? apasraya- (m. ? cf. Pali apassaya, Skt. apasraya; 
Ved. apasrayah, AV 15.3.8, BR Kopfpolster, but Whitney 
support ?), support: LY 430.20 (prose; in comp.). But good 
mss. support apasraya-, which should probably be adopted. 

apasamharati, beguiles, seduces:. SP 476.8 (prose) na 
ca naryo ’pasamharisyanti, and women will not distract 
{seduce) them (preachers protected by certain dharanis). 
But Kashgar rec. na ca naribhih samhriyate. 

apa- savyakam, adv. (= Skt. and Pali °vyam, which 
in Skt. means to or on the right , also to or on the left , see 
BR 1.296, 5.1009; in Pali only the latter, except for a 
lexical citation borrowed from a Skt. lexicon, CPD), in 
Mink 125.13 krtva va apasavyakam, (if I understand the 
passage rightly, can only mean) keeping on the right , i. e. 
showing respect, not disrespect. Cf, next. 

apasavyl-karoti (cf. prec. ; Pali °vyam karoti), 
keeps on the left , to show disrespect: °ti Mv iii.325.3. 

apa-srjati (in Skt. rare and perhaps questionable, 
possibly to be em. to the usual ava-s°; not in Pali), drops , 
abandons : Av ii. 184.11 apasrjya, text, with supralineal 
correction in one ms. only, for apasrtya, which the other 
mss. read; perh. read ava-s°. 

apasprsta (ppp. of *apa-sprs; cf. AMg. avaputtha 
touched, by moonbeams), smitten (with affection): Gv 
326.7 °tah, parallel to upadrutah. 

apasphotana, nt. (or ava°, see below), apparently 
shrugging off (an argument or opinion), rejection : Mvy 
7560 = Tib. sprugs bsigs, seemingly shrugging or the like; 
Das gives for this word avasphotana, which Mironov reads 
for apa° in Mvy. See ava°. 

apasmara, m., also °rl ? f. (Skt. and Pali °ra, also 
Pali apamara, epilepsy , see below*), a sort of demon or 
supernatural evil being: Lank 261.10 °rah and °ri; Mvy 4762 
°rah = Tib. brjed byed, epilepsy; May 219.10 etc., °ra(h). 

apasmaraka, m. = prec.: SP 401.5 (prose; in a list 
of demons). 

apasvapana, nt. (no form or derivative of apa-svap 
is otherwise recorded; perhaps hyper-Skt. for ava-svapana, 
see o-svapana and ava-svapayati), going to sleep or 
sleeping: Mvy 6639 — Tib. gnid kyis log pa; LV 217.7 
°nam akurutam, (two gods) caused a going-to-sleep (of 
the people of Kapilavastu). We should expect a caus. 
mg., putting to sleep ; and this may be the mg. in the LV 
passage {made a putting to sleep); but the Tib. is very 
definitely non-caus., and Das cites apasvapana for the 
same Tib. 

apaharana- (nt.?), in Jm 88.10, see s.v. aharana; 
perhaps piloting (a ship) out (of harbor)? 

apaharati (in this sense not recorded), captivates: 
°hriyante, pass. Divy 443.4; °hrto 445.12. 

-apaharakam, adv. (quasi-ger.), in gallapa 0 Mvy 
8584, not stuffing (the cheeks); so Tib., hkhur ba (= mkhur 
ba) [mi] sbo; same mg. seems assured for Pali ava-ganda- 
karakam Vin. iv.196.11 (SBE 13 p. 64 line 16 and n. 2); 
a Stein fragment of BHS, La Vall6e Poussin JRAS 1913 
p. 846 line 1, has corruptly grsma-harakam. 

apaharika? see upaharika. 

apahrta- bhara, adj. ( = Pali ohita-bh°; so also in 
BHS, see s.v., but not in the passages cited PTSD s.v. 
ohita, which quotes LV apahrta as apahita; Pali also 
panna-bh°), having laid aside one’s burden{s ), in Pali said 
of arahats, and so of arhants in BHS, SP 1.7 ; also of Buddha, 
LV 425.20; of sravakas, Mvy 1084 (and ohita° of Bodhi- 
sattvas). Probably, ohita- in this cpd. in Pali (and in 
BHS) historically represents apahrta, removed (so Tib. on 
Mvy khur bor ba, having laid off the burden); ava-dha 
does not have this mg. in either Skt. or Pali, and apa- 
dha is exclusively Rigvedic and rare even there. 

a-paniya, adj. Bhvr., without water (paniya; m.e.): 
°ya ca SP 195.8 (vs). 

apaya (= Pali id., also Skt. but not in this technical 
application), evil state , = durgati, q.v. There are three 
such (see s.v. gati): in hells, as animals, as ghosts. In 
Pali this group of three is rare ; usually there . are four, 
life as asuras being added: LV 32.12 try-apaya; 89.14 
muktas ca te tribhyo 'payebhyo; 92.15 (vs) trisu apayi 
(= °ye!); 196.8 triny apy apayah; 300.21 (vs) apaya 
trayo (acc. pi.); 357.4 (vs) trlni santa apayah; Mv i.61.4 
apaya-pratipuraka, filling {— crowding into) the (3) evil 
states of existence; ii.215.10 apayesu apayam gamisyati, 
he will go to an evil existence in the (3) evil states; apaya- 
patha, ibid., I,V 46.7; 117.9; °bhumi, virtually = hell, 
more specifically (so also apaya in Pali), Suv 23.11 (vs) 
ye sattva tisthanti apavabhumau, adlptasamprajvalitag- 
nigatrah; LV 178.7 (and 9, read with Tib. nan son gsum, 
tri-apaya-, or tri-r-a°, for nirayaya). 

Apaya- jaha, n. of a Bodhisattva: Mmk 40.13; 63.5; 
111.8; 425.19. 

Apayapramathana (so 2d ed., 1st ed. Upa°), n. of 
a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.1. 

apaya-sthana, nt., in sad bhoganam °nani Mvy 2504 
(Tib. Ions spyod, enjoyment, hbri bahi, of diminution, gnas, 
place, drug [la], six), six occasions for evil on the part of 
enjoyments. They are listed 2505-10, madyapanam, 
dyutam, vikala-carya, papamitrata, samajadarsanam, 

a-parajikiya, °kiya, adj. (neg. of *parajiklya, °kiya, 
not in Pali, from parajika, q.v.), not guilty of a parajika 
offense: Prat 481.6 °kiya; 482.2 °kiya. 

a-parima, adj. (neg. of parima, q.v.), not further, 

i. e. hither (bank), always in contrast with parima: Mv 

ii. 259.7, 17 °mato (tlrato) parimam tiram; Av i.148.14 
°mat tlrat pfirime tire; Gv 351.2 °me tire (contrast parime, 
next line). 

apavaranl (to Skt. apavrnoti), key (so Tib., lde mig): 
MSV ii.128.10. 

apavuriyati, is opened, pass, to *apavurati = Pali 
apapurati; see Chap. 43, s.v. 1 vr (3): Mv ii.158.1 °yati, 
and pres. pple. °yantasya. Cf. ii.161.3 apavrtam, the 
regular Skt. ppp. 

apasrayana (nt.), in catur-a°, adj. (= Pali apassena, 
catur-apas°), {possessing the four) base{s), supports), of a 
Tathagata {modes of observance, CPD): Mvy 430 catur- 
apaSrayanah. CPD gives the Pali list, which is not found 
in Mvy. 

api, indecl., (1) if: SP 229.4 (vs) apy ekavaram pi 
vadeta sutram, if he should recite the sutra even (pi) once ; 
(2) after negative expressions, but, Ger. sondern (Skt. api 
tu; cf. CPD s.v. api A, 1, a, 4): Mv ii.109.16 (na adya 
kimcit parvo na utsavo,) api drumasya . . . dhita . . . agata, 
it is no holiday or festival today , but the daughter of Druma 
. . . has arrived; 110.12, na me svayam drsto napi parato 
Sruto, api me . . . anguliyaka utsange patita, I have not 
seen him myself nor yet heard of him from another, but . . . 
his ring fell in my lap; 248.12 na ca kimci 6arlrapida asi, 
api me samudraparam gatva agatva, and I have no bodily 
disease, but as I am going to the other side of the sea and 




coming back — (sentence unfinished); (3) api . . . api, 
either ... or; in Skt. apparently only api va, or vapi, are 
so used; but in Pali pi . . . pi, see CPD s.v. api, B (1): 
SP 321.12 (prose) varnenapi na rocate gandhenapi rasen- 
api na rocate, is not pleasing by reason of either color or 
smell or taste; [(4) in api nama tvam . . . adinnam . . . 
adiyasi Mv i. 346. 13, api nama apparently means surely l 
most certainly ! in a strong asseveration. But exactly the 
same expression is repeated twice below, 346.20 and 
347.8, with asti (nama) instead of api, and this is-, the 
true reading; see s.v. 1 asti (1);] (5) apy eva nama (= api 
nama, perhaps , in Skt. BR s.v. api 13; in Pali, both api 
nama and app' eva nama, perhaps, CPD s.v. api, A, 1, c), 
(a) perhaps SP 228.1; 459.8; Siks 58.16; Bbh 15.7; (b) if 
only, in strong wish (so Skt. api nama, e.g. Sakuntala, 
Pischel 2 , HOS 16, 1.20.30), Mv iii.272.8 apy eva nama 
aryaputrah agaram adhyavaseya, if only my dear lord 
would, take up domestic lifel This mg. is recognized for api 
alone, BR s.v. 11. See apy-ekatya. 

a-pidita, neg. ppp. (m.c. for °pid°), not harrassed: 
LY 361.16 (vs). 

a-pitrjna, not honoring one’s father, see under a- 

apidheti, see pidh°. 

[apimanya, erroneously implied in text of LY 259.9; 
see manyana 1.] 

apislista, ppp. (if correct, to api-£lis, otherwise un- 
known; perhaps read aslista, cf. the v.l.), clinging to: Mv 

iii. 76.10 valam (of the supernatural horse) apislista(h) ; 
but v.l. asli° (intending asli°?). 

a-punah-pratyudavartya = a-pratyudavartya, 
not to be turned back: Bbh 225.14. 

a-punagamana, nt. (= Pali id.; cf. Skt. punar- 
agamana), non-return, not coming again: LV 175.8 (vs). 

a-punavarta (m.? for °nar-av°, cf. Skt. apunar- 
avartana and °vrtti), not returning again (noun): Mv 
i.142.4 (prose), read with mss. °varta (= °varte) evam-. 

apurvena, adv., extraordinarily, in high degree (Divy 
Index, suddenly; pw 7.304 vor Allem): Divy 36.8 °na . . . 
icchami . . . bhiksubhavam. 

apotsrjati, abandons; Divy 203.16 bhavasamskaram 
^see samskara 2) °jan, pres. pple. In same vs Pali Ud 
64.29 avassajji. 

a-posadhika, not keeping the ‘ sabbath ’: Mmk 76.26 
(see s.v. posadhika). 

Apkrtsna, n. of a samadhi: SP 424.8; °snayatana 
(= Pali Apo-kasin°), one of the 10 krtsnayatanani, 
q.v., Mvy 1534. 

appeti (= Pali id., — Skt. arpayati), delivers: appehi 
Mv iii.295.2 (vs). 

apy-ekatya (properly two words; = Pali app-ekacca), 
see ekatya (7). 

Aprakara, m., n. of a samadhi: Mvy 574; SsP 

[Aprakrsta, see Aprakrsu.] 

apragalbhayate (or, with one ms., °bhayate; denom. 
to apragalbha), is not proud, is humble: Divy 615.3 pres, 
pple., °yamana-rupo. 

a-pranidhi, adj. or subst. (= a-pranihita, q.v.), 
(the state) that is free from desire , longing, or purpose: LV 
296.8 (vs), read: Sunyanimittapranidhlrava muncamanah 
(understand -animitta-apranidhi- ; m.c. a for a), emitting 
a sound (concerning) the void, causeless, purposeless (state, 
i. e) moksa, or nirvana); cf. Siks 6.15, s.v. apranihita. 

g-pranihita, adj. and subst. (= apranidhi, q.v., 
and Pali appaniHita, CPD aimless, not bent on anything; 
in Pali as in BHS parallel to sunnata, °ta, the l atte r - b eing 
used as adj. in Pali!, and animitta (an°); as epithet of 
samadhi [sunnato . . . animitto . . . appanihito samadhi SN 

iv. 360.17 = DN iii.219.22] and of vimokkha, nibbana, also 
as substitute for the latter), (state that is) free from desire, 

longing, or purpose ; often in cpds. it is hard to say whether 
it would be better to call it adj. or subst.; sunyatanimitt- 
apranihitam SP 101.1 (adj. or subst.?); 136.13 (subst.; 
with nirvanadvaram as fourth member of cpd., but this 
is unique; there are four herbs in the preceding parable; 
in 137.1-2 the three alone are named as vimoksa-mu- 
khani); Siks 6.15 sunyatanimittapranihita-rutam = 
buddha-rutam (see LV 296.8, s.v. apranidhi); LV 374.4, 
read apranihita-samadhim with v.l. for text apratihata-; 
422.21 apranihita-cakram (Lefm. with all mss. aprani°), 
parallel to preceding sunyata-, animitta-c 0 ; 428.9-10 
°ta-vihari, parallel to sunyata-, animitta-v°; KP 94.5 and 
125.3, both parallel to sunyata, animitta; AsP 256.13 
(subst.) et passim. 

a-pratikanksana(-ta), see prati°. 
a-pratikahksa-ta (see pratikahksa), non-expecta- 
tion: RP 15.11 sarvasvaparityagino vipakapratikanksata. 
a-pratikanksin, see s.v. parikahksin. 
a-pratigrahita-, see prati°. 
a-pratighata, see pratighata. 
a-praticodya, see praticodayati. 
a-pratipudgala, adj. (= Pali appatipuggala; cf. 
prati°; in mss. of LV, Mv, Av, and in Lefmann’s ed. of 
LY T , written °pumgala, see pudgala; the var. °puhgava 
also occurs in mss. of Mv), matchless, unequalled , ep. of 
Buddha: SP 69.15; LY 126.22; 313.17; 358.7; Mv i.219.9; 
ii.141.12; Divy 393.13; Mvy 42; Av ii.199.1. 

a-pratiprasrabdha (neg. of prati°, q.v.; also written 
°srabdha), not quieted , not ceased, not abandoned (regularly 
with passive force, but also active, that has not ceased): 
Mvy 411 anabhogabuddhakaryapratiprasrabdhah, of a 
Tathagata, unceasing in the effortless activities of a Buddha; 
same cpd. in LV 423.3, ending °srabdha-cakram (read 
with nearly all mss. and Tib. °karyapra°, for Lefm. 
°karya-pra°) ; Mvy 815 apratipraSradbha-marga, having 
(keeping) the Way uninterrupted, of Bodhisattvas; Dbh 
1.11 °dha-gocara, 45.1 °dha-virya, both of Bodhisattvas, 
of uninterrupted scope, of unabated vigor; Divy 133.19 
yavan maya prayoga(h) °dha(h), not finished; Gv 246.9 
tathagata - bala - pravesapratiprasrabdha - tam; 246.20 
-adhisthanapratiprasrabdham ; adv. °dham unceasingly 
Gv 351.2. 

a-pratiprasrabdhi, f. (or °srabdhi; neg. of prati°, 
q.v.), the non-ceasing; permanence: Dbh 42.13 °srabdhi- 
tas; Divy 134.3, read (a)pratiprasrabdhi(r), mss. °bdhi, 
n. sg. ; ^iks 214.7 °bdhaye; Gv 175.17-18 sarvabuddha- 
prayogapratiprasrabdhaye, so read with 2d ed. for 1st ed. 
°yoga-prati°; 245.26 f. °srabdhim. 

a-pratiprasrambhana, nt. (neg. of prati°, q.v.), 
the not ceasing: Gv 371.8 sattvadhatunayaprati 0 . 

Apratima, n. of a queen, previous incarnation of 
YaSodhara: Mv i.128.13 ff. 

a-prativacana, adj. (neither this nor its opposite 
prati° seems recorded in this sense in Skt. or MIndic), 
not going back on his word, dependable: Mv i.349.5, followed 
by synonym satyavadl. 

aprati-varnaniya, in LV 411.10, incomparably 
worthy of praise, in a list of complimentary epithets of 
sounds (^abda), after nirvarnamya, praiseworthy. I believe 
that aprati- must be recognized as used in Skt. as prior 
element in cpds. in this sense, as e. g. in aprati-cakra 
(pw) and aprati-karman (commonly analyzed as a-prati- 
karman; but there is no record of any *pratikarman in 
the sense of a corresponding action, and the immediate 
constituents seem to me clearly aprati and karman). 
Tib. zla med pa, matchless, for aprati. 

a-prativartiya (semi-MIndic for °tya; = Pali ap- 
pativattiya), not to be turned back (by any creature; said 
of the dharmacakra, once set in motion by a Buddha): 
Mv iii.327.7 (vs, no v.l.); in Mv i.330.4 (prose) doubtless 




read so with 1 ms., the other pravartayam, Senart cm. 
apravartiyam; in Mv i.331.4 Senart with mss. apravartiyam, 
in 332.7 apravarti tarn, which is read in the same formula 
SP 179.1 (prose, no v.l.); in Mv i.332.21 aparivartitam, 
in 333.12 apravartiyam, v.l. aparivartiya. In Pali ap- 
parently only appati 0 occurs, and I believe this must 
have been the original reading. No being could turn back 
the wheel started by the Buddha. But evidently in BHS 
tradition this became confused with forms (ppp. as well 
as gdve.) of pra-, pari-vrt-, which of course also yield 
a tolerable sense: which had never been set in motion or 
could not be set in motion by any (other) being. 

a-prativani, f. (also lit.? neg. of prati 0 , q.v.; Pali 
appativani, °ni, °na, also spelled with n; Pali also has 
pativana acc. to CPD s.v. appati 0 , but no pativani), 
non-aversion , non-opposition (to religious teaching or the 
like): °nih, n. sg., Divy 654.27; 655.2 (to understanding, 
abhisamaya, of the four noble truths; parallel with 
utsahanl, uti, qq.v., and see samprajanya for the rest 
of the passage); °ni Mvy 7649 (so also Mironov, no v.l.) — 
Tib. phyir mi nur ba, non-aversion ; as to the form, see s.v. 

a-prativ5nlya, adj; (to °ni; cf. Pali appativaniya), 
not repellent , not causing aversion : Mv iii.343.1, of Buddha’s 

a-prativinita (neg. of prati°, q.v.), not removed: 
Mv ii.121.5, of kamadhyavasana and the like, 
aprativirata, see prati°. 

aprativiryarambha, adj., without energy sufficient 
for (any) undertaking: SP 100.9 (prose; formed in imitation 
of apratibala, which precedes). 

a-pratigarana, adj. ( = Pali appatisarana ; Bhvr., 
from pratigarana), without resource or refuge , helpless : 
LV 189.12; Gv 534.16. 

apratistha- dhy3na- vartanin, abiding in a trance (or 
nirvana?) which is not (permanent) fixation (cf. under 
aprati$thita) : °ni, n. sg., Mvy 437, ep. of a Tathagata; 
Tib. bsam gtan gyi hjug pa la gnas pa mi mnah ba, not 
being fixed in entrance into tranced 

a-prati$thita, not permanently fixed : °to nirvane, of 
a Tathagata, Mvy 406; °ta-nirvana Mvy 1728, nirvapa 
qui n’est pas I'arrit , L6vi, Sfitral. Transl. iii.3 note 4, 
which see on this term; it is the Mahayanistic nirvana 
in which the Tathagata returns to worldly life to save 
creatures, tho remaining incapable of personal involve- 
ment in it. Cf. aprati§{h&-. 

a-pratisamvidita, ppp. (in senses 1 and 2 — Pali 
appati 0 ; BHS pratlsamvidita is not recorded in the 
first sense), ( 1 ) unannounced : Divy 557.16; (2) not known 
or not (fully) comprehended : Bbh 217.16 °viditatmavrd- 
dhikanSm sattvSnam; (3) °tam, adv., unawares ( unknown- 
wise ): Bhlk lla.5. 

a-pratisamveda (m.; cf. pratisamvedayati), lack 
of perception , realization , or recognition : Bbh 175.5 °da- 
tafr glfinah syfid apratibalah, (he is not guilty if he does 
this thing) thru inadvertence , or if he is sick or incapable 
(of doing his duty); °vedaka, see pratl°. 

a-pratisamvedanfi = preceding (cf. prati°): Bbh 


a-pratisamhfirya, adj. (cf. pratisamharana, 1), 
not to be restored (exile; i. e. irrevocable banishment): 
Bbh 83.22 yfi punar apratisamharyS prav&sanS (ed. 
wrongly punar-aprati 0 , as if cpd.); so Tib,, slar mi dgug 

a-pratisamkhyfl- (= Pali appatisamkha, regarded 
by CPD as abstracted from the ger. which in Pali occurs 
as °kha beside °khaya; BHS has the word only in cpds., 
where it could be understood as ger.; so also pratisam- 
khyd, q.v., and cf. the parallel forms in °khy3ya), no 
careful consideration , or (if ger.) not after careful consider- 
ation: LV 434.18. °khya-samupeksaka-tvad from the state 

of being one that shows indifference without consideration 
(i. e. without giving careful thought to it); cf. Levi, Sutral. 
xx.57 sans calcul respectif ; usually in °khya-nirodha, 
suppression not as a result of consideration or knowledge , 
one of the 3 asamskrta (q.v.), Dharmas 32; Mvy 2186; 
Lank 177.3; 197.12; see Suzuki, Stud. 264 note 1, and 
especially La Vallde Poussin, AbhidhK. i.10. 

a-pratisamkhy5ya, ger. (cf. prati°, a-prati-sam- 
khya, and Pali appatisamkhaya), without deliberation or 
reflection: Mvy 141 °khyayopeksa ; Mv i.160.15 nasti 
aprati 0 upeksa, he has no unpremeditated (without reflection 
or deliberation) indifference, one of the 18 £venika Bud- 

a-pratisama, adj. Bhvr. (= Pali appati 0 ; neg. of 
Skt. pratisama), having no equal , incomparable: Mv i.135.13; 
RP 51.1; Bbh 89.20, 23; Mvy 2530; -ta, state of being . . ., 
Mv ii. 260.14; 261.16. 

Apratihatagunakirtivimoksaprabharaja, n. of a 
Tathagata: Gv 81.25. 

Apratihatanetra, n. of a devaputra, one o£ the 1 6 
guardians of the bodhimanda: LV 277.14. 

apratihataprabha, m. or nt., a kind of gem: Mv 

Apratihatavega, nt., n. of the disk-jewel of a cakra- 
vartin: Gv 418.6. 

a-pratlga, adj. (= Pali appatissa, °tissa; etym. 
obscure; see CPD s.v. and Senart, Mv i note 516, who 
suggests relation to pratiks-; Childers s.v. patissa; cf. sa- 
pra°, su-pra 0 ), disrespectful: Divy 333.23, 27; Bbh 163.24. 

a-pratyanlya, adj. (nonce-form, = vipratyanlka or 
°nlya-ka, qq.v.; based on wrong analysis of the latter 
as containing negative vi-, for which a- is then substituted; 
this is all that is implied by Tib. cited in Burnouf, Lotus 
323 f. ; in Pali a-paccanlka is recorded only in the expected 
sense of not opposed, not hostile, CPD), antipathetic, hostile, 
unwelcome: SP 95.7 (vs) apratyanlya£ ca bhavanti loke, 
put! mukhat tesa pravati gandhah. (One ms. °nlka£.) 

a-pratyaya (m. ; = Pali appaccaya; not in this 
sense in Skt.; cf. Pali paccaya = piti, Jat. ii.241.10), 
discontent, ill-will : Mv i.30.5 kopam ca rosam ca apratyayam 
ca aviskaronti. 

a-pratyudavarta, Bhvr. adj. (not in Pali, nor is 
♦paccudavatta recorded), that does not turn back: Q taip 
pratipadam Bbh 219.12. 

a-pratyudavartana- (nt.; neg. of praty°, q.v.), not 
turning back: Gv 105.6 bodhisattvamargapratyudavartana- 
tayS; in Siks 296.8 read praty 0 , q.v., instead of apraty 0 . 

a-pratyudavartanlya — °vartya: Mvy 5099; AsP 
329.8 pratyekabuddhay&nikaiS cfipratyudSvartanlyadhar- 
mS (bodhisattval?) ; Dbh 42.15 0 ya-manasikSro ; 45.19 °ya- 
kuSalamillaprayogo ; Gv 402.10 °ya-romfi, here in physical 
sense, of the body-hairs of a mahfipuru$a. 

a-pratyudavartya (also a-punah-praty°, q.v.; 
neg. gdve. of pratyudavartate, q.v.), not to be turned 
back, regularly from a religiously desirable course: LV 
181.15 0 tya-smrtiman, irreversibly intent upon ...; 423.6, 

read -adhi$thanfipratyud§vartya-cakram, f 0 r °na-praty° of 

both edd. with no v.l., but Tib. has neg. (ldog pa med pa) 
and sense requires this (see adhi^hana 2); 439.19 °vartya- 
(one, sc. a Bodhisattva) who is not to be turned back; 
Mvy 357 °tya-dharma; Dbh 19.17 °tya-bal&dh5naprfipta; 
38.9; Bbh 225.27, of persons under the training of Bo- 
dhisattvas; Gv 246.20 °tyadhi$th§na. 
apratyuddhSrya, see pratyu 0 . 
a-pradhar§ya, adj. (= Skt. apradhy§ya; neg^ , gdve. 
of pra-dhr§), not to be violated: Mv ii.2.4 (v.l. °djiarsa). 
a-pranihita = a-pranihita, q.v. 
a-prapa£ica, see prapafica. 

a-prapata, adj., not conducive to falling down: Jm 
102.14 deSesv aprapatesv api prapatito (in a vs; m.c. for 
a-prapata?; but see prapata). 



abhaj ana- bhuta 

apramana, nt. (in mg. 1 — Pali appamanna, f. ; 
see GPD s.v.), (1) infinitude , as n. for brahmavihara 
(q.v.), of which there are four, maitri (maitra), karuna, 
inudita, upeksa: listed as apramanani Sutral. xvii.17, cf. 
xx-xxi.43; AbhidhK. LaV-P. viii.196; Mvy 1503-7; Bbh 
241.15-16; LV 297.12 (vs) maitrl-upeksa-karuna-mudita- 
pramanali (read °na? hardly Bhvr.); mentioned without 
list, Gv 471.18 catur-apramana-vihara- ; Siks 105.16; LV 
45.16 catur-apramana-prabha-teja-dharah; 341.1 catur- 
apramana (wrongly printed catura pramana); (2) a high 
number: Mvy 7934 (cited from Gv); 8041; Gv 134.7. 

Apramanagunasagaraprabha, n. of a Tathagata: 
Gv 81.19. 

apramanaparivarta, m., square of apramana (2): 
Mvy 7935 ; cited from Gv, where it is (certainly by accident) 
omitted in the text 134.7; by analogy of parallel forms 
it would be nt. there. 

apramana- subha, m. pi. ( = Pali appamana-subha), 
of limitless magnificence , n. of one (usually the 2d) of the 
classes of rupavacara gods in the 3d dhyana-bhumi (see 
s.v. deva): Mvy 3095; Mv ii.314.8; 349.1; LV 150.7; Av 
i.5.3; Divy 68.15; 138.22; 367.12; 568.27; Gv 249.13; 
Bbh 62.4. 

apramanabha, in. pi. (= Pali appa°), of limitless 
splendor, n. of one (usually the 2d) of the classes of rupa- 
vacara gods in the 2d dhyana-bhumi (see s.v. deva): 
Mvy 3091; Dharmas 128; Mv ii.348.19; 360.18; LV 150.6; 
Av i.5.2; Divy 68.14: 138.21; 367.12; 568.27; Gv 249.14; 
Bbh 62.3. 

apramanabhasvara, m. pi., n. of a class of gods 
(see deva): Divy 367.12, mss.; text by em. abhasvara, 

a-pramadya (nt. ; neither this nor pra° appears to 
be recorded in Skt., Pali, or Pkt.), non-heedlessness : Divy 
426.3 °yena. 

aprameya (Skt. as adj.), (1) m. unmeasurable thing 
(there are five such, all cpds. of -dhatu): Bbh 294.21 ff. ; 
296.9 ff.; (2) nt., a high number: Mvy 8042; Sukh 31.2. 
a-pravyahara, see pravyahara. 
a-prasada (m. ; = Pali appasada; neg. of prasada, 
q.v.), unbelief : Mv iii.63.10 alam arthikasya (see arthika 
2) aprasadena. To be sure, prasada, faith, is normally 
accompanied by the loc. ; here gen., lack of belief in the 

a-prasuti, f., a woman who has not borne children ; 
a young but mature woman, contrasted with kumari, girl, 
and madhyastrl, q.v.: LV 321.8 (prose) °ti-rupani. 

? Aprakrsu or Apraptisu, mss., n. of a former 
Buddha: Mv i.141.15; what was meant is not clear to 
me, but Senart’ s em. Aprakrsta is not plausible. 

? apragbhara (see prag°), adj., Mv iii.343.2 (so 
Senart; mss. apabhara, apadbhara, intending Pali form?), 
of the Buddha’s voice, perhaps level, even, without descents 
or drops ? Pali apabbhara is used of a body of water, 
having even or smooth banks , without steep slopes. 

aprapta-kaya, adj. (nowhere recorded), something 
like faint, feeble, overcome: Divy 334.2 f. ; 571.11; MSV 
i.i.ll; parallel with krsaluka, durbalaka, mlana(ka). 

a-praptika, adj. (cf. Pali apattika, Dhp. comm. 
i.270.23, also pattika = *praptika 271.1), having no share 
in profit (Skt. prapti), so, unprofitable: Siks 251.11, of 
states of being (dharma); Bendall and Rouse powerless. 
Apraptisu, see Aprakrsu. 

h-prapya, adj. (neg. of prSpya, q.v.), not easy , 
difficult: Mv i.89.17 (bhara; see s.v. prapya). 

a-prasadika, adj. (= Pali a-pa°; see pra°L in- 
auspicious, improper: °kam (sc. karma) akarsih MSV 
iii.53.15; °kam krtam 18. 

Apriyakhya, n. of a yaksa: Divy 41.4. 
apriyakhyayin, m., reporter of bad news : Divy 

529.11 f. ; 534.29; 535.2. 

a-phasa, adj. (neg. of phasa, q.v.), unpleasant, dis- 
agreeable: Prat 518.4 °sam (n. sg’., something unpleasant ) 

abaddhapralapa, m., = sambhinna-pralapa, q.v.: 
°po (so read with mss.), Mv i. 107. 15, in list of the 10 
akusala karmapatha. 

Abala, n. of a naga king: Mvy 3254; May 246.22. 
abalamkartar, one who makes powerless: LV 316.16 
(vs) °karta namucipaksam (= °an). 

a-bahumana, (1) nt. disesteem, lack of respect: Mv 
i.309.15 malinlye brahmananam mule abahumanam ut- 
pannam; (2) adj. Bhvr. (in Pali only disregarded, CPD.), 
showing no regard or respect (with loc.): Jm 234.22 (gunesv, 
for virtues). 

abrha(t), a class of gods, see avrha. 
a-bodhi-ka (cf. AMg. abohiva, ignorant, unenlight- 
ened), unconscious; fainting: May 219.33. 

abrajas, nt., a particle of water (as a small unit of 
measure): Mvy 8193; see truti. 

abrahmacaryam-vada, report or accusation of un- 
chastity: Mv i.36.13; 37.6 (mss. both times; Senart em. 

a-brahmanya, adj. (neg. of brah°), not devoted to 
brahmans, regularly after amatrjna, apitrjna, a6ra- 
manya; see s.v. amatrjna for references; in Mvy 2459 
°yam, nt., perhaps the group of those not devoted to brahmans, 
see s.v. asramanya Mvy 2460. 

Abhaya, m. (1) n. of a king of Kalinga, converted 
by Buddha: Mv i.178.11; 180.6, 9; (2) n. of a sarthavaha: 
Mv ii.2.11; (3) n. of a former Buddha: Mv iii.237.1 f. ; 
(4) n. of a people (? cf. Kirfel, Kosm. 76); sc. lipi, the 
script used by them: Mv i.135.7, read ramathabhaya- for 
text ramatha-bhaya- (v.l. cama°); (5) n. of a son of King 
Bimbisara and Amrapali (not corresponding exactly to 
Pali Abhaya, either 2 or 3 in DPPN, but perhaps a con- 
fusion of the two): MSV ii.22.20 ff. 

Abhayagirivasin, m. pi., n. Of a school: Mvy 9098. 
Abhayamkara, n. of a lokadhatu: Gv 398.20. 
Abhayadeva, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.140.13. 
abhayamdada, adj. and subst. m. (cf. -dada), 
(1) (= Pali id.) giving security: Siks 176.5, ep. of Bodhi- 
sattvas; (2) n. of a supernatural ray emitted by Bodhi- 
sattvas: £iks 338.9; (3) ep. of Avalokitesvara specifically: 
SP 441.2; etymologically explained 445.9. 

Abhayapura, or °ra, n. of a capital of the former 
Buddha Supatra: Mv iii.234.8 and 236.2 °ra, n. sg. ; 
234.20 °rasmim, loc. 

abhaya, (1) n. of an herb, presumably Terminalia 
chebula as in Skt. and Pali: Gv 496.21 ; (2) n. of a goddess, 
to whom the infant Sakyamuni is presented to worship: 
Mv ii.26.4 ff. 

Abhayakaragupta, n. of an author: Sadh 579.12. 
a-bhavya, adj. (== Pali abhabba; neg. of bhavya; 
not in this sense Skt.), unable, with inf. or dat., sometimes 
absolute: (a) inf., LV 19.19; 246.15 (saksatkartum; see 
below), 18; 247.8, 9; Mv i.316.17 (ajanitum); iii.263.12; 
318.10; Bbh 291.1; (b) dat., Mv i.292.9 abhavya so tasya 
niguhanaya (so Senart em., mss. tarn niguhanapi), he is 
unable to conceal that (fault); ii.121.6, same passage as 
LV 246.15, but here datives: abhavya eva te . . . jnanaye 
darSanaye sambodhaye (same passage in Pali MN i.241.8 
abhabba va te nanaya etc.); Bbh 159.5; Ud vi.7 (pariha- 
naya, ms. °naya, incapable of loss); haritatvaya Mvy 
9135 (so with v.l. and Mironov, text haritvaya); Bhik 
23b. 5; (c) absolute, incapable, impotent , LV 407.22 (delete 
following danda); Siks 209.12; Mmk 5.26. 

abhavya- ta (to prec.), inability, incapacity: Mv 


abhaj ana- bhQta, adj. (= Pali id.; Skt. abhaj ana 
in same mg.), no proper vessel, unworthy: Mvy 2457 -sattva. 
Cf. next. 

abhaj am- bhavati 



abhaj am- bhavati (cf. prec. and Skt. bhajanl-bhuta), 
becomes no proper vessel: MSV ii.73.12. 

Abhavasamudgata, n. of a former Buddha: Samadh 
8.8, 10 etc. 

abhikirana (nt.), bestrewing (to Skt. abhi-kirati) : LV 
430.13 suvarnacurnabhikirana-. 

abhikirnikrta, adj. (to Skt. abhikirna, ppp. of 
abhikirati), made to be bestrewn: LV 82.10 divyapuspa- 
bhikirnikrtam (lumbinivanam). 

abhiklrtana (nt. ; to Pali abhikitteti), recitation: RP 
30.17 corakathabhikirtanarataS ca. 

abhikranta (= Pali abhikkanta; on confusion with 
ati°, partly no doubt graphic, see atikranta), (1) adj., 
advanced , eminent , successful: Divy 311.5 f. abhikranto 
'ham bhadanta (note p. 707 would read ati°, but Pali 
abhikkanta is used in mgs. very close to this; instead, 
read abhikr 0 for atikr° Divy 462.13); MSV i.54.5; 58.16, 
etc.; (2) adj., fine, beautiful, of color (Pali abhikkanta, 
also with vanna): prob. read in LV 398.11 abhikrantena 
varnena; Lefm. em. abhisamkrantena v°; most mss. 
abhisamskarena (seems senseless); v.l. atisamkrantena; 
Calc, atikrantena, which is the usual BHS form in this 
mg. and may be right; (3) n., approach: °ta-pratikranta, 
approach and recession, Mv i.301.5 (mss. ati°); iii.60.5; 
182.12 (mss. ati°); °tena pratikrantena Mv iii.171.2; 
atikrantabhikrantah Divy 47.16 (? so mss., ed. em. 
atikrantatikrantah), perhaps having passed over the ap- 
proach (to the religious goal)? 

a-bhiksuka, adj. (= Pali abhikkhuka; -ka Bhvr.) 
containing no monks: °ke avase (so in Pali) MSV ii.96.10. 
Cf. sa-bhi° 

abhigita, in gathabhigita, (ppp.) subst. (in Skt. as 
ppp., rare; Pali only in the same cpd., gathabhi 0 , but its 
meaning is disputed, see CPD; in any case it certainly 
does not have the mg. it has in BHS), either dvandva, 
verses and songs (so Burnouf and Kern on SP 191.3), or 
(more likely) tatpurusa, recitation of verses (so apparently 
B. and K. on SP 303.2, and RSgamey on Samadh); only 
in instr. °gitena (in SP 191.3 v.l. °gitebhi), with recitation 
of (a) verse(s ); in every case except SP 191.3 followed 
by one or more stanzas, to which this noun clearly refers: 
SP 191.3 °tena abhistavimsu (sc. Buddham); 303.2 °tenai- 
tam evartham pariprcchati sma; Gv 275.25 buddhadar- 
Sanam °tena samvarnayam asa; Divy 83.9; Samadh 8.20; 
MSV ii.104.14. 

? abhigrhnati (°ati; Pali abhiganJiati, overcomes, 
once, see CPD which suggests em. to adhi°), excels, sur- 
passes: Mv ii.307.6, mss. abhigrhnanti (buddha, ra£mi- 
bhih), Senart em. ati° (but ati-grah- in this sense is rare 
and doubtful in Skt. and does not occur in Pali); in next 
line 7 Senart reads atigrhyate with one ms., the other 
reads abhigrhnisu; a pass, seems required but perhaps 
abhigrhyate is to be read. 

abhigrasta, ppp. (occurs in Amarak. as gloss for 
abhipanna; otherwise no abhi-gras is recorded), overcome , 
scorched: agnina abhigrasta Mv ii.458.3. 

abhigrahana (nt.; Skt. Lex.; not in Pali), seizing, 
grasping: Lank 18.8 visayabhigrahanapravrttanam (vi~ 

abhighosa (m. ? no form of abhi-ghus recorded), 
renown: Mv ii.1.14 abhighosa-ghustam (kulam; not found 
in parallel passages Mv i.198 and LV 24). Precedes abhide- 
vSdighosa 0 , q.v. 

abhichada, nt. (to abhich&dayati, q.v.), present , 
honorarium: Mv iii.193.8 (hiranyasya suvarnasya ca va- 
strabharananam ca mahantam ra$im krtva . . .) idam te 
abhichadam bhavatu. 

abhichddana (nt.), = prec.: Mv iii.127.17 tasya 
vipulam abhichadanam (a liberal reward) dadeyam. 

abhichadayati (nowhere recorded in this sense; orig., 
clothes, trans.), presents, with instr. of the thing given, acc. 

of recipient; the gift may be garments but very often is 
not: AsP 518.16-17 °yati (svakena ca kayena . . . bodhi- 
sattvam); Mv ii.367.17 (vs) daridra sattva paSyitva 
dhanena abhichadaye; pres, pple., Megh 288.16-17 mahata 
gurugauravacitrfkarena bhagavantam abhichadayantah, 
presenting ... with homage etc. (wrongly Bendall); perf., 
Gv 332.21-22 sa tan . . . Sarvavastuparityagair °yam asa; 
415.3-4 mahamaniratnapadmasatasahasraih tarn bhagavan- 
cam °yam asa; ger. °chadya LV 108.2-3; 159.14; ppp. 
°dita, SP 76.10 jivitena, presented with life; Mv i.61.1 (with 
garments); iii.278.13 dhanena; Siks 33.7 gunajnanabhicha- 
dita(h), presented with knowledge of virtues (wrongly Ben- 
dall and Rouse). 

abhijanati (= Pali id.), (1) knows by abhijna, q.v. 
The technical Buddhist meaning of the noun is certainly 
at times associated with the verb, which in Skt. means 
knows in a very general way. The extent to which the spe- 
cial Buddhist sense is present in the verb is often doubtful; 
I list a few cases where it seems pretty clear: abhijanami 
SP 200.8 (Burnouf and Kern, remember, I think wrongly); 
Mv i.57.7, 12; Gv 446.14; Vaj 34.20. The translation 
remember, also given CPD, is due to the fact that events 
of the past are often referred to; but I think the Buddha 
(the usual subject in such cases) knows them by super- 
natural knowledge or so-called intuition (abhijna, q.v.), 
not by memory; (2) recognizes (as a duty), takes upon 
oneself (a vow or undertaking); so also in Pali, e. g. MN 
i.80.5 (definitions in Pali dictionaries including CPD 
hardly do justice to this mg.): LV 254.2 abhijanamy 
aham . . . ekani evadvitiyam kolam aharam ahartum, / 
undertake to allow myself to eat only a single kola as food; 
similarly LV 255.8, 15. 

Abhiji(t), (1) n. of a former incarnation of Sakyamuni: 
Mv i.2.3 °ji, n. sg. ; 5 °ji-, stem in comp. ; (2) n. of a former 
Tathagata: Mv iii.236.13 °jitam, acc. sg. ; 14 °ji, n. sg. 

abhijivin (cf. Pali abhijivati), living: Mmk 614.7 
dirghakalabhijivi, n. sg. 

abhijna (= Pali abhinna), higher or supernatural 
knowledge; intuition (CPD). There are 5 or 6, in both Pali 
and BHS, agreeing in essence tho the order and precise 
forms of the names vary. In Dharmas 20, five : divyacaksus, 
divyasrotra, paracittajnana, purvanivasanusmrti, rddhi; 
in Mvy 201-209 six, same order, with variant forms, 
(parasya) cetah-(citta-)-paryaya-(q.v.)-jnana, for the 
third; the sixth is a£ravaksayajnana, as in Pali and else- 
where when 6 are named; the fifth is rddhividhijnana in 
Mvy 208; SP 134.11 lists 5, practically as in Dharmas 
except that the fifth is rddhivimoksakriya, an unusual 
phrase, for which no v.l. is given in KN or WT; Burnouf 
(Lotus App. XIV, p. 821) cites his ms. as reading rddhi- 
saksatkriya, which is much more plausible. Twenty 
abhijna-karmani are set forth in detail Mvy 210-230. 
In Lank 292.13-16 the abhijna, collectively, are classified 
as to their origin in four ways (in 1. 16 read with Suzuki 
Transl. 242 n. 1 te ’bhijha na vipakajah). References to 
five abhijna: SP 12.4; 141.9; 254.14; Mv‘i.284.3; ii.33.11; 
in ii.96.1 attributed to brahmanical, non-Buddhist rsis; 
Divy 321.3; Siks 243.13 (read panco, see p. 412, note) etc.; 
six, SP 90.7; 129.10; 150.2; 155.2; 255.4; 272.6; Mv iii.55.5 
fL; Divy 399.27, etc. ; note Mv i.165.12 where 'by abhijna’ 
(abhijnaye) the Buddha attains knowledge of the Doctrine 
taught of old by other Buddhas; this certainly does not 
mean memory, cf. s.v. abhijanati, which is commonly but 
wrongly rendered remembers in similar contexts; maha- 
bhijna- SP 66.8. 

Abhijfiaketu, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 3.18. 

Abhijhajhanabhibhh, only in vs, = Mahabhi 0 , n. 
of a former Buddha: SP 157.11 (vs). 

abhijfiata, adj. (= Pali abhinnata), well-known, 
celebrated, distinguished: LV 23.11 (kulam) = Mv i.197.15 
= ii.1.6; LV 99.8; Mv i.197.17 = ii.1.8 abhijnata-purva- 




(ii.1.8 adds purusa-) yugasampannam-(kulam); here LV 
parallel 23.15 has abhijata-(no&/e)-purusayuga-(< 7 enerah'on$, 
wrongly Foucaux)-sampannam; Mv ii.263.2 (prthivipra- 
deso); SP 1.9 abhijhanabhijnatair, renowned for knowledge 
(or, with v.l., for the abhifha, abhijnabhijnatair, cf. Bur- 
nout, note, p. 291). 

abhijnavatl (once written °vati) is apparently used 
in same mg. as abhijha, q.v., in cpds. in Gv 40.5 (text 
°vati); 44.24 (1st ed. corruptly °jnanavati; corr. 2d ed.), 
25, 26; 45.1, 2; see § 22.50. 

abhitunna, and abhiturna (— Pali abhitunna, also 
written °nna; etym., see below), afflicted : Mv i.156.10 (vs) 
tasya . . . vacabhitunno . . . rudanto (subject Chandaka: 
afflicted by his words); iii.284.13 sokabhitunna (so Pali 
sokabhi 0 ). The form abhiturna is read by KN in SP 320.9 
duhkhabhir vedanabhir abhi°, with Kashgar rec. ; in 321.3 
Kashgar rec. also vedanabhiturnan, but KN this time 
°bhibhutan. Kern cites Pan. 6.4.21 for turna (not recorded 
in literature) as ppp. of turvati, overcomes. Neither this 
root nor tud is recorded with abhi, except for the Pali 
form cited, which CPD derives from tud, but Kern (see 
PTSD) from turv, doubtless because of BHS abhiturna. 
The BHS °tunna could be a MIndicism; but contrariwise, 
perhaps, °turna could be an unhistoric hyper-Sktism. All 
that seems certain is that the two belong together and with 
Pali abhitunna. 

abhiturna, see abhitunna. 

abhitvarana-ta (cf. Skt. abhi-tvarati), state of 
hastening towards, with loc. : Bbh 203.10 (samyaksam- 
bodhav) °taya. 

abhidaksinati, or °niyati (denom. from Skt. abhi- 
daksinam, Pali abhi-dakkhina), goes around keeping on the 
right, in homage : Mv ii.416.11 devarajam °netsuh, or °nlyet- 
suh, aor. 3 pi.; so mss., Senart em. °niyensuh. In vs, but 
meter obscure to me. 

abhidarsaniya, adj. (not recorded, but cf. Skt. abhi- 
darsayati, °darsana), beautiful : SP 89.7; 128.5. 

abhidasati, bites : Jm 229.12 °santi. 

abhidrdha, adj., firm: LY 278.17 (prthivlpradesah . . .) 

abhidevaghosaghusta Mv i.198.3, or abhidevadi- 
ghosaghusta (v.l. °devabhigho°), ii.1.14, °tam (kulam), of 
the family in which the Bodhisattva is born for the last 
time, renowned in a manner surpassing the renown of the 
gods ( and their like). In the parallel LV 24.11 dasadigvi- 
ghustaSabdam, having its renown bruited about all ten direc- 
tions. Cf. abhighosa. 

abhidyotana (nt. ; to °dyotayati), (intellectual) illu- 
mination, making clear, explanation: Lank 108.13 padasya- 
(of a sentence, expression)-bhidyotanartham ; Gv 243.5 

abhidyotayati, °te (= Pali abhijotayati, with object 
attham = artham), illumines, makes clear, explains (in 
applied, intellectual sense; object artha, a meaning, or 
the nature of some religious truth etc.): pres. p. °tayanti 
Gv 371.19 (-artham); °tayamana Mvy 6372 (artham); 
Gv 245.13; 543.7 = Bhad, prose Introduction (kalpan 
kalpaprasaran); ppp. °titam (-niryanam) Bbh 258.3. 

Abhidharma, m. (= Pali Abhidhamma), n. of the 
third section of the Buddhist canon: Mvy 1413; Lank 
290.8; Karmav 94.7; 102.1; 103.6; 155.1. 

Abhidharma- samyukta, pi. (°tesu, loc.), n. of a 
text or class of texts (otherwise unknown, L6vi p. 12), in 
which some schools are said to have included the Karmav: 
Karmav 167.12. 

abhidharayati ( = Pali id. or °reti), supports, upholds, 
assists: opt. °rayet Mv i.275.13 (rastram), 15 (parijanam); 
with aor. mg., Mv i.250.6 (vs; dharmolkam; = Pali Jat. 
i.34.15 dhammokkam abhidharayi; Senart wrongly em. 
abhijvalayet); inf. °rayitum LV 100.15 (Mahaprajapat! . . . 
samartha . . .)rajanam . . . abhidharayitum. 

(abhidhya (= Pali abhijjha), covetousness, occurs in 
Skt., BR 5.1019, tho commoner in Buddhist literature; 
as one of the 3 akuSala karmapatha (see this) of the mind : 
Mv i.107.15; LV 31.17, etc.) 

abhi- dhyayati (§2.14; to dhyayati, q.v., = Pali 
jhayati), burns, intrans. : °yati Mv iii.341.6, three times; 
subject, the earth; follows kampe and vedhe (portents 
which followed the dharmacakrapravartana). 

abhidhyalu, adj. (= Pali abhijjhalu; to abhidhya, 
imitating irsyalu to irsya), covetous : Divy 301.24; Gv 
157.4; 228.15; AsP 427.8; an-abhi°, not covetous, Divy 302.9. 

^bhinada-ta, condition of resounding , reverberation: 
Bbh 76.23 (prose) devadundubhlnam °ta, 

abhinadita, ppp. (m.c. for °nadita), made to sound: 
LV 80.21 (vs). 

(abhinandati, desires; this mg. exists in Skt., BR, 
tho the Pali Dictt. do not recognize it; it is very clear in 
BHS, as in SP 442.1 yo darikam abhinandati, who wants 
(to have) a daughter; with inf., Mv ii.65.14 abhinandati 
bhoktum, wants to eat. Note that a native Pali lex. gives 
tanha as a meaning of the verb, CPD.) 

abhinandana, nt., °na, and °na-ta (= Pali °na, 
°na), ( 1 ) welcome, joyous greeting: Siks 183.7; ( 2 ) delight 
(in an evil sense), lust: Av ii.188.10 °naya, dat. ; Dbh 
48.15 °na, n. sg. f., and 16 °na-tah, abl. ; KP 125.5 trai- 
dhatukabhinandanataya, instr. sg. (Both mgs. in Pali.) 

abhinamana (to Skt. abhi-nam- plus -ana), nt., 
respectful salutation: Mvy 1770. 

Abhinamita, n. of a gandharva maid: Kv 4.22. 
abhinamayati, (1) inclines (trans.), makes (the heart) 
incline (to something, dat.); cittam abhinamayati LV 
394.6, 12; cittam abhinamayitum (nivasaya, towards 
remaining) Jm 132.11; ( 2 ) turns away (trans.), distorts: 
dharmabhanakasyarthany akatham abhinamayati Siks 
96.10, distorts the preacher's meaning into a wrong statement; 
(3) prepares (food): khadyabhojyam abhinamayet Mv 
i.325.8; ( 4 ) causes to pass, passes, spends (time), = atina- 
mavati, q.v., for which this may be only a graphic corrup- 
tion (t and bh often confused): LV 369.11 (a week, saptara- 
tram); kausidenabhinamitam Divy 464.20, 25, (time, or 
life: subject unexpressed) was spent in idleness, cf. the 
absolute use of atinamayati, q.v.; MSV i.18.16; but 
i.72.18 and 73.3 (same passage as Divy above) °tinamitam. 

abhinikujati (= Pali id., rare), warbles: paksino 
°janti MSV i.93.16. Cf. next. 

abhinikujita, ppp. to prec. (= Pali id.), made to 
resound indistinctly (Skt. nikujita): Divy 221.17 (puskiri- 
nyah . . . Sakunakair . . .) °tah; in Mvy 5238 read with 
Mironov saiksabhinikujitam for text Saiksabhir ni°. 

abhinigudha, ppp., hidden or protected: Av ii.115.8 

abhinigrhnati (= Pali abhinigganhati), holds fast, 
restrains, controls: Mv ii.124.2 °hne (cetas), aor.; 126.6 
°hne (prsthimakam, sc. kayam), prob. 1 sg. pres, mid., 
hold under control (?); Bbh 161.12 manabhinigrhlta, 
restrained by pride; auddhatyabhi 0 (cetas) 169.3. 

abhinipatati (not recorded in these mgs. in Skt. or 
Pali): ( 1 ) falls down (in respectful salutation): LV 413.21 
(vs) jinasya krame ’bhinipatya (so read for kramebhi 
nipatya), falling at the feet of the Jina; ( 2 ) falls upon, 
attacks: LV 153.1 (prose) (bodhisattvam) °titah; (3) falls 
on (a couch): MSV iv.196.4; ( 4 ) caus. °patayati, ppp. 
°patita, (words) hurled upon : Jm 125.16 °patitaksara. 

abhinimna, adj. (in sense of nimna, q.v.), inclined 
to, bent upon: LV 402.12 (vs) dharmabhinimnah. 

abhinirupana (= Pali °ropana; see next), fixation of 
thought: Mvy 7457 = Tib. mnon par rtog pa. 

abhinirupayati (= Pali °ropeti, cf. prec.; assumed 
to be from caus. of ruh with abhi-ni; in BHS perhaps 
influenced in form by Skt. nirupayati), concentrates (with 
the mind, instr.): Siks 16.6 cittenabhinirupayed. 




abhinirghosa (m.), (vocal) sound : Kv 89.5 kalavin- 
karutasvarabhinirghosena bhagavan arocayati. 

abhinir- jayati, °jinati (Skt. °jita, ppp., recorded 
only Mbh 14.2220 Calc. *== 14.76.26 Bomb.; not in Pali), 
conquers : in BHS only ppp. °jitah Mvy 5247, and gerunds, 
°jitya Mvy 3636; LV 101.19; Divy 60.22; Bbh 126.12; 
°jitva Mv iii.378.3; °jinitva or °jinitva Mv i.52.9; 193.20. 

abhinirnamayati (— Pali abhininnameti; see also 
nirnamayati), bends , inclines (the mind; only with cittam, 
and dat. of remoter object, to . . .): LV 344.8 and 345.22 
(-saksatkriyayai cittam) °yati; similarly Mv ii. 132.6, 16; 
°ye (aor.) 283.14. Always follows a parallel form of abhi- 
nirharati, q.v. 

abhinirbhidya, ger., and -bhinna, ppp. (Pali 
abhinibbhijjati, virtually if not exclusively limited to mg. 
hatches out , of eggs, cf. abhinirbheda), penetrating , pierc- 
ing; penetrated : LV 155.16 (subject, an arrow) abhinir- 
bhidya (the target); Sukh 63.5 (mountains, buildings, etc.) 
taya prabhayabhinirbhinnani, penetrated. 

abhinirbheda (Pali abhinibbhida; see under prec.), 
hatching out (of eggs): Mv i.272.19 °daya, dat.; 273.2 
°dam gacchanti, (eggs) hatch out. 

abhinirminoti, °nati (also with dental n), and 
°mimlte, °mimati (— Pali abhinimminati, °nati; Skt. 
abhi-nir-mita, ppp., and abhi-nir-maya, ger., in mg. 
create , fashion, without implication of magic; cf. nirminoti 
etc.), creates by magic : (A) forms implying presents in 
nirmin(n)-: °noti Divy 251.19; °nvanti LV 350.19; opt. 
°neyam SP 196.7, 9; aor. °ne Mv i.183.10; 266.5; °ni 
185.4; ger. °minitva SP 63.6 (°nitva); Mv ii.49.11; 164.1; 
256.2; 275.1; 301.17; iii.116.1; 282.10; 410.11; °miniya 
(§ 35.15) Mv ii.411.10; (B) forms of pres, abhinirmixnlte, 
°mati, and others from Skt. root ma: °mite SP 189.3; LV 
70.20; 293.2; Divy 166.6; opt. °mlyat SP 188.1; perf. 
°nirmame Jm 19.22; ger. °nirmaya LV 77.20; 386.13; 
Divy 83.22; 361.16; 473.4; Av i.85.3; 298.12; Jm 8.13; 
RP 50.5; °nirmimiya (§ 35.14) Bbh 152.2; pres. pass. pple. 
with active ending, abhinirmirmyantam being magically 
created, Gv 444.15 (§ 37.15); (G) ppp. °nirmita LV 191.14: 
273.18; Lank 8.9; Mv ii.150.18. 

abhinirvarjya, ger. of °varjayati (Pali abhinibbajjeti, 
see CPD; commoner is abhinivajjeti), putting off, dis- 
carding, abandoning : Bbh 408.13. 

abhinirvartaka (to Skt. °vartayati plus -aka; cf. 
next and °vrtta), ad )., producing, productive : Mvy 7416; 
Mmk 55.8, 9. 

abhinirvartana, or °na (nt. or f. ; cf. under prec.; 
= Pali abhinibbattana, nt .), production: (tejasya) °tanaye, 
dat., Mv ii.121.9 (mss. abhinirvanataye); 122.5 and 123.2 
(in both mss. abhinivarttanaye ; cf. under abhinivartate, 
also error for abhinir 0 ; note that 121.9 has °nirv° tho 
otherwise corrupt.) 

abhinirvana (cf. next and Pali abhinibbuta), complete 
serenity or passionlessness: Mv iii.395.12. 

abhinirvrti (f.), = prec., or complete extinction: Gv 


(abhinirvrtta, ppp. Skt., also Pali °nibbatta; cf. 
°vartaka, °vartana, an-abhi°; come into being: to be 
read with ed. Divy 71.6 (mahanyagrodhavrkso) ’bhi° 
(most mss. °vrtah), and with Senart’s note on Mv i. 168.7 
°vrttam dharmam dementi nayakah. Senart does not 
indicate that this is an ern., altho both his text and the 
crit. app. read °vrtam; this however seems uninterpretable 
in the context. Senart understands attained to (repeated) 
existence (with different Buddhas). Cf. under abhinivar- 

abhinirharana (nt. ; = Pali abhinlharana), = abhi- 
nirhara, 1 (much rarer than this): Sal 74.15 vayudhatur 
bijasyabhinirharana-krtyam karoti, does the work of the 
development (lit. realization, effectuation ) of the seed; Siks 
123.7 -sarvaku£aladharma-pratipaksabhinirharana-taya, 

production, establishment (above in line 4 abhinirhara, 
see s.v.). 

abhinirharati (= Pali abhiniharati, the definitions 
of which in the Pali Dictt. do not fit BHS usage; cf. 
abhinirhara, more rarely °harana, n. act. to this verb, 
with about the same range of mgs.; one or two passages 
containing the verb, cited there, are not repeated here), 
(1) produces, accomplishes, effects, realizes (commonly 
something in oneself) ; na ca tavad divyam Srotram 
abhinirharati SP 357.4-5 and 8, and yet he does not realize 
(effect, produce in himself ) a divine ear (despite the fact 
that he has certain marvelous powers of hearing); SP 
141.11 ff. sarvajnatvam prarthayase yady abhijna 'bhi- 
nirhareh, tarn cabhijnabhinirharam aranyastho vicintaya, 
dharmam viSuddhain tena tvam abhijnah pratilapsyase, 
if thou seekest omniscience, produce (realize, in thyself) 
the abhijna, and meditate on that realization of the abhijna, 
abiding in the forest; by this means thou shalt win the pure 
law (and) the abhijna (or, possibly, dharmam visuddham 
may be a second object of vicintaya); LV 180.6 prani- 
dhanabalam cabhinirharati sma, and he brought to realiz- 
ation the power of his (former) vow; 415.15 purvaprani- 
dhanabhinirhrtam (so read with v.l. for text °nihrtam; 
sc. dharmacakram) produced (realized) as a result of a 
former vow; rddhis cabhinirhrta and power of magic was 
produced Divy 48.15; 49.13; (dharmadesanam, a preaching 
of the law ) abhinirhrtya, having accomplished, Gv 52.9; 
an-abhinirhrta-sarvajhatajnanair, not having accomplished 
the knowledge of omniscience, Gv 19.21; abhinirhari, aor., 
produced, effected (ksetraviyuha) Bhad 34; abhinirhrta 
(puja), accomplished, Bhad 6 2 ; ppp. nt. used absolutely, 
without expression of noun, abhinirhrtam mantrayate 
sma Divy 542.19, apparently he (Buddha) considered 
(reflected on) what he had undertaken (? produced, realized? 
or initiated, taken upon himself?); but in parallel passage 
MSV ii.128.3 and 180.5 abhinirhrta-pindapatah evidently 
means, when alms-food had been produced (entertainment 
provided by a layman), and. I suspect a corruption in 
mantrayate of Divy, see s.v. aupadhika (2); with cittam 
as direct object and a dat. of remoter object, LV 344,7 
-vidya-saksatkriyayai cittam abhinirharati sma, abhinir- 
namayati (q.v.) sma, effected (realized, produced in him- 
self) a thought (mind) tending to realization of wisdom (etc.) 
and bent (inclined) it in that direction; so 345.22; similarly 
Mv i.228.12 (parallel to LV 344.7) abhinirharesi, aor.; 
ii.132.16 °harami; 283.14 °hare, aor.; (2) takes (a corpse) 
out to cremation or burial (so Skt. nirharati and once 
abhinir 0 , see pw 7.257; apparently Pali abhiniharati is 
not so used; cf. abhinirhara 2): Divy 264.16, 23 abhinir- 
hrta, ppp.; MSV ii.126.20 °haratha; 127.3 ff. 

abhinirhara, m. (= Pali abhinihara; acc. to CPD 
generally earnest wish, synonym of panidhana, patthana; 
BHS shows no such usage; even when associated with 
pranidhi or °dhana it is clearly different in mg. ; cf. abhinir- 
harati, under which will be found another case or two 
of this noun); (1) production, accomplishment, effectuation, 
undertaking, realization (particularly of something in one- 
self); L6vi, Sutral. iv.12, production, realisation (Chin. 
accomplishing). Rarely used of production of physical 
things, as in Sukh 27.15 ff. of garments, flowers, etc., 
also music. That it is not, in BHS, equivalent to prani- 
dhana is illustrated by Gv 5.20 purva-bodhisattva- 
pranidhanabhinirharam ca samdarSayet, and shall exhibit 
the accomplishment ( performance ) of former B. vows; 
followed in 22 by purva-bodhisattva-carya-mandala- 
bhinirhara-paripurim ca samdarSayet, and other similar 
cpds.; Dbh 14.10 evamrupani mahapranidhanani mahavya- 
vasayan mahabhinirharan abhinirharati, he undertakes 
such great vows , resolutions, undertakings; accomplishment 
or production of samadhi, Bbh 141.23 (tesam, sc. sama- 
dhinam, abhi°); 175.11 (samadhy-abhi°); of a course of 




conduct, carya, Dbh 17.15; Mmk 23.5; SP 68.5; of mental 
states such as compassion, Dbh 13.17; of preaching, 
(dharma-)desana, SP 186.8 (here dharmadesanabhi 0 
virtually = a kind of upayakausalya); 317.13 (preceded 
in comp, by upayakausalya); upayakauSalya-parigraha- 
bhi° Lank 15.11, realization of the possession of skillful 
devices ; upayakausalya-jnanabhi 0 SP 82.10 production of 
( effectuation , setting in motion of) knowledge of skillful 
devices ; krtasammodanakathasatkarasanabhinirharas ca 
Jm 147.24-25, and after making the accomplishment of 
return greetings etc.; gathabhi 0 production (= recitation ) 
of verses SP 329.9; Samadh 19.37 (see Regamey’s transl. 
and note); nanabhinirhara-, vatious undertakings (ac- 
complishments, initiations of activities for religious pur- 
poses) SP 41.2, 12; 54.2, 4; 71.7; citta-nagara-duryodhana- 
durasadatabhi- (text erroneously °bhir)-nirhara-prayukta 
Siks 123.4, zealous to produce (effect) the state of impreg- 
nability and inviolability in the city of the mind ; in Dbh 
55.11 ff., repeatedly, -abhinirharam cabhinirharati, pro- 
duces the effect (accomplishes the accomplishment) of 
(various religiously desirable ends); Mvy 593 akarabhi 0 , 
as n. of a samadhi, effectuation of forms ; 758 buddha- 
kaya-varna-parinispatty-abhinirhara, adj., as n. of a 
dharani; in Dbh 45.17 read maharddhi-vikurvanabhinir- 
hara-nanopacara- (text °nanopa°) -kriyaprayogair, pro- 
duction of great magic (andl) miracles ; (2) funeral obsequies 
(cf. abhinirharati, 2; not in this sense in Pali): Av i. 272.1 
sarlrabhi 0 . 

abhinirharaka, adj. (to °harati), whosproduces , serves 
(almsfood): pindapatabhi°ko bhiksuh MSV ii.180.12. 

abhinillnaka, adj. (to ppp. of abhi-ni-li y see BR; 
Pali °liyati, hides), lurked in (by crows, kakabhi 0 ), of an 
old house: MSV i.82.12 (= abhillnaka). 

[abhinivartate, error for Skt. abhinirvartate, see 
abhinirvrtta etc., comes into existence (as), becomes'. Divy 
111.20, 29; 112.13; 227.1; ed., apparently with mss., 
always °niv°, but °nirv° must surely be read. Cf. under 
abhinirvartana ; mss. at Mv ii.122.5; 123.2 also read 
°niv° for °nirv°.] 

abhinivasati (= Pali id.), dwells, has a habitation: 
RP 31.14 °santi, with loc. pranta-vane; caus. (not in 
Pali) ppp. abhinivasita, taken for a dwelling, LV 82.22 
°tah (purvajina-janetrya). 

abhinivisati, °te (Skt. id., Pali °visati), adheres to, 
is attached to: yasyam darikayam kumarasya caksur 
abhinivesyati (for °ksyati; perh. thru °khyati, § 2.26) LV 
141.11, on whatever girl the prince’s eye becomes fixed (Tib. 
miion par chags par gyur pa de); especially of adherence 
to disapproved objects (in Skt. similarly used but not so 
prevailingly); more specifically with object drsti (= Pali 
ditthi, similarly with abhinivisati), heretical view, or the 
like, e. g. Bbh 228.1 drstigatany an-abhinivisya ; Jm 146.7 
yathabhinivistani drstigatani; MSV iii.l 13.20. Hence, 
apparently, cleaves to (belief in), holds fast to, takes for 
real or true (things which are false or fanciful) : Siks 2544 
yo ’sau svapnantare Satrum abhiniviset, who should insist 
upon (Bendall and Rouse 234 believe in) his enemy (seen) 
in a dream ; similarly 254.8 rupani drstva daurmana- 
syasthaniyany (misprinted °syasthan°) abhinivisate ; Lank 
14.3. Cf. an-abhinivisti, abhinivesa. 

abhinivisti, see an-abhi°. 

abhinivrtta, ppp. (not in Skt. in this sense; not in 
Pali), ceased, departed: Lank 51.7 mayavisayabhinivrttam 
(tathagatakayam), ceased, departed from the realm of 
maya (wrongly Suzuki); 152.5, read atmatmlyabhinivrtta- 
dfstayah (so all mss. but one, text °bhivinivrtta°). 

abhinivrtti (not in Skt. or Pali), see an- abhinivrtti - 


abhinivesa (m. ; to abhinivisati, q.v. ; in Skt. strong 
attachment; in Pali and BHS usually to something evil; 
Pali abhinivesa also false opinion, superstition, CPD), 

(1) as in Pali abhinivesa, sometimes false belief, insistence 
on an erroneous opinion, as in Siks 198.21 atmabhi 0 the 
heretical belief that there is a self; this mg. may be found 
in some of the following, which however can be inter- 
preted as evil propensity, adherence to something bad: Bbh 
339.17; 340.21 (see injita); Gv 188.23; Lank 174.12 (see 
aya, drsta 2); Siks 180.16; Divy 210.5; 314.21; (2) dia- 
meter, either length (horizontally) or width, contrasted with 
uccatva or udvedha, height: Mv i.61.2 (yojanam °sena); 
196.18; iii.229.14; 232.11 (catvari yojanani °sam; acc. 
sg. adv.). 

abhiniveSana (nt.; — Skt. id. in different sense, see 
an-abhinivesana-ta), ingress, in the sense of point of 
attack , — avatara (4), q.v.: Mv ii.241.6 (Maro) alabhanto 
abhinivesanam (against the Bodhisattva). 
abhinivesyati, see abhinivisati. 
abhiniscaya (m.; not in Pali; cf. Skt. abhiniscita), 
determination : LV 182.11 prabhedarthabhiniscaya-jnana-. 

abhinisidati (in Skt. rare and only Vedic; = Pali 
°sidati), sits down: Mv i.223.5 (kldrSena) yanena kumaro 
°dati, in what vehicle does the prince (= is he to) sz7?; aor. 
°sidi, Senart em. °side (m.c.) Mv i.202.18; in LV 39.6 
ger. abhinisadya in caus. sense, having seated (or with 
Foucaux consacre), bodhisattvo maitreyam . . . tusitabha- 
vane ’bhinisadya (to take his own place after his descent 
to earth); abhinisannah, sat down, MSV ii.22.17. 

abhiniskramana, nt. (= Pali abhinikkhamana ; to 
next), departure from worldly life, entrance into ascetic life: 
LV 36.2; 183.16; Mv i.142.8; 154.4; iii.263.17 f.; Gv 
247.25, etc., common. 

abhiniskramati (= Pali abhinikkhamati), enters 
ascetic life:’ LV 136.14; 186.5; Mv i.154.5; ii.141.1, 2; 
158.3, 6; 161.5, 7, 8; iii.178.11, etc., common. (Also as 
in Skt., goes forth, in any secular sense, as udyanabhumim 
to-a pleasure park, Mv i.262.2, 4; udyanam ii.150.10.) 

abhinispadyate (not in Skt. in this sense; in Pali, 
in this sense, only caus. abhinipphadeti), gets, secures, 
obtains: Prat 495.7 ff. °dyeta (civaram); 10 °dyamana(h), 
in (while) obtaining (trying to obtain, sc. a robe); ppp. 
abhinispanne civare Prat 493.19; 495.12. 

abhinispidayati (= Pali abhinipplleti), ppp. °pidita-, 
squeezed out, got out with difficulty: °ta-spastapadam Jm 
168.7 (human speech, by a deer). 

abhinispesayati (caus. of *abhi-nis-pis-), crushes 
utterly: °yan, pres, pple., MSV ii.75.1; Tib. cited as phye 
mar (into powder) glog cih (? glog cited only as noun, 
lightning; here it seems to mean crush); same Tib. for 
nisplsanto 76.7. 

abhinisyandana (nt. ; cf. Skt. abhinisyandate, very 
rare), irrigation, infiltration (as) with moisture: Gv 430.19 
cittanagarabhinisyandanaprayuktena te . . . bhavitavyam 

abhinlra, adj., = abhimla: Gv 401.20, of eyes, one 
of the 32 laksana. But 2d ed. °nila. 

abhinila, adj. (= Pali id.; once in Skt., Schmidt, 
Nachtr.), very dark, of eyes (29th of the 32 laksana, 
q.v.) and hair: (eyes) LV 105.16; 432.4; Mv i.119.1; 
ii. 306.15; Mvy 240 (here °netra-gopaksma, see gopaks- 
man); Gv 404.11; Dharmas 83; (hair) LV 105.13; Gv 

[abhinda-sroto, read abhindan (pres, pple.) sroto, 
not breaking the (surface of the) water: MSV iv.214.16, 
repeated; cf. CPD s.v. abhijjamana.] 

a-bhinna, adj. (cf. BR bhid, 8), not seduced, not won 
(amorously, of a woman, by a man): Mv ii.105.9 (vs) 
ka tuhyam abhinna (so mss.; Senart em. abhukta, which 
is right in sense) varteya, what woman could you not seduced 
Abhinnaparivara, n. of a naga maid: Kv 4.7. 
Abhinnarastra, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.137.5. 
Abhinnabha, n. of a future Buddha: Mv iii.330.13. 
? abhipa&cat, adv. after (others), last (of all), or 




temporally, too late , LV 142.14 tvam abhi° agata. But 
probably read with v.l. atipascat = Pali atipaceha 
(graphic confusion of t and bh). 

Abhipasya, nt., n. of a cetiya (caitya) in the south: 
Mv iii.307.17; in the parellel LV 389.10 Padma (6). 

Abhiparaga (= Pali Ahiparaka), n. of a minister: 
.Jm 82.11 IT. 

abhipujana or °na (to Skt. abhipujayati), the paying 
of homage : LV 219.10, 12 °nartham. 

abhiprakirati (— Pali abhippa 0 ; once in Skt., pw 
6.299), bestrews (often after adhyavakirati, q.v., or 
abhvava 0 ): °kirati RP 50.6; °kiranti SP 169.6; 172.9; 
240.2; Mvy 6137; Sukh 43.16; ger. °kiritva Mv i.38.10; 
212.4; ppp. °klrna LV 162.18. 

abhipranamati; ppp. °nata, stretched out towards : 
Jm 176.1 (sakha . . . nimnagam abhipranatabhavat) ; caus. 
abhipranamayati, extends , holds out ( — pranamayati, 
q.v., cf. also pranamati, °mayati): Mv i.65.18 (vs) 
abhipranamayetsuh, aor. (burning brands, towards a pyre) ; 
a perh. m.c. (or augment?). 

abhipradaksini-karoti (cf. Skt. pradaksinl-karoti 
and abhipradaksinam karoti), passes around keeping on 
the riqht (respectfully): pres. p. n. pi. °karonta Mv ii.264. 
18 ff.; ger. °krtva id. 17. 

abhipradarsayati, points to: Jm 144.20 (with acc.). 
abhiprapurana, nt. (cf. Skt. abhiprapuryate, once), 
filling : SP 16.12 (prose) -sankhabhiprapuranam. 

abhipramodana, m., or °na (cf. Pali abhippamoda), 
great joy: Gv 193.17 (prose) °nan, acc. pi.; Bbh 30.11 
(prose) °na, n. sg. 

abhiprayojana (nt. ; cf. abhiprayunkte, Vedic only), 
possession: °naya, dat., Suv 13.6. 

abhipralamba (m. ; cf. next), hanging down (noun): 
Gv 270.8 (prose) samabhagabhipralamba-racita-sakhah (of 
a tree). 

abhipralambate ( = Pali abhippalambati), hangs 
down (intrans.): °te Mvy 6130; 6923, here with alambate 
and adhyal 0 , of lengthening shadows falling on earth at 
evening (same context in Pali abhippal 0 MN iii. 164.30, 
subject chaya, with loc. pathaviya); pres. pple. °bamanani 
LV 77.14; ppp. °bita, hanging down , Sukh 54.5 (astau 
yojanasatany) abhipralambita-sakhapattrapalasah (bo- 
dhivrksah); behung (with), having . . . suspended upon them, 
at end of cpds. preceded by names of articles suspended, 
SP 75.6; 103.4; LV 30.13; 82.18; 162.15; 187.17; Gv 
162.24 (in this mg. perhaps derived from caus.?); caus. 
°bayanti they hang (trans.), cause to be suspended (acc., 
from, abl.), LV 124.6 (gaganatalat puspapattadamani); 
294.16 (puspadamani); pres. pple. °bayantyo LV 295.5. 

abhipravarsana (nt. ; to Skt. °varsati), act of raining 
down: Gv 100.14 -vrsty-abhi°; 169.2; SP 16.11 dhar- 
mavrsty-abhi°; Dbh 90.9; Sukh 60.7 dharmasalila- 
bhipravarsana-taya, because of state-of-raining-down the 
flood of dharma. 

abhipravarsayitar (cf. prec.), one who causes to rain 
down: Gv 463.8 °taro dharmasravanameghanam. 

abhipravadayati, makes resound or play (musical 
instruments) in honor of someone: devadundiibhim °dayam 
asus tasya . . . satkarartham SP 160.3; AsP 158.21 
(divyani vadyani). 

abhiprasanna (ppp. of °sldati, q.v. : Pali abhippa 0 ), 
favorably disposed, with gen., loc. with or without antike, 
or at end of cpds.; in Pali and BHS also believing in, 
religiously, see esp. Divy 53.8; croyant parfaitement, 
AbhidhK. LaV-P. iv.74; the two mgs. often hardly 
distinguishable: SP 459.3 (brahmanesv); LV 308.16 (ye 
Maraputra bodhisattve); Mv i.36.7, 11 (bhiksunam, 

bhiksusya); 294.23; 301.9; 302.8; 309.9 (brahmanesu); 
311.13 (Sramananam); ii.108.4 (mama, sc. a hermit); 
iiL413.4 °na-citta (see s.v. °sldati); 424.9 (asmakam); 
Mvy 8353, and an-abhi° 8352; Divy 23.13; 40.7; 53.8 

(saranam gatam °sannam); 75.19; 137.1 (bhagavato ’ntike 
cittam °sannam); Av i.47.7 (buddhe); Gv 414.26 (bha- 
gavantam . . . drstva casva cittam °sannam); Bbh 14.9; 
buddhadharmasamghabhi 0 Kv 65.16; but also luhabhr, with 
luhadhimukta, inclined to what is mean or base, Mv ii. 131 .5. 

abhiprasarati (in this sense app. not recorded), sets 
out towards: Mv ii.104.6 himavantam abhiprasaresi (aor.); 
ppp. °srta having come into, Jm 97.9 °srtair .-. . salila- 
pravahair ( that had flowed in). 

abhiprasada (m., to next, or its caus.; cf. abhi- 
prasanna; Pali abhipassada, said to mean only faith, 
belief ), either the making well-disposed, or the making to 
believe: Mvy 8352 an-abhiprasannanam abhiprasadava ; 
Divy 423.8 buddhasasanabhiprasadartham, in order to 
make well-disposed, or believing (in). 

abhiprasidati (= Pali abhippa 0 ; in Skt. only caus. 
°sadayati, makes well disposed), favors, is well disposed 
(to), conceives faith (in, gen. or acc.): (sarvajanakayo 
etasya) rsisya (vir.. the Buddha) sahasraparivarasya . . , 
°disyati Mv iii.424.12; (bodhisattvapitakam . . . srutva ca) 
punar °dati Bbh 14.9; caus., makes well disposed to, or 
makes to believe in, °sadayanti Yasodasya matapitarau 
bhagavato santike cittam Mv iii. 413. 3, . . . made their 
hearts favorable to (prob. = believing in) the Bh. Cf. abhi- 
prasanna, °sada. 

abhipraya, m., difference: Divy 222.20 (na . . .) 

kascid viseso va 'bhiprayo va nanakaranam va. Baser! 
on use of Pali adhippaya (= Skt. abhipraya) intention , 
but also difference ; on the latter mg. see CPD s.v. The 
old Buddhist word adhippaya was Sktized, keeping this 
new mg. in addition to its normal Skt. mg. Compare with 
Divy passage the Pali, ko viseso ko adhippayo kim 
nanakaranam MN i.64. 23-24. 

abhipriya, adj. (intensifying to priya; cf. BR s.v. 
abhi 1, d), quite agreeable: Mv i.310.13 yatha brahmana- 
parisaye abhipriyan (Senart em. abhiprayan; but for this 
°prayas, °prayo would be expected) tatha bhavatu. 

abhibudhyati (for °te, pass.; no cpd. of abhi-budh 
is recorded in Skt. or Pali, except rarely the noun abhi- 
buddhi, on which see BR 5.1021), becomes enlightened : 
LV 185.12 (vs; no v.l.) draksyamy abhibudhyato bodhim, 
I shall behold the enlightenment of him as he is becoming 

abhibhaksana, lit., feeding upon (to Pali abhibhak- 
khayitva); so prob. read with 1 ms. in Mv i.361.9 ekam 
mrgam visarjayisyamali, maharajasya ca mrgamansena 
abhibhaksanam (v.l. aviksanam; Senart em. avibhaksa- 
nam, supposed to mean non-cessation de nourriture ; im- 
plausible) bhavisyati, ime ca inrga evam anayavyasanam 
nopapadyisyanti, we will let go one deer (every day), and 
the king will feed on deer-meat, and (at the same time) thus 
these deer will not get into serious trouble. Less likely is the 
v.l. aviksanam = AMg. avikkhana (by false Sktization) = 
Pali (an-)apekkhana, Skt. (rare) apeksana = apeksa 
desire (at the same time the king will crave deer-meal, and 
these deer . . .). 

abhibhavati (not recorded in this physical sense; 
Skt. and Pali only overcomes and the like), mounts, climbs 
upon or over; passes over: LV 197.4 (vs) (midhamgiri . . .) 
abhibhuya cankramati tatra ca nopalipto; LV 198.16 (vs) 
kudya ca vrksa abhibhuya, (the Buddha’s radiance, abha) 
passing over walls and trees (leaves no shadow). 

abhibhana (cf. Skt. abhibhati), perhaps appearance, 
in yathabhibhanam, adj. (or adv. ?), something like 
immediately evident ?: °nam ca na duhprcchaya . . . prati- 
sthitam Suv 1.12 (textually uncertain). 

abhibhavana, adj. or subst. (to Skt. abhibhavati), 
overcoming: ananta-parisad-abhibhavanah Mvy 852, ep. 
of Bodhisattvas (Bhvr. ? or Tatpur. ? in the latter case 
is abhi° adj. or n. ag.?); °na-ta, state of overcoming, LV 
32.1 (prose). 




abhibhasati, ppp. °sita (in this sense not recorded), 
promise(d): SP 88.8 (vs) dadahi nas tata yathabhibhasitam 
(no v.l.) . . . yanani, give us , father, as (you) promised, 
cars, etc. 

abhibhinatti (not in Pali; in Skt. once pass, abhi- 
hhidya-, BR 5.1658), splits: May 259.30 °bhindyat, opt. 

abhibhu (f. ; not in this sense in Pali; = abhibhv- 
&yatana, q.v.), supremacy: abhibhuvas . . . astau Sutral. 
vii.9 (comm, abhibhvayatana) ; sarvalokabhibhu (Bhvr.), 

? Abhibhuyayasa(s), n. of a future Buddha: n. sg. 
°yaso Mv iii.330.14 (so mss.; Senart em. °bhuyaso, perhaps 

abhibhv-ayatana, nt. (= Pali abhibhayatana), 
sphere of sovereignty, one of the eight stages of mastery over 
the senses (in jhana, GPD); also called abhibhu, q.v., 
in BHS: Mvy 1519 (listed in 1520-27); Sutral. vii.9, comm. ; 
xx-xxi.44, comm. 

[abhimanyata, see abhimanyanata. ] 
abhimanyati, with acc. or dat. (loc. ?), in Mv ii.440.15- 
17, used four times of the attitude of a husband or wife 
towards a very ugly spouse; perhaps is hostile towards 
(as in Skt.), but despises, contemns, or perhaps loathes 
would seem more natural: (14) anyam-anyam (15) °yanti, 
. . . patim °yati, (16) ... patih paparupaye bharyaye 
abhimanyati, (17) . . . ya te putra nabhimanyisyati. Gf. next. 

abhimanyanata (to Skt. °manyate, BHS °ti), in- 
juriousness, seeking to do harm: RP 19.16 jnanena ’bhi° 
(prose); could be em. to avamany 0 , cf. 20.2 avamanyati, 
20.11 mss. atimanyanata, Finot em. ava°. But cf. LV 
32.14 where probably read paranabhimanyanatayai for 
Lefm. parabhimanyatayai (by em.; mss. parabhigaman- 
yatayai, paragamanatayai; Calc, as Lefm.). 

abhimanika, adj. (from Skt. and Pali abhimana, in 
two different mgs.; cf. abhi°), (1) proud, conceited: SP 
380.1 (prose); KP 118.2 (prose), 5 (vs); Mvy 2446; (2) 
holding an erroneous view: Lank 146.13 (could be inter- 
preted as abhi°) nasty-asti-tvabhimanikasya. 

abhimanika (cf. Skt. and Pali °mana), pride: Gv 
527.10 jaty-abhimanika-nirabhimanatayai, to make prideless 
their pride of birth. 

AbhimukhI, n. of the 6th of the 10 Bodhisattva- 
bhumi: Mvy 891; Dharmas 64; Bbh 346.10; Dbh 5.9 etc. 

Abhiya, n. of a monk of old (previous incarnation 
of Sakyamuni): Mv i.35.13 ff. (A transl. of his story, Mv 
i.34-45, by R. Otto Franke, in Konigsberger Beitrage, 
1929, pp. 115-124). 

abhiya§a(s), adj., glorious: LV 12.22 (vs) °£a, voc. 
sg. (before k-). 

abhiyacana (to Skt. abhiyacati; cf. Skt. satya- 
bhiyacana, adj., making requests true, BR s.v.), entreaty: 
Mv iii.318.14 °nam viditva; in satyabhiyacanaya Divy 
154.5 with appeal to truth = satya-vacana, q.v., Pali 
saccakiriya, solemn declaration by the truth of something 
(in Divy spoken by Buddha in effecting a miracle; see 

abhiyuktaka, adj. -ppp. (= Skt. °yukta), zealous, 
intent, (mentally) applied: RP 10.10 asayena . . . abhiyuk- 
taka(h). May be m.c. 

abhiyujyate (also °ti; orig. pass, of Skt. abhi-yuj), 
(is yoked;) yokes oneself; fig. applies oneself (to, loc.; or 
absolutely): SP 79.11 (prose) abhiyujyadhve* you are 
yoked, harnessed (to the vehicles just mentioned; wrongly 
Burnouf and Kern); 80.5, 7 (tathagatasasane) ’bhiyujyante, 
apply themselves ; LV 203.4 abhiyujyatha (gauravena), 
apply yourselves l 

abhiraktaka, f. °ika, adj. ( = Pali abhiratta; Skt. 
°rakta not in this sense), (very) red: Mmk 156.24 (vs) 
taluka ca ’bhiraktika (perhaps m.c.). 

abhiranga (m.?), of unknown mg.: Mv ii.86.7 yena 
saptabhiranga ca. The whole passage is obscure. 

abhiracita, ppp. of *abhiracayati : prepared, arranged, 
fixed up: RP 42.13 (vs) mayabhiracitam yad idam tva~ 

Abhirati, n. of a lokadhatu, where dwells the Buddha 
Aksobhya: SP 184.7 (located in the east); Gv 82.9; AsP 

abhiramya (Pali allegedly abhiramma, Maung Tin, 
see CPD; Ap. ahiramma, Jacobi, Bhav. ; see an-, nir- 
abhi°), pleasing: LV 187.10-11 sarvamanapani copa- 
samhartavyani visayabhiramyani; Tib. yul hams dgah 
ba thams cad ni sbyor cig, apparently making visaya 
(yul) subject of upasamhartavyani, and not translating 
abhi°. The sense must apparently be all-mind-charming 
and pleasing objects of sense are to be collected (prepared, 
for the prince to enjoy); yathabhiramyam (= Pali yatha- 
bhirantam), adv., as long as is agreeable: MSV ii.87.19. 

[? abhiradha (m.? to Skt. abhi-radh-; cf. next two), 
winning: Gv 171.22 (prose) . . . bodhisattvasya buddha(h) 
. . . abhiradhacitta bhavanti: but prob. read abhiraddha- 
(Skt.) with citation of the passage Siks 36.6, the Buddhas 
have minds favorably disposed towards . . .] 

abhiradhana (cf. prec. and next; Skt. °dhana, Pali 
an-abhiradhana), winning favor, conciliation: Mvy 2944. 

abhiradhya, adj. (gdve. to Pali abhiradheti = sa- 
dhayati, see GPD; Skt. abhiradhayati, only propitiates, 
wins the favor of; cf. prec. tw r o), to be won, attained : Jm 
119.8 -abhiradhya gunavibhutis. 

Abhiramavarta, n. of a girl attendant on Subhadra 
(1): Gv 52.2. 

Abhiramasrivaktra, n. of an actor’s daughter: Gv 


-abhirucitaka, adj. (= Skt. and Pali °ta), in yatha- 
bhirucitakam, adv., as one pleases: Mmk 76.19 (prose; 
not dimin.). 

abhirudati (in Skt. only ppp. °rudita; not in Pali), 
laments: ger. °rudya Divy 323.25. 

Abhirupa, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i. 139. 14. 
abhiruha (so Senart with 1 ms.) or °hana (so v.l. ; = 
Pali abhiruhana; cf. abhirohana; to Skt. abhirohati), 
mounting, ascent: Mv ii.289.8 abhiruha(na)sampannah 
(sattvah, sc. Bodhisattvas ; in Pali lit. or fig. of mounting 
as on a ship, esp. by a gangplank; so presumably here, 
fig. furnishing a gangplank to salvation). 

abhirocate (= Pali °ti; not in this sense in Skt.), 
surpasses (lit. outshines ): Siks 43.2 (sumeruh parvatarajah 
sarvan kulaparvatan abhibhavann) abhirocate ca sama- 
bhirocate coccatvena vipulatvena ca. 

abhirocana (nt. ; to prec..), surpass ng brilliance , 
splendor: Dbh.g. 20(356). 21 ; Gv 243.4, in adj. cpd. (sarva-) 
sattvabhirocanam, having the splendor of all beings, or, 
illuminating all beings (of a divinity); 345.14 (prose) °na- 

abhirohana (nt.; Sktized form of abhiruhana, see 
abhirGha), mounting (on a ship or other vehicle): Gv 
494.7 yanabhutam sarvabodhisattvabhirohanataya, be- 
cause all Bodhisattvas mount upon it. 

abhi-laksana, adj. (app. cpd. of abhi, intensive, with 
laksana; Bhvr.), having superior appearance, fine looking 
(of grass growing on the place of bodhi): Mv ii.263.11. 

abhilaksita (orig. ppp. of Skt. abhi-laks-; = Pali 
abhilakkhita, see CPD), distinguished; in Pali often with 
abhinnata renowned, and so in BHS with abhijnata Mv 

11.263.3, of the place of bodhi; Mv ii.441.18, of a king 
(mss. abhiraksito, em. Senart); LV 23.16 °ta-purusa-, 
distinguished men; 25.8 °taya(h), and Mv ii.9.1 °tayam 
(with mss.), of the mother of a Bodhisattva in his last 
rebirth; Mvy 2887; Jm 188.21 abhilaksitatmanam, of 
distinguished persons. 

-abhilagna (only in sakrabhi 0 , q.v.), fixed upon, 
worn by (Tib. on Mvy 5960 thogs pa, presumably to hdogs 
pa, tie or fasten on). 




abhilapanata, Mvy 2795 = Tib. mnon par brjod 
pa, full expression , elucidation (Das); not Geschwdtzigkeit 
(pw 7.306). 

abhilapya (rare except in neg. anabhi 0 , nirabhi 0 , 
qq.v.), expressible , that can be put in words: Bbh 265 16 
°pya-vastu; 20 °pvah svabhava dharmanam. In the prose 
Introduction to Bhad, line 2, Watanabe reads param- 
parabhilapyanabhilapya-buddhaksetra-, but the true read- 
ing is paramparanabhilapyanabhi 0 with v.l. and Gv 543.6; 
see anabhilapyanabhilapya. 

abhilasa, nt. (in Skt. m.), desire: Mv ii.65.13 °sam 

abhilasika, adj. (= Skt. °sin, Pali °si), desirous , 
wishful: Gv 233.4 (prose) °kena cittotpadena. 

abhilikhati (not elsewhere recorded in this sense), 
touches lightly , grazes , with acc. : LY 76.19 (elephants 
abhilikhanti the feet of Suddhodana with the tips of their 

abhillnaka, adj. ( = Skt. °lina; cf. abhinillnaka), 
lived in (by birds): Divy 83.21 (prose) kakabhi 0 , of an 
old house; perhaps pejorative -ka. 

abhiliyati (abhi with Skt. dl), flies thither: °yatha 
(mss., Senart em. °ta) Mv ii.21.5 (= i.219.3, where ni-li° 
is read, see nillyati). 

-abhilokana, ifc. (adj,? or n. act., in Bhvr. cpd.? 
to Skt. ablii-lokayati), seeing: LV 179.2 (vs) bahudharma- 
satabliilokane . . . caksusi (nt. acc. dual). 

abhivatsala, adj. (abhi, intensive, with Skt. vatsala), 
very affectionate: Mv ii.206.11. 

-abhivarsika, adj. (= Skt. °varsin, Pali °vassi), 
raining, pouring down: Gv 481.9 (vs) amrtabhivarsikah, 
n. pi. m. (-ka m.c. ?). 

abhivadana (in Skt. and Pali only °na, nt.), salu- 
tation: Bbh 139.7 (prose) °na-vandana-. 

abhivahayati (Skt. in this sense only non-caus. 
°vahati, chiefly Vedic; Pali abhivaheti, removes, puts . 
away), causes to be brought near: Gv 54.20 (vs), read, sura 
bhuta abhivahayahi me, cause true heroes to be brought 
to me; 56.8 (vs) dharmayanam °yahi me. 

abhi-vicitrita, adj. (abhi, intensive, and Skt. vici- 
trita), highly embellished: SP 151.9 and 153.12 (prose) 
ratnavrksabhi 0 ; Sukh 54.12 (prose) -ratnavastuSatabhi 0 . 

abhi-vi-jinati ( = Pali °jinati, °jinati, °jeti), ger. 
°jinitva, conquers: Mv ii.159.2. 

abhivijnapayati and °jnapayati (Pali abhivinnapeti 
only Yin iii. 18.32, object methunam dhammam, makes 
manifest = consummates ; Skt. only non-caus. abhivijanati, 
perceives ), ( 1 ) lit. makes perceptible (by sound), and so 
makes to resound, with acc. object and instr. svarena 
(sabdena); the common mg. in BHS: SP 122.10 (prose) 
lokam svarenabhivijhapayati; 369.1 (vs) lokadhatum 
svarena ... abhivijnapeya (opt.); LY 85.9 lokadhatuh 
svarenabhivijnapto ’bhud; 155.3 mahanagaram sabdena- 
bhivijnaptam abhut; Mv ii. 160.8 svarena abhivijnapitam; 
Mvy 2785 svarena abhivijnapayati; Samadh 8.9 loka- 
dhatuh svarenabhivijnapto (Regamey wrongly instructed ); 
Sukh 64.15 buddhasvarenabhivijnapayantam (pres, ppje.); 
(2) makes perceptible (visually), makes manifest: pres. pass, 
pple. abhivijnapyamanani, being manifested, Gv 537.5 
(sarvarambanani), 6 (sarvabodhisattvaparsanmandalani). 

abhivinayati, °neti (not in Pali; Skt. only ppp. 
°nlta), trains completely: fut. pple. °nesyan Jm 216.8; 
ger. °netva (mss., Senart em. °neti) Mv i.297.17. 

abhivilokana (to next), close examination: °na- 

purvamgamehi dharmehi Mv ii.259.8; 260.1. 

abhivilokayati, °keti (not in Pali or Pkt. ; Skt. once 
°lokya, ger., Haravijaya 42.31, see Schmidt, Nachtr.), 
gazes intently at, examines closely (with acc.): °kayati Mv 
ii.447.5; °keti ii.259.7; 260.1; pres. pple. °kayanto iii. 318.1; 
°kento ii.398.2; °kayan Gv 99.21; ger. °ketva Mv i.317.8, 
10, 14; all prose except Mv ii.398.2. Cf. prec. 

abhivisranayati (abhi with Skt. visra°), gives away 
in largess: pass. LV 123.19, read abhyavakiryante (best 
mss.) smabhivisranyante (certainly intended, tho acc. to 
Lefm. not supported in mss. ; text °sramyante which is 
nonsense); so Tib., mnon par-( = abhi) byin no {give). 

?abhivusta, doubtful reading, LV 185.11 (vs); if 
correct, must mean dwelling; who dwelt, Skt. abhyusita, 
to otherwise unrecorded *abhi-vasati: devata °ta bo- 

abhivrsta, nt. (substantivized ppp. of Skt. abhi- 
\rs), what is rained (upon); rain: SP 127.6 meghablii- 
vrstena, by reason of the rain of the clouds upon (them). 

abhivedana or °na (in comp.; to Pali abhivedeti), 
experience , suffering (of pain): Bbh 180.11 (prose) duh- 

(abhivyuhayati,) abhivyuhita, ppp. (to abhi with 
denom. *vyuhayati to Skt. vyuha), festively adorned: LV 
273.17 (prose) margo 'bhivyuhito 'bhut. 

abhisraddadhati, °dadhati, rarely °dhayati (?), 
(= Pali abhisaddahatl, always with single s, pointing to 
a new M Indie prefixation of abhi; not in Skt.), believes, 
with gen. of person, acc. of thing (as in Pali): °dadhati 
Mv ii.209.5 ; 219.15; KP 16.2; °dadhasi Divy 305.20 
(bhagavatah) ; °dadhami Mv ii.184.17 (etam); °dadhati 
(3 pi.) Sukh 66.6; °dadhasi Divy 538.3 (bhagavatah); 
°dadhanti SP 80.4 (prose; tathagatasya) ; °dhayanti Suv 

192.8 (prose; v.l. °dadhanti); opt. °dadheta SP 93.4 
(sutram); impv. °dadhadhvam SP 315.2 (tathagatasya); 
fut. °dadhasyati Divy 7.29; °dadhasyanti Divy 14.24; 
Yaj 41.7; Kv 23.14; °dadhasye (1 sg. mid.) Divy 8.1; 
°dadhisyanti Mv iii. 76. 9; ppp. °dadhata Divy 16.5; gdve. 
°dadhitavya Mv iii. 76. 6. 

abhisraddadhana-ta (n. act. from prec., with suffix 
ana pits -ta, § 22.42; not from Sanskritic pres. mid. pple. 
-dadhana), slate of believing: SP 332.7; SsP 615.10 (both 

abhisakta, adj. (ppp. of Skt. abhi-sajati, Pali abhisa- 
jati, both offend , give offense to; afflict; cf. abhisajyate; 
wrongly defined in BR s.v. sanj with abhi; Mbh. Crit. ed. 
3.30.26 [Nil. tapito, tapayet for abhisakto, abhisajet] and 

4.4.9 [Ramakrsna paraphrases using abhisanga, glossed 
parabhava], which are the only two passages cited in BR; 
pw adds one other from Caraka, abhisakta, defined cor- 
rectly heimgesucht), ( 1 ) lit. offended, hence angered, wrath- 
ful (so the cognate Pali abhisangin is used; Pali abhisatta, 
in most occurrences, = Skt. abhisapta cursed, but see 
below), always followed by synonyms kupita, candibhuta 
(or in Prat candlkrta): Divy 622.11; Karmav 26.5 (here 
krodhabhisakta) ; 27.13; Prat 500.8; 512.9 et alibi; (2) in 
Mvy 2965 abhisaktah defined by Tib. (nan ba) and Chin, 
as simply bad, wicked; the Jap. has three alternative 
renderings, all obviously based on etymological guesswork; 
one means vituperated. Occurs in a section entitled krodha- 
karah, and containing mostly words for anger, angry etc., 
and perhaps to be interpreted precisely in this sense; in 
that case belonging with (1). However, Pali abhisatta- 
rupa occurs once (Yv.chap. 84 vs. 5; p. 78 line 8) as ep. 
of bhumippadesa, a region, described as desolate, barren 
wilderness; the comm, and modern interpreters take it 
as meaning accursed, identifying it with the usual Pali 
abhisatta ( = °sapta, above); but the Yv. context contains 
no evidence for this; possibly it = Skt. abhisakta, orig. 
heimgesucht (as in Caraka, above), afflicted, evil. In that 
case abhisakta of Mvy might mean what Tib. and Chin, 
say, simply wicked, which would be not a difficult develop- 
ment from afflicted. 

? abhisajjana, nt. (to Skt. abhi with saj or sanj, in 
a sense not recorded in Skt., but cf. Pali abhisajjati, a, 
CPD), perh. sticking fast (together), said of the teeth 
during the process of eating: Gv 401.10 (asyaharam 
paribhunjanasya na) . . . paryavanaho (q.v.) vabhisajjanam 




(printed va bhi°) va; but 2d ed. vatisarjanam; what 
atisarjana would mean in this context is obscure; ex- 
cessive emission (spitting out of food)? 

abhisajyate (pass, of Skt. abhisajati, Pali °sajati; 
= Pali abhisajjati, b, GPD; cf. abhisakta and abhisafi- 
janl), gets angry (lit. is offended ): Av i.286.4. 

abhisanna (ppp. of Skt. abhisidati, in different mg., 
only Vedic and Kas. on Pan. 8.3.118 f.), apparently seated: 
Sukh 67.8 sa tatra tadabhisanno vabhisampanno va bhavet 
(Muller, SBE 49, Part 2, 64: there he might then be either 
sitting or resting). 

abhisuyate (— Skt. abhyasu 0 ; in vs but not m.c.; 
§3.115), complains : na cabhisuyase MSV i.10.6; i.12.1. 

abhiseka, n. of the tenth (bodhisattva-) bhumi in 
one list (not the ordinary one, see bhumi 4 ; see also next) : 
Mv i. 76.18 dasami tv abhisekato; 124.20 °ka-bhumi- 
praptanam; Gv 472.25 °ka-bhumi-sthita, said of Maitreya; 
Gv 514.7 ekajati-pratibaddhanam abhisekapraptanam. 

abhisekavati = prec. : °tl nama daSama bhumih 
Mv i.193.6, in a colophon. 

AbhisecanI (v.l. °cavati), n. of a Bodhisattva-dha- 
rani: Mvy 747. 

abhisnam, see abhisnam. 

abhisyanna (ppp. of Skt. abhi-syandati, overflows ), 
(lit. overflowing ;) over-exuberant, excessive , of the bodily 
humors (dhatu) ; so Pali abhis(s)anna is used, of the bodily 
humors (dosa): Mv iii.143.16 °na vatatapa (see this); 
144.6 °nehi dhatuhi, and same (but with mss. reading 
abhisyandehi, em. Senart) 153.11 and 154.8. See the 
following entries. 

abhisyanda, m. (in Skt. used of a pathological eye- 
condition; cf. prec. and next), flux, ulceration of the teeth: 
Gv 401.9. 

abhisyandati (cf. prec. and following entries), (1) 
overflows with evil emotion, specifically anger or malice: 
Mv i.30.5 (asurah) kupyanti vyapadyanti abhisyandanti ; 
(2) some form or derivative of this verb is intended in 
Mv iii.311.1, which Senart misunderstands; the mg. must 
be becoming inflated (with evil bodily humors), cf. abhi- 
syanna; this condition of the Buddha’s body resulted 
from his first meal after the seven-weeks fast. The next 
sentence says that Sakra brought haritaki, a purgative 
medicine, so that his humors might become pacified, restored 
to ease, dhatunam sukham (em. to mukham by Senart!) 
bhavisyati. The exact reading in 1 is uncertain; possibly 
tatha abhisyanditam, impersonal, inflation, over-exuberance 
(of humors) was caused. 

abhisyandana (nt. ; — Pali abhisandana; cf. prec. 
and next), (over-) flowing: -mahakarunabhisyandana-tava 
Gv 294.15, because it is full to overflowing with great com- 

abhisyandayati, °deti ( = Pali abhisandeti; caus. to 
°syandati), drenches, saturates, irrigates, (a) lit. of plants 
etc., Mv iii.301.17 varina °deti parisyandeti (q.v.); ppp. 
°dita, SP 122.8 (plants and seeds); Mvy 6584 ( = Tib. 
brlan pa, sbans pa, drenched, wet); fig. of kusalamuiani, 
roots of merit, °dayisyati, fut., Gv 457.18; (b) of mental 
organs or states, °dita-niscita-citto Gv 151.13; -karuna- 
snehabhisyandita-samtano 189,9; in yoga practice, °dayati 
softens, makes supple (one’s own person), as in Pali (CPD), 
Mvy 1646 = Tib. mhon du mnen par byed pa, makes very 
supple: here too followed by parisyandayati. 

abhisvakta (ppp. of Skt. abhi-svaj), attached (to, acc.): 
Suv 209.9 (prose) jivitasarirany abhisvaktanam (Nobel 
em. °sarirabhi°). 

abhisamyujyate (pass, of Skt. abhi-sam-yuj), applies 
oneself to (acc.): SP 124.4 ye . . . tathagatasya dharmam 
bhasamanasya Srnvanti dharayanty abhisamyujyante, 
who . . , apply themselves to the law of the T. as he declares it. 

abhisamradhayati (cf. Skt. abhisamradhana, BR 
5.1025, once in Bhag. P., defined wohl das Befriedigen, Zu- 

friedenstellen), applauds: pres. pple. °dhayan Jm 97.16; 
ger. °dhya Jm 13.15; 26.16; 27.5; 235.8. 

abhisamskaroti (= Pali °samkharoti; recorded in 
Vedic (SB) as zurechtmachen, bilden, BR; see abhisam- 
karoti, °skrta, °samskara, etc.), accomplishes, performs, 
does, fashions; often governs acc. of cognate abhisam- 
skara, q.v., in various shades of its meaning; Av i.68.1 
prasadam abhisamskrtavantah, built a palace; Siks 252.12 
karmabhisamskaroti, performs action; with cittam, makes 
up, fixes (the mind, thought), Bbh 12.5 cittam °roti; 
Dbh.g. 44(70). 13 (bhumidharma) °ronti, (Bodhisattvas in 
9th bhumi) fully realize (in their minds, the conditions or 
laws of the bhumi); without object cittam (cf. abhisarn- 
skara without citta-, mental determination) LV 254.20-21 
uttisthamiti cabhisamskurvarns, making up my mind (Tib. 
snam na, thinking) that I would arise (I fell down), cf. Mv 

11.126.7 s.v. abhisamskara (the situation is the same); 
but in the parallel LV 256.3 uttisthamiti gatrany abliisam- 
skurvann, preparing (making ready, fixing) my limbs with 
the intent to arise. 

abhisamskara, m. (cited from Skt. only BR 7.1700, 
from Garaka; essentially a Buddhist word; = Pali abhisam- 
khara; see °skaroti, °skrta), performance, accomplishment: 
SP 226.9 (udaram dharmabhi 0 , noble performance of 
dharma); in all meanings often made object of the cognate 
verb °skaroti, as Dbh 55.8-9 paramitabhisamskaram 
cabhisamskaroti, and accomplishes the accomplishment of the 
Paramitas; Dbh 22.23 performances; Bbh 256.25 na 
vyanjanabhisamskararthl, not seeking the accomplishment 
of the letter (but of the spirit, the true esoteric meaning, 
artharthl); often rddhyabhi 0 (= Pali iddhabhi 0 ) perform- 
ance of magic, SP 300.9 ; 388.6 ; Divy 161.11 ; 190.22 ; 340.11 ; 
Jm 11.6; 153.2; object of the verb °skaroti, perform a 
magic performance, LV 182.14; 290.13 f . ; Samadh 19.14-15; 
Av i.24.3; performance of action, Samadh 22.2 (here 
specified as karmabhi 0 ), generally with special reference 
to its fruits, good or bad, esp. when modified by, or cpd. 
with, words like punya, apunya, kusala, papa(ka), the Pali 
equivalents of which are similarly used; here abhi° often 
may be rendered accumulation, piling up (of merit or 
demerit), and abhisamskaroti accumulates; cf. LV 88.17 
papakan abhisamskaran abhisamskarisyaTMi with Dbh 

48.7 punyapunyanenjyan abhisamskaran upacinvanti, 
(ignorant persons) accumulate (upa-ci, unambiguous!) 
performances (or accumulations, of karman) that are 
meritorwtzs, demeritorious, or leading to immovable states 
(see anefijya), suggesting that the LV passage means 
really will accumulate evil accumulations (of karman); so 
also LV 398.18 dunkhabhisamskara-mala- impurity due to 
the accumulation (hardly performance I) of miseries (thru 
karman); punyabhP and kusalabhi 0 , together, SP 333.3; 
348.11; Suv 83.3; punyMMu 0 also SP 337.4; 414.13; AsP 
346.8; apunyabhi 0 LV 88.10; kusalabhi 0 Siks 190.16; 
cittabhisamskara, accomplishment of (proper) thoughts or 
state of mind, right mental make up, Divy 90.26 ay am 
pradipas taya darikaya mahata cittabhisamskSrena 
prajvalito (this gives the flame magic power of persistence); 
same without citta, Mv iii. 39 1.8-9 parivrajika . . . visrstena 
svarenabhisamslcarena (with mental preparation or con- 
centration, application of mind, fixed determination) sva- 
dhyayam karontl; Mv ii.126.7 sadhu ca susthu ca abhisam- 
skarena, with careful mental preparation, application, deter- 
mination (here, to rise up after having fallen down; and 
so ii.127.11; 128.16; 130.1-2; the situation is the same as 
in LV 254.21 where abhisamskurvams occurs, see °ska- 
roti); see sabhisamskara, in which abhi° comes close to 
this shade of mg. 

abhisamskarika, see abhi°, and an-abhisamska- 

abhisamskrta (— Pali °samkhata), ppp. of °skaroti; 
see also an-abhi 0 ; accomplished, effected, formed: KP 79.2 


(°tam, jhanain bodhisattvasya), 5; Divy 78.5 and 467.1 
(cetasa cittam °tam, the thought was mentally formed; same 
omitting cetasa, Divy 78.25; 467.26); of action, good or 
bad, with reference to its necessary fruit, accomplished , 
done , accumulated, stored up, SP 27.11 °tena (karmana); 
Mv i.26.7 °tam (papakam karma, purve, previously ); in 
Siks 252.13 tac ca karmabhisamskrtam, merely that action 
that has been performed. 

abhisamsphutati, bursts (intrans.): LV 309.4 (vs) 
°tanti (subject hrdayani). 

abhisamhara (m.), abandonment (Tib. bskyur ba: 
opp. to abhinirhara) : (tatrayam) °ra-samkocah, tatrayam 
abhinirhara-vistarah MSV iv.90.15. 

abhisamkaroti (cf. abhisamskaroti), app. honors , 
treats with respect : sresthidarakam abhisamkurvanti, 

jayatu jayatu . . . sresthidarako etc. Suv 183.3; Tib. mnon 
par du byed do (literal; cf. Mvy 1017, 1018); lit. perhaps 
makes up properly . 

abhisamksipati (= Pali °samkhipati; in Skt. re- 
corded only in mg. compress, by magic into a small size; 
so used also in BITS, e. g. Bbh 61.11), subsumes, collects, 
puts together under one heading : Siks 9.18 sarvakusalamu- 
lany abhisamksipya tulayitva pindayitva; esp. with 
aikadhyam (so in Skt. aikadhyam samsrjya, and synonyms; 
in Pali ekajjham . . . abhisamkhipitva), Bbh 22.3; 25.16-17; 
203.12 et alibi; AsP 138.4.' 

abhisamksepa (m. ; only in the lex. Trik. in defini- 
tion of the Buddhist term middha, q.v.), compression , 
summary statement: Mmk 471.7 tan aham abhisamksepad 

abhisamksepana-ta (to abhisamksipati), com- 
pression, contraction : Bbh 264.24 ativistrtanam ca ’bhisarn- 

[abhisamksepika, see abhi°.j 

abhisanjanl, fern, to °na, adj. (to Pali abhisajati, 
Skt. °sajati, see abhisajyate, abhisakta; cf. Pali parabhi- 
sajjanl, GPD s.v. abhisajjani, used'with vaca, offending ), 
offending : Dbh 24.8, read parabhisanjany (°ni), with vak, 
giving offense to others , for text par^bhisamjanany (which 
is uninterpretable). 

abhisamdarsayati, manifests, shows : ger. °darsya 
LV 122.10 (prose; audarikam atmabhavam abhi°). 

abhisamaya, m. (= Pali id., in both mgs.; to abhi- 
s^neti, q.v.), (1) comprehension, clear understanding; 
(spiritual) realization , intuitive grasp (of religious verities), 
in Pali especially grasp of the Law (dhamma) or the four 
noble truths (sacca); Tib. mnon par rtogs pa, clear com- 
prehension; cf. Stcherbatskoy, Abhisamayalamkara (Bibl. 
Bu. 23), p. iii, ‘abhisamaya means direct intuition of the 
Absolute. Here it means the Path of attaining that in- 
tuition ... a synonym of marga;’ often in comp, with 
that which is comprehended: dharmabhi 0 Mv i. 261. 19; 
SP 328.11; Sukh 42.16; satyabhi 0 (as in Pali, above) Bbh 
38.12; Divy 340.8 and 355.20 (in these two saha, preceding 
satya 0 , should be taken as a separate word); Ud xx.2; 
aryasatyanam abhisamayaya Divy 654.26; jnanabhi 0 RP 
34.12; prapty-abhi° SsP 615.17 ff. (on prapti cf. AbhidhK. 
La V-P. ii. 179 et passim); yogabhi 0 Lank 12.1; margabhi 0 
LV 38.5 ( realization , intuitive comprehension, of the Path); 
(sravaka-, pratyekabuddha-, and tathagata-) yanabhi 0 
Mvy 1261-3 ( comprehension of the vehicles ); of the inferior 
intuitions or realizations of sravakas and pratyekabuddhas 
Gv 505.15; Dbh 62.19; 96.28-29; used absolutely, some- 
thing like enlightenment or spiritual realization in general, 
Lank 10.12; Dbh 63.13; Dbh.g. 54(80). 10; listed among 
synonyms of nirvana Mvy 1731; abhisamayantika (see 
antika), ending in abhi° (realization? enlightenment? 
nirvana?) Mvy 1208; 6891; abhisamayadhigamajnana- 
Lahk 218.6, 7 (Suzuki enlightenment = an intuitive under- 
standing, for abhisamaya); (2) any of the three collective 
conversions of crowds of disciples, accomplished by Buddha; 

58 abhisambudhyate 

so (and also dhammabhi 0 ) in Pali, see GPD: Mv i. 250. 16; 

abhisamayati, see abhisameti. 
abhisamagacchati (= Pali id.; = abhisameti; in 
Skt. only in literal sense, comes to), arrives at understan- 
ding of (with acc.): Bbh 38.11 aryasatyani pravicinvato 
’bhisamagacchato (gen. sg. pres, pple.) ’bhisamagatesu ca 
tajjnanam utpadyate. 

abhisamitavant (cf. abhisameti, abhisamaya, and 

next), having perfectly (intuitively) comprehended : Bbh 
248.10 duhkhasatyam °tavata(h), gen. sg. 

abhisamitavin (see § 22.51 ; Pali abhisametavin, also 
samitavin), = prec., q.v.: Mvy 2884 °vi, n. sg. 

abhisamudha, ppp., Senart’s plausible em. for mss. 
abhisammudha, in an identical passage Mv iii. 21 7.16 = 
218.3 = 222.5; to *abhi-sam-vah: collected, brought to- 
gether. See abhisahita. 

abhisameti, also (hyper-Skt. ? or denom. to abhisa- 
maya?) °samayati (= Pali °meti; GPD identifies this 
with Skt. both abhi-sam-i and abhi-sam-a-i, but neither 
of these is used in any such mg. in Skt.), realizes (intuitively), 
understands perfectly (cf. s.v. abhisamaya, to which this 
is the verb, but the noun is commoner): °meti Mv i. 312. 10 
(dharme, acc. pi.); ger. (satya) °metiya (SenarPs em. m.c., 
mss. °metya) Mv i.165.11 ; in Mv iii.382.3 mss. abhisame 
(aor. ?) catasro satyam (i.e. the Four Noble Truths); 
Senart em. abhisamita (evidently as n. pi. of ppp.) catasro 
satya; Lank 139.5 abhisamita-dharmah, one who has 
grasped the dharma; Divy 617.11 abhisamayati (caturarya- 

abhisampanna (ppp. of Skt. abhisampadyate, not 
in this sense), apparently in a comfortable slate: Sukh 67.9 
(see under abhisanna; Muller, resting). 

abhisamparaya, m. (= Pali id.; based on the adv. 
Pali °rayam, prepos. cpd., see CPD; cf. samparaya), 
future state: LV 88.20 (ka . . . gatir . . .) ko ’bhisamparayah 
(in Pali also correlated with gati); Divy 187.16 and 200.5 
ka gatih ka upapattih ko °yah; in Bbh 25.16 and 28.1 
drste dharme abhisamparaye va (ca) in the present state or 
(and) in a future one (in this last phrase Pali uses instead 
the adv. °ravam, see CPD: ditthe c’ eva dhamme abhisam- 
parayam ca DN iii. 83. 19 etc.). 

abhisampratyaya, m. (nowhere recorded), complete 
confidence: Mvy 2097 °yah = Tib. mnon par yid ches 
(-ses) pa, superior belief; Divy 309.3 bhagavadvacanabhi- 
sampratyayat, thru reliance on what the Lord said; Bbh 

-abhisampravarsana-ta (no cpd. abhi-sam-pra-vrs 
is recorded), state of raining down (abundantly): Gv 74.22 
-meghabhi 0 . 

abhisamprasthita (ppp. of abhi-sam-pra-stha, un- 
recorded), set out towards (with acc. or loc..): samyaksam- 
bodhim (Gv 489.16 °dhav) abhi° SP 19.9; Gv 489.16; 

abhisamprarthayate (not reco'-ded), strives for: Mv 
i.57.15 sambodhim abhisamprai thayamanena. 

-abhisambuddhana (nt. ; n. act. in -ana from 
abhisambuddhati = °budhyati, q.v.), the becoming 
perfectly enlightened: Bbh 328.22, in cpd., (pranidhanam. . .) 

abhisambudhyate, °ti, c bodhati, "budhati (?), 
°buddhati (on the last two see Chap. 43, s.v. budh; 
= Pali °bujjhati; very rare in Skt., recorded BR and pw 
only once, ppp. °buddhah, with atra, well skilled, learned, 
enlightened on this matter, Mbh. Crit. ed. 3.178.27; the 
pres. °bodhati implied in ger. °bodhitva), ( 1 ) becomes 
enlightened, attains complete enlightenment (i, e. becomes a 
Buddha); the common meaning in BHS. Used absolutely: 
°budhyati (v.l. °buddhati) Mvy 6907 ; fut. °bhotsyate Mvy 
6905; ppp. °buddho bhagavan LV 350.15; gdve. °boddha- 
vyam one ought to become enlightened Mv i.8.13; 229.10; 




ii.133.11. Much more often with 'cognate' acc., regularly 
anuttaram samyaksambodhim, unto supreme perfect en- 
lightenment, , the subject being a Buddha or other person: 
°budhyate SP 159.4; LV 85.11; opt. °budhycyam Sukh 
11.10-11; °buddheyam Sadh 225.8; fut. °bhotsyasi SP 
216.7; 220.7; °se LV 39.4-5; °sye (1 sg.) Av i.171.15; 
°syante SP 207.2; 221.8; Suv 97.3; °budhisyam (sic!) Mv 
ii.265.6; °buddhisyati Mv ii.313.11; °syasi ii.400.14; 
°syami ii.314.16; aor. °buddhe Mv ii.285.3; ppp. °buddha, 
still with acc. of complement (anuttaram samyak 0 ), 
°buddho Mv i.229.11; ii.133.12; °buddho bhavisyati Kv 
37.25; °buddhah with complement bodhim Mvy 6906; 
sambodhim an-abhisambuddho Mv ii.136.14; (on the same 
ppp. in passive sense see below;) ger. °buddhitva (anutta- 
ram samyak 0 ) Mv iii.111.17; 272.18; 349.6; °bodhitva Mv 
i.3i2.18; ii.348.15 (here v.l. °buddhitva); inf. °boddhu- 
kamena Samadh 8.1; instead of acc., loc. of same comple- 
ment, opt. °buddheyam (anuttarayam samyaksambodhau) 
LV 38.18, and ppp. °buddhah Mvy 6355; the pres. °budhy- 
ate, the ppp., and the gdve., are also used passively, 
subject being anuttara samyaksambodhih, and the person 
put in the instr. : Vaj 37.8-9 (tathagatena...) an°ra 
samy°dhir abhisambuddha, supreme enlightenment was 
attained, realized; so also SP 218.11-12; LV 377.2; Divy 
393.9; pres. °budhyate Vaj 41.19; gdve. °boddhavya Kv 
18.18; note also the cpd. abhisambuddha-bodhis (tatha- 
gatah) LV 377.1, the T. having attained enlightenment; 
(2) the verb is however also used (as in the isolated Skt. 
occurrence noted above) in the sense of learns thoroughly , 
becomes skilled in, comprehends perfectly : SP 210.3-4 
asmabhir . . . tathagatajnane abhisamboddhavye (loc. 
abs.), when the T. knowledge ought to have been realized 
(thoroly learned) by us; Ud xviii.18 (kayam) maricidhar- 
mam °budhanah (so oldest ms., with Pali Dhp. 46; later 
mss. paribudhya caiva, see paribudhyati), learning to 
know (realizing) the body as having the nature of a mirage; 
LV 263.21 nasau margah Sakya evam . . . °boddhum, that 
Way cannot be realized (made the object of enlightened 
understanding) in this manner; Bhik 22b. 5 kaccid evam- 
rupam sthanam abhisambhotsyase? abhisambhotsye, you 
will learn perfectly such-and-such a point (of duty), won't 
you ? I will; (3) when the subject is dharma, and perhaps 
in some other cases, it may not be clear whether the verb 
means understands or illumines, makes clear; in Mv iii. 314.1 
dharmah abhisambuddho (said by the Buddha shortly 
after his enlightenment) probably means the Law that I have 
perfectly comprehended, but possibly made clear (to myself); 
in Mv iii.331.10, 14 tathagatenaryasmim dharmavinaye 
madhyama pratipada abhisambuddha, apparently the 
middle course of conduct, perfectly illumined (made clear) 
by the T. in the noble dharma (i. e. sutras) and vinaya; Vaj 
32.13 yas tathagatena dharmo ’bhisambuddho desito 
nidhyato; Vaj 37.11-12 yas ca . . . tathagatena dharmo 
’bhisambuddho desito va, realized (? made clear) or taught; 
and (4) we even find, in a few curious passages in Vaj, 
the complement anuttaram (or °ra) samyaksambodhim 
(or °dhir), as in (1) above, with dharmah . . . abhisam- 
buddhah; the precise meaning is not too clear: Vaj 36.8-9 
asti sa kascid dharmo yas tathagatena dipamkarasya . . . 
antikad anuttaram samy° °bodhim abhisambuddhah 
(repeated below), is there any principle which has been 
realized ( comprehended ? made clear ?), unto supreme perfect 
enlightenment, by the T. (taking it) from /).? (the transl. 
in SBE 49 pt. 2, p. 132 is very loose); Vaj 37.10-11 nasti ... 
dharmo yas tathagatenanuttaram samy° °bodhim °bud- 
dhah: and with nom. of complement, Vaj 24.2-3 asti sa ka£- 
cid dharmo yas tathagatenanuttara samy 0 °bodhir ity abhi- 
sambuddhah, . . . any principle which was realized as (?)... 
(SBE 49 pt. 2, p. 118 known under the name of); perhaps 
the nom. of the complement (apparently isolated) is a 
corruption for the acc., used at least twice in such a phrase. 

abhisambodha, m. (to prec.; =-• Pali id.; cf. next 
two), (1) perfect enlightenment : sukhabhisambodhaya &iks 
122.9; mahabodher abhisambodhah Bbh 75.4; (2) perfect 
comprehension : learning perfectly : LV 428.9; cpd. dur- 
abhisambodha, hard to learn perfectly, with inf., dura- 
bhisambodliany aranyavanaprasthani . . . adhyavastum Av 

ii. 119.11, ... hard to learn to dwell in. 

abhisambodhana (nt. ; = prec.), perfect enlightenment : 
bodhy-a° LV 44.18; 128.5 (sarvajna-jha)nabhisambodhana- 
sabda; 357.16, colophon, title of chap. 22; SP i85.9 sam- 
yaksambodher abhisambodhanaya; in Dbh 26.2 read as 
cpd. svayam-abhisambodhana-taya, because he (a follower 
of the pratyekabuddha-yana) is enlightening himself. 

abhisambodhi (— Pali id.) — prec., perfect enlight- 
enment; perfect comprehension : LV 367.7 °dheh, gen.; Gv 
36.16 and 38.17 °dhi-vikurvita- ; 37.13 -buddhaksetrabhi 0 ; 

-abhisambhava, see dur-abhi 0 . 
abhisambhavayati (= Skt. and Pali °bhavati; cans, 
recorded only once in Bhag. P. in mg. salute , and not in 
Pali; cf. abhisambhunati), attains, brings to realization : 
only in formula, bhagavan samyaksambuddho yadartham 
samudagato tadartham (or tarn ar°) abhisambhavayitva, 
common in Mv, e.g. i.4.12; 34.1; ii.115.6; iii. 90.18; 382.8. 

abhisambhinna, adj. (ppp. of abhi-sam-bhid, no- 
where recorded), brought together, collected, joined, united, 
associated : Gv 36.3 (twice); 273.22; °nna bodhisattvena 
dharmameghah sampratyestavyah 460.5. 

-abhisambhuna (to next), see dur-abhi°. 
abhisambhunati (°noti, also sambhunati; = Pali 
°nati; on formation see Chap. 43, s.v. bhu, 5; = abhi- 
sambhavayati, q.v.), attains; reaches to; suffices, is 
adequate for; in formula (see s.v. lokantarika) in which 
the orig. form seems to have read nanubhavanti or °bhonti: 
abham nabhisambhunanti, prob. suffice, are adequate for 
light (see anubhavati) Mv i.41.6 (by em.); 230.2; 240.11; 

iii. 334. 9; 341.13; gatim . . . °bhunema iii. 374. 7 and °bhune- 
tha 12, opt.; tenapi abhisambhunitva (Senart em. °nitam) 
tad vayam nabhisambhunisyamah iii.265.3; in iii.206.7-io 
abhisambhunoti four times, the first two with object 
karmantani, acc. to Senart carries out, perhaps more lit. 
is capable of; in the last two, with object arthartham, the 
mg. attains is possible, but it may also mean is adequate 

abhisammodayati, greets in the sense of confronts, 
something unpleasant, viz. the evil deeds of former births : 
Mv i.26.7 tarn purve manusyabhutehi abhisamskrtam 
abhisammodayitam (so most mss., but one °dayitva, 
prob. read so!) niyatam vedamyam, that which they for- 
merly accomplished (or accumulated) while men, having 
confronted, must assuredly be suffered (in hell). Senart em. 
and renders otherwise. 

abhisarana, see an-abhi°. 

abhisara, m. (nowhere recorded; corresponds to Pali 
abhihara, also BHS, see s.v., which in Pali is cpd. with 
bhatta-, cf. bhaktabhisara below; abhi-harati has a mg. 
appropriate to this in Skt., and abhi-sarati does not; 
only in Divy, MPS, and MSV ; var. twice atisara), gift, 
present, honorarium: Divy 6.18, 20 (here given to a bringer 
of good tidings); usually of food offered to the Buddha 
and or his monks, Divy 187.23, and almost always in the 
cpd. bhaktabhi 0 offering of food, MPS 6.8; Divy 43.22 
(mss. °ati°); 65.2; 81.16; 85.16; 97.3 (ed. °saras); 177.26 
(mss. °ati°); 183.21; 285.2-3; 286.26; of a physician’s fee, 
MSV i. 218. 10 f. ; ii.25.20. 

abhisahita, ppp., prob. to be read in Mv iii.217.16 — 
218.2 = 222.5 for Senart’s em. abhisahrta; doubtless = 
AMg. sahiya (which Ratnach. derives from Skt. sv-ahita, 
rendering well got), acquired, collected; for abhisamhita, 
which is used in Skt.. in substantially this sense; see § 3.3. 
The mss, read: . . . prabhuta manusyaka bhoga dharmika 




dharmalabdha dharmikena balena abhisahita (218.2 
abhyahrta) abhisammudha (Senart em. abhisamudha, 

Abhisurya (v.l. Abhibhuya; Senart em. Atisurya), 
n. of a future Buddha: Mv iii.330.13. 

abhistanita (nt. ; orig. ppp. of abhi-stanati or 
°stanayati, in Skt. only Ved. and very rare; Pali abhit- 
thanati or °nayati), thunder: LV 106.16-17 (prose) gaja- 
garjitabhistanita-meghasvara-madhura-rnanjughosas, one 
of the 80 anuvyanjana. 

abhistavati ( = Pali abhitthavati; Skt. abhistauti, 
abhistuvate), praises: °vati Mv ii.157.10; °vanti SP 12.6 
(vs); aor. °ve Mv ii.403.4 ; hi. 343. 14; 3 pi. °vimsu SP 
191.3 (vs); °vetsuh Mv ii.187.6; ppp. °stuto Mv ii.157,18; 
also abhistuvati (cf. § 28.7) in LV 185.11 (vs) read 
abhistuva, 3 sg. imperf. (§ 32.115). 

abhisthiti (f. ; from abhi-stha), lasting (noun), per- 
manence: Mink 104.11 (sakatasya) cirakalabhisthityar- 
thani, in order that (the cart) may last long ; cf. next line 

[abhisvara, see avisvara.] 

abhihara (m. ; to Skt. abhiharati; — Pali id., not 
recorded in this sense in Skt. ; cf. abhisara), offering, gift , 
present: Mv in. 387. 18; (gandhamalyady)abhiharena Jm 

abhlksnapattika, adj., bnvr. (abhiksna plus apatti, 
with -ka, Bhvr. ; = Pali abhinhapattika), constantly sinning : 
MSV iii. 11.15 ff. ; Bbh 182.21 nabhiksnapattiko vivrtapa- 
pa£ ca bhavati. Cf. abhiksnapatti- KP 119.2, s.v. apatti. 

[abhira, see aplra.] 

a- bills ana, adj. (neg. of Skt. bhlsana), not terrifying , 
with gen.: Mv ii.295.13 (prose) c na sattvanam, who does 
not terrify creatures (said of Bodhisattva); so mss. (one 
corruptly om. a-); Senart em. 

abhlsnam, adv. (false Skt. for Pali abhinham = Skt. 
abhiksnam), constantly: LV 397.15; all mss. (a)bhlsnam 
or °bhi°; Lefm. and Calc, abhiksnam. 

a-bhugna, adj. (neg. of Skt. bhugna), in °na-kuksi, 
adj,, having a belly that is not crooked, one of the anuvy- 
ahjana: Mvy 303; Dharmas 84 (°ta); in Mv ii.44.3 doubtless 
read abhugnodara for abhagno 0 ; cf. the synonym ajih- 
makuksi LV 107.4. 

a-hhuta, adj. (neg. of bhuta, q.v.; rare in Skt. in 
this sense), not true, false: Ud viii.l abhuta-vadi(r) speaking 
falsehood ; Suv 58.1; Karim v 44.12; Bhik 16a.2; Jm 116.3; 
Mv i.36.13 (abrahmacaryavada); 44.13 (abhyakhyana, 

abhutva-sraddha (cpd. ; ed. prints as two words), 
belief in (coming into existence of something) after not 
having been: yadi . . . °ddha (if one accepts that belief ), 
vijnananam . . . utpattir abhavi§vad Lank 41.6; in Lank 
40.14 read (ye kecin . . . sramana va brahmana) va bhutva- 
sraddha(h), as Bhvr. cpd,, who cherish a belief in (existence 
of something) after having been , i. e. in persistence of (real) 
existence (text °vabhutva sr°, i. e. va abh°, and so Suzuki). 

? a-bhumi, adj. (or read or understand a-bhumyam, 
neg. of bhumya, q.v. ?), non-terrestrial, i. e. celestial , 
supernal: Mv i.72.9 (vs) vartayisyi varacakram abhumi, 
I shall start turning the celestial excellent wheel (of the 
Law). So one ms.; the rest abhusi (which makes no sense); 
Senart em. adbhutam, which is violent, and metrically 
impossible. PTSD alleges a Pali abhumma, groundless, 
unfounded, unsubstantial, Jat v. 178. 11; vi.495.23; but 
CPD rejects this word and reads abhum me in both 

abhaisajya, nt. ( = Pali abhesajja, Vin. i.270.18, in 
parallel to MSV ii.28), what is not a medicinal remedy: 
MSV ii.28. 11 ff. 

? abhauti-, in Lank 17.5, text abhauti-bhautikanam ; 
Suzuki things created and uncreated; the mss. are very 
confused; some simply abhautikanam; perhaps read 

abhautika-bhaut° (and perhaps render rather of things 
non-elemental and elemental ). Surely no stem abhauti 
should be recognized. See bhautika (2); one possible 
reading for the above passage might be bhuta-bhauti- 
kanam, of gross elements and' (subsidiary elements or) 

abhyanga(ya)ti, °geti (denom. to Skt. abhyahga; 
= AMg. abbhangai, °gei), anoints : tailena °geti Mv 
iii. 154. 14; 156.7 (here v.l. °gi, ger. ?); ger. °gitva or °getv& 
(mss.; Senart em. abhyancitva, intending °jitva?) Mv 
iii.23.16 (tailehi). 

? abhyadbhuta, adj. (abhi plus adbhuta), very 
wonderful: SP 23.15. No v.l. in KN; but WT atyad° 
with ms. K'; perhaps read so (Skt. atyadbhuta). 

abhyanumodana, nt. (= Pali abbhanu 0 ; to Skt. 
°moda(ya)ti), or °na, approval, applause, approbation: Jm 
49.16; Karmav 37.13; 39.5; fem., MPS 6.11. 

[abhyanta-, read atyanta-, complete: Gv 243.21; 
Siks 296.9.] 

abhyantara-kaipa, see antara-k°. 
abhyantara, adv.-prep. (cf. Skt. abhyantara, adj., 
°ram, °re, Pali abbha°; and antar.a), within, with gen.: 
Mv iii.57d7 °ra varsasatasya, in the space of 100 years. 

abhyantaragra, adj., with tips (directed) inward (and 
roots outward), said of the grass ground-cover spread by 
the Bodhisattva for himself at the Bodhi-tree: LV 289.12 
°gram bahirmulam . . . tniasamstaranam samstirya; in the 
corresponding passages Mv ii.131.14 and 268.2 read 
abhyantaragram (in the first Senart anyataragra, re- 
portedly with one ms., v.l. °gram; in the second Senart 
abhyantaragre, with mss.; in both the following noun is 
trnasamstaram ; has bahirmulam been accidentally lost 
in the Mv text?). 

abhyantarita, ppp. (cf., in diff. mg., Pali abbha°, 
acc. to CPD ppp. of abhi plus antar plus i, but rather 
denom. pple. to abbhantara — Skt. abhyantara), located 
within: (sarsapasya) akasa-m °to parittam (so read) KP 
78.5 (vs), the space within a mustard-seed is a small thing. 

abhyantarima, adj. (= Pali abbha°; §22.15), 
interior ; that is within: Mv i.308.18 °me catuhsale. 

abhyantarimaka, adj. (= prec.), that is within: Mv 
iii. 72.15 °makanam vanijakanani; 73.17 °makehi (mss. 
°taramakehi) vanijakehi. 

abhyantaribhuta, ppp. (cf. Skt. abhyantarl-kr), in- 
cluded, contained (in, with instr.): Gv 524.19, read na 
kayena cittenabhyantaribhutam (1st ed. by error °tyan- 
tari°; corr. 2d ed.). 

abhyantarostha, adj. (or abhy°; saindhi makes 
ambiguity), lit. having a lip in between (the two halves of 
a cleft lip), referring to an extreme form of hare-lip in 
which a flap hangs down between the two halves of the 
cleft lip: SP 350.8 nabhyantarostho . . , bhavati. 

abhyabhistutya, ger. (with intensive repetition of 
abhi, not recorded for this preverb; cf. Pan. 8.1.7, adhy- 
adhi etc.), having greatly praised: LV 319.10 (prose), so 
Lefm. with best mss.; v.l. abhyarcya stutva; Tib. bstod 
de, having praised, not rendering even one preverb. 

[abhyaya (m.), in Samadh 8.17, read atyaya, passage, 
lapse (of time): kalpakotinam abhyayena, read atyayena. 
Not noticed by Regamey.] 

abhyavaka^a (m.? or nt. = Pali abbhokasa, m. ; 
in Skt. only Kaus. 46.55 °se), the outdoors, free space, the 
open air: twice in a formula = Pali sambadho (’yam) 
gharavaso (rajapatho) abbhokaso (ca) pabbajja (see CPD), 
Mv ii.117.16 = iii.50.9-10 sambadho punar ayam grhavaso 
(ii.117.16 grhavaso; iii.50.9-10 adds, rajasam avaso) 
abhyavakdsam (in ii.117.16 mss. °sa, prob. intending °so, 
but Senart reads °sam both times) pravrajya, the household 
life is confinement (PTSD takes sambadho as adj., but it 
is prob. a noun), mendicant’s life is open space, free room; 
°kase, in the open air, outdoors, Divy 278.10; Av i.228.9; 

abhyavaka^ika 61 

&iks 65.14; Mmk 88.26; Lank 308.10; Prat 508.8; °ka6a- 
prakrtitas Dbh 64.5 (Tib. nam mkhahi, sky , heaven). 

abhyavaka^ika, adj. and subst. m. and (?) nt. (from 
prec. ; = Pali abbhokasika; BHS also abhy°, q.v. ; cf. 
also Skt. abhravakasika, which in MIndic would have 
the same form, and which CPD suggests may be the 
historic original, BHS having hyper-Skt. forms; but cf. 
abhyavaka^a, for which no Skt. *abhra° is recorded), 
(an ascetic) living in the open air, one of the dhutaguna: 
AsP 387.8; Siks 137.1 (contrasted with one who lives in 
a monastery); °kam, n. sg. nt., Mvy 7477, the practice 
of living as a monk in the open air (but see abhy°, which 
prob. read). 

abhyavaklrati ( = Skt. °kirati; § 28.34; Pali abhi- 
kirati is used not only as pass., cf. Geiger 175.2, but also, 
by the side of °kirati, as active, CPD), strews (upon): 
pres. pple. °kiramana, with active mg., strewing (flowers), 
Gv 430.3 (prose); ppp. °klrita, bestrewn , Mmk 63.25 

abhyavagahya, ger. (to Skt. abhy-ava-gah), Divy 
130.13 tarn parsadam abhy°, perhaps having ripened , 
matured, cf. abhyavagadha — parinata, completed (of 
time of life; see Schmidt, Nachtr., s.v. gah with abhy- 
ava); or possibly having occupied himself with, cf. -ava- 
gahin in pw s.v. 

? abhyakirati (not recorded), strews (upon): Dbh.g. 
6(342).5 °ranti. Note also Dbh.g. 14(350). 4, where text 
abhyokiranti with one of Susa’s mss. only; the other, 
and Rahder’s text, abhya°. Should abhyo° (= abhyava 0 ) 
be read in the first passage also? 

abhyakhyana, nt. (in Mv once app. m. (or f. ?); = 
Pali abbhakkhana, nt. ; Skt. Lex. and Jain, Hem. YogaS., 
BR 7.1700; the ppp. °khyata is recorded twice in BR 
s.v. khya with abhy-a, and occurs also in BHS, &iks 
95.13; the noun seems to be a Bu., also Jain, term; cf. 
abhyaciksati), false accusation, slander : often modified 
by abhuta, false, as Mv i.44.13 abhuto abhyakhyano 
(v.l. °na) dinno (v.l. °na); 45.11 °nam (acc. sg.); abhuta- 
bhy° Karmav 44.12; Lank 254.1; °na-bahula, given to 
false accusations, &iks 69.5; °la-ta Dbh 26.22; other pas- 
sages Mvy 5233; 8494 (amulakabhy °) ; Siks 171.16; KP 
5.5; Lank 66.3 (read °nam for °nam). 

abhyaciksati (= Paii abbhacikkhati, see s.v. acik- 
sati; cf. prec. and Skt. abhyakhyata), accuses falsely : 
Mv i.45.1, opt. °seyam, with abhyakhyanena (see prec.), 
may I accuse him with a false accusation ; ppp. °sita iii.27.18 
(em., but certain). 

abhySnandya, ger., having greeted with approval or 
gratitude : °dyanumodya Divy 147.20; 462.18 (here mss. 
abhyan 0 ). 

[abhyayata, adj. (error for atyayata, which is read 
in other texts), in Mv ii.43.15 nabhyayata-vacana ca, 
one (No. 47) of the anuvyafijana (q.v.). For °vacana the 
orig. certainly had °vadana (so Mvy 314 etc., and Pali 
ayata-vadana, Burnouf, Lotus 589); yet other versions 
show the same substitution, and LY 106.16 has a further 
rationalizing change, to be read with v.l. noccaSabdavacana 
(for Lefm. noccavacanaSabda). The orig. = with not too 
long face or the like.] 

abhySvasati, indulges in (laughter and conversation) ; 
cf. Skt. (adhy-)avasati, enters into (a state or condition). 

In Mv i.214.10 read mata (Senart em. matam) . . . abhya- 
vasati hasyam ca katham (Senart with v.l. abhyabhavati 
and* katha) ca; in repetition ii.l 7.8-9 both mss. mata 
and katham, omitting the verb altogether; Senart reads 
as in the first passage. 

abhyasanna, adj. (orig. ppp. of Skt. abhyasldati, 
reaches, attains, a rare word; cf. next three), near: Siks 

abhyasanni-bhavati (from prec.), becomes or comes 
near (to, with gen.): °bhavati AsP 348.18, and ppp. °bhuta, 


brought near, SP 232.5, both with anuttarayah samyak- 

abhyasada (cf. prec. and next), attainment : Jin 116.5 

abhyasadeti (°dayati; cf. prec. three), presses (too) 
close to (? so Senart), with acc.: tathagatam °deti Mv 
iii.179.12; impv. °dehi 13. 

abhyasi-bhavati ( = Skt. Gr. abhyasi 0 ; to Skt. 
abhyasa, °sa), comes near (to, with gen. or comp.): SsP 

681.11 sarvakarajnataya(h) °vati; caus. ppp. LV 9.8 
-vaisaradyabhyasibhavitabalasya; see also svabh(y)asl- 

Abhyuccagamin, occurs in mss. of Mv, in Gv, and 
as v.l. in LV, for Atyucca 0 , q.v. 

Abhyuccadeva, text of Gv, read doubtless Aty°, q.v. 

abhyutksipati, (1) picks up, raises, lifts up or out: 
LV 67.12 (of Bodhisattva) panim abhyutksipya, raising 
his hand (most mss. aty°); 72.7 (trnagulmakam api dhara- 
nitalad) °pya, picking up even a handful of grass from the 
ground; 83.16 °pya (the gods, picking up the new-born 
Bodhisattva); 305.14 sagarad °pya (most mss. aty°); Sukh 
31.12 (samudrat . . .) udakabindum °pet; Mv ii.315.9 
°peya, opt.; 329.2 °pitvana, ger. (mss. corrupt); Siks 

306.11 (vs) °pitva, ger. (nirmalya suskam, so separate); 
( 2 ) picks out, selects : Dbh 97.26 °ptam, ppp. (of a jewel, 
picked out in preference to others). 

abhyutsada, adj. (cf. utsada 3, abundant; abhi 
intensive), highly excessive: Gv 335.22 °sade pancaka- 

abhyutsaha, m. (= Pali abbhussaha; see next two), 
energy : Mvy 1813; Bbh 200.3, 14; virvam abhyutsaho 
Bbh 204.15. 

abhyutsaha-ta, or °sahana (so read for atyut° of 
text; to prec. plus -ta, or to next plus -ana; cf. Pali ab- 
bhussahana, °sahanata, °saha), energy , energizing, instig- 
ation, encouragement: (iyam abhyupapattir) iyam siksa 
iyam lokasamvrttir iyam °sahata Divj^ 547.26; similarly, 
idam kim? °sahana 549.7. 

abhyutsahayati (Pali ppp. abbhussahita; see prec. 
two), encourages: rajanam °sahayan, pres, pple., Av i .185.9 ; 

abhyudlrana (nt.; to Skt. abhyudirayati), lifting up 
(the voice), uttering: LV 399.20, read sugirabhyudlrane 
for pratilabhy-ud° (supported by Tib. and both parts 
found in some mss.). 

abhyudgacchati (for which atyud° often occurs in 
the tradition, either as v.l. or in all mss.; see under aty- 
udgacchati; in most meanings Pali abbhuggacchati and 
derivs. support this reading), ( 1 ) arises, of the sun: surye 
'bhyudgate Vaj 32.17; rises in the air, often with vaihaya- 
sam (as in Pali, vehasam) or the like, vaihayasam abhyud- 
gamya Divy 223.12; Mv i.55.2; 239.18 (mss. atyu°); 
iii.425.17, 23; vaih° abhyudgacchanti (v.l. atyu°) Mv 
i.21.7; parsanmandalamadhyad abhyudgamyopary an- 
tarlkse vaihayasam (mss. °se) sthitva SP 241.15; vihaya- 
sam abhyudgatah Divy 223.13; kalo nagaraja . . . svakato 
bhavanato (i. e. from the nether world) abhyudgamitva 
(v.l. atyu°) Mv ii.302.14; vihayasa saptatalamatram 
abhyudgamya (both edd. atyu°, no v.l.) LV 18.16; so 
also Samadh 8.9 (antarlkse saptatalamatram atyudgamya); 
yavad brahmakayam ghosam (n. sg.) abhyudgacchet 
(preterite; mss. atyu°, em. Senart) Mv i.229.16, the sound 
rose up as far as the company of Brahman; similarly Mv 
i.240.5 (mss. atyudgame) and 333.7 (yavad brahmakayika 
devanikaya, as far as the divine abode of the companions 
of B., ghosam atyudgacchet, Senart em. abhyu°); also 
Mv i.231.4 saram (mss., see s.v. ^ara) abhyudgato (mss. 
atyudgatam); fig. sarvalokabhyudgato LV 60.14, risen 
above the whole world (of Buddha); fig. advances , prospers, 
bhogair abhyudgacchati Divy 237.19; ( 2 ) of water-plants, 
which rise above the water (in this sense Pali seems to 

abhyud gata 



use only accuggamma = atyudgamya! but BHS tradition 
abhyud 0 ): LV 76.11 -pundarikany abhyudgatani (puska- 
rinisu; in next line 12, puspaphalavrksa dharanitalad 
abhyudgamya, confirming the reading of all mss.); Mv 
iii.318.8 udakato abhyudgatani (contrasted with other 
water-plants which are antodakani or samodakani, under 
the water or level with it), parallel to LV 400.5 udaka- 
bhyudgatani (contrasted with udakantargatani and 
udakasamani) ; (3) arises = sets out upon an undertaking: 
lokahitartham ( the welfare of people) abhyudgatasya Divy 
102.7, cf. abhyudgamya (ger.) 103.11; (4) arrives at, comes 
to, gets : naivam tT'ptim abhyudgacchate Divy 235.21, does 
not by this means become satiated . See also next. 

abhyudgata (1), nt., a high number: Gv 106.1; 
133.10; — atyudgata, which is cited from Gv in Mvy 
7862. Either might be original; see the two verbs, and 
cf. Pali accuggata and abbhuggata; (2) m., n. of a Bud- 
dha: Gv 284.12. 

Abhyud gatakarman, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.8. 
Abhyudgataprabhas(i)ri, n. of a Buddha: Gv 

285.2 (vs). 

Abhyud gataraj a, n. of a kalpa: SP 469.8. 
Abhyudgatabha, n. of a Buddha: Gv 285.10. 
Abhyudgatosnlsa, n. of one of the 8 Usnlsarajanah 
(see Usnisa 3): Mmk 41.10. 

abhyudgamana, (1) rising in respectful salutation 
(so Skt. Lex.): kumarasyabhyudgamanam karisyami Mv 
iii.111.18, I will cause (people) to rise and salute the prince; 
(2) rising of the sun: Divy 334.28 (suryasyabhyudgama- 
nasamaye); LV 16.12 (°na-velayam; here v.l. °tyudgam°). 

abhyuddidhirsa (from desid. of abhy-ud-dhr, not 
recorded; cf. Skt. ud-didhirsati, and the foil, items), 
desire of lifting up or rescuing : Sadh 97.6 jagatam abhy°. 
Abhyuddhara, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.5. 
abhyuddharana (nt., — Pali id.; cf. prec. and next 
two), pulling out, with implication of rescue: Siks 6.5-6 
(cited from Gv but not in the pertinent passage, Gv 495) 
badisabhutam (sc. bodhicittam) samsarajalacarabhyud- 
dharana-taya, it is like a fishhook , because it pulls out 
people moving (like fish) in the water of the round of existen- 
ces (otherwise Bendall and Rouse Transl. p. 6). See 
especially abhyuddharana. 

abhyuddhara, m. (cf. prec. items, and next), rescue , 
deliverance : °ro Divy 192.6. 

abhyuddharana (nt., cf. prec. items, esp. abhyud- 
dharana), = prec.: Gv 143.22 sarva-sattva-samsara- 

abhyunnata (ppp. of abhy-un-nam; Skt. id. and Pali 
abbhunnata, °unnata, as adj.), ( risen up, erect;) as peri- 
phrastic past, arose: Mv i.187.15, mss. abhyunnato or 
aty°; Senart em. abhyudgato. 

abhyunnamya, ger. (to Pali abbhunnameti, caus. of 
Skt. abhy-un-nam; Skt. only abhyunnata, q.v.), having 
lifted, raised up: LV 319.6 (prose). Cf. atyunnamayya. 

? abhyupakaia, adj., apparently something like 
competent: Mv i.134.3 (prose), mss. kieSavyupasame (vv.ll. 
°vyayasame, °vyapasame; understand °£ame) ’bhyupa- 
kalaS (2 of 6 mss. ’tyupa 0 ) ca ku$ala£ (1 ms. °pakala- 
kuSalaS) ca bhavanti (Senart reads by em. : kleSavyaya- 
Samabhyupakara-kuSalag ca bha°; there is no record of 
any abhyupakara, any more than of °kala). 

(abhyupeksya, ger. [of °ksati, once in Skt. °ksitavan 
Mbh 16.160 = 16.6.13, same mg. as here], ignoring, over- 
looking, putting up with (cf, upeksa): Divy 168.24.) 

abhyuhya, ger. (read prob. abhyuhya; to Skt. abhy- 
uh; cf. next), having deduced by reasoning: Bbh 156.4. 

abhyuhana (= Skt. abhyuha; cf. prec.), reasoning, 
logical deduction , inference: Bbh 83.6. 

? abhrati (Skt. Dhatup. only, with artificial occur- 
rences in Bhattikavya; Pali abbhati, also only Gr.), goes: 
perhaps read (a)bhritva, or M Indie (a)bbhitva, ger.. 

having gone, Mv i.187.7 (vs; after final -o, -a, or -e); mss. 
bhyatva or bhyotva (one tyotva, one datva); Senart em. 
bhutva, which I think is clearly wrong; a verb of motion 
seems required. 

amahku-bhuta, see mahku. 

amata, adj. (M Indie for Skt. amrta), immortal: LV 

261.20 (vs), read with best ms. naivaham amatam (ma)- 
nye; cf. Mv ii.238.19 (same line) naham amaro ti manyami; 
so Tib. mi hchi sham du ha mi sems. 

[amateya? SsP 80.4, see s.v. adhipati.] 
amatsyamamsaka, adj. or subst., (an ascetic 
practice) involving eating no fish or meat: LV 248.17 (prose) 
°kair (sc. atapana-paritapanaih). 

a-madgu, adj. (neg. of madgu, s.v. mahku), not 
annoyed: Bbh 125.26 °gur (so mss., one possibly a-mangur; 
ed. wrongly em. a-mankur). 

a-madhyama, adj. (not recorded in this sense), 
immoderate , extreme: LV 416.19 °ma pratipad, viz. extreme 
asceticism, opp. to the middle course, madhyama pratipad. 
a-manaapa, see a-manapa. 

a-manasikara, m. ( = Pali id.; neg. of manasi 0 , 
q.v.), lack of attention; inattention: Bbh 240.19 (panca- 
sthanesv) amanasikaram krtva; 20, 25, etc. 

a-manapa (less often a-manaapa), adj. (= Pali id.; 
neg. of man°; cf. next), unpleasant: Mv ii.150.6, 10; 
Gv 157.10 (text aman°, misprint?); Bbh 186.2, 6; LV 
71.11; amanaapa Dbh 24.10. 

a-manapika, adj. (neg. of Pali manapika = °pa), 
= prec.: Mv ii.150.5, mss. amanapikani, Senart em. 
aman°; to be sure manapikani (see this) occurs in the 
same line; but next line has amanapam, and in view of 
the Pali form no em. is necessary. 

amanusya, subst. m. and adj. (cf. next and ama- 
nusa; as subst. — Pali amanussa; in Skt. only Lex. and 
Pan. 2.4.23), (1) subst. spirit , demon; SP 83.9; in lists of 
kinds of creatures, in cpd. SP 169.2 deva-naga-yaksa- 
gandharvasura - garuda-kimnara-mahoraga-manusyamanu- 
syais; SP 69.5-6; same list as separate words Gv 141.24 
devan . . . manusyan amanusyan; Mv ii.107.13, read with 
mss. anya kimnarinam gatih, amanusyanam, different 
is the path of the k°, who are demons (or, as adj., super- 
human); amanusya-vyadhi, disease caused by a demon or 
spirit , Mv i.253.1 1 ff. ; 284.6 ff. ; 287.5; amanusya-upasarga 
(so prob. read, as cpd., with one ms.), id., Mv i.287.17; 
°syabhisrsta Bbh 63.6; (2) adj., superhuman: Mv ii.30.16 
°syani ca gitavadya^abdani (so with mss. ; Senart amanu°). 

amanusyaka, subst. m. = prec.: °ka(h) palana(h), 
the demons fled , (or, were put to flight; often with instr. 
of agent) Mv i.270.11 (bhagavata); 283.7 ff.; 288.9-12; 
amanusyakah Divy 451.3 (vs, bad meter; in same vs 

456.21 amanusah, correct meter; of beings who evidently 
resemble kimnaras). 

Amanoratha (cf. Manoratha), n. of a pi£aca: Mmk 


amantra, nt., or amantra, f., a high number: 
°tram Gv 133.17; Mvy 7880, cited from Gv, Tib. gzal 
yas, implying amatra, q.v.; amantra Gv 106.7. 

a-manyana-ta (cf. manyana, °na), the not being 
proud: Siks 192.3 svagunair a°. 

amama, m. or nt., a high number: °mah Mvy 7795; 
°mam Mvy 7924, cited from Gv 134.3, where text mama- 
mam (read amamam); Gv 106.18 sattva-mamasya, text, 
read sattvamamasya. 

Amaradeva, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.137.4. 
Amaraparpata, nt. (or m.), n. of a town: May 18 
°te; cf. L6vi p. 66. 

Amara, (1) n. of a smith’s daughter (= later Ya£o- 
dhara), who married Mahausadha; heroine of a Jataka 
which = the Pali Suci-j., No. 387: Mv ii.83.19 ff. ; colo- 
phon 89.11 Amaraye karmaradhitaye jatakam. In the 
Suci-j. the characters are unnamed; but (Pali) Mahosadha 




amula (hardly identifiable with Skt. amula, BR 1.378; 
cf. Pali amula lata, amula(ka)-valli), a kind of tree (?): 
Gv 508.3 Ta nama vrksajatih; but the context suggests a 
parasitic woody vine. 

amulyaka, f. °ka (Skt. °ya plus -ka), priceless : °kaya 
sraddhaya MSV iv.225.16* so ms., ed. amulakaya, with Tib., 
but this gives an impossible mg. 

Amrta, n. of a naga: Mvy 3319. 

Amrtakundali, n. of a deity; Mvy 4330. 
Amrtaparvataprabhateja(s), n. of a Tathagata: 
Gv 422.9 °jas, n. sg. 

Amrtaphala, n. of a former Buddha; Mv i.141.3. 
Amrtavindu (— °bindu), n. of an apsaras: Kv 3.11 
amrta^magarbha (m. ; cf. amrtaSma, Kas. on Pan. 
5.4.94), n. of gem: Mv ii. 310.12. 

Amrtodana (= Pali Amito°, brother of Suddhodana 
and father of Anuruddha and Mahanama), n. of a Sakyan 
aristocrat, brother of Suddhodana: Mv i. 352.13; 355.20; 
father of Anuruddha, Mahanama, and Bhattika, Mv 
iii.177.2; mentioned Mvy 3602; Av ii.111.8. 

ameya, nt. (Skt. adj. immeasurable ), a high number: 
Mvy 7816. 

ameya- pari varta, m., square of the prec. : Mvy 7817. 
Amoghacanda, n. of a deity: Sadh 3.4 et alibi. 
Amoghadar£ana, n. of a naga: Mvy 3332. 
Amoghadarsin, (1) n. of a satpurusa, q.v. : SP 3.12; 
(2) n. of a former Buddha: LV 171.9; Siks 16£>.9; (3) n. of 
a Bodhisattva: Mvy 717; Samadh p. 36 iine 2. 

Amogharaja, (1) n. of a disciple of Buddha: LV 2.1; 
Sukh 2.10; (2) = Amoghasiddhi : Sadh 16.10. 

Amoghasiddhi, n. of the 5th of the (Transcendent’) 
Buddhas of Dharmas 3; Mvy 86; Sadh 13.6 et alibi. Cf. 
Amogharaja (2). 

Amohadharmesvara, n. of a Bodhisattva: G v 442.23 
(text Moha°, without avagraha, after ~o), 

amoham, adv. ( =, Skt. and Pali amogham; 
cf. moham), not in vain: Mv iii.254.14ff. 

ambaka ( = Pali i(L; cf. Skt. amba), a (poor, CPD) 
woman: MPS 11.25, of Amrapall. 

? ambakota, see antakota. 

ambara, (1) m., garment (recorded only as nt. in Skt. 
and Pali): LV 92.16 (vs) ambaran, acc. pi.; (2) m., n. of 
a Buddha: Mv i.124.4. See also dravyambara. 

? ambasanaka (or amb°), in Divy 221.29, mss. 
prasadambasanaka; some part, or accompaniment, of a 
palace; ed. em. prasada svasanaka, which is implausible. 

Ambulima (m. or nt.), n. of a locality: May 92 (cf. 
L6vi p. 103). 

ambhlrya, v.l. for Smbhirya, q.v. 

Amrapall, see Amra°. 

ayakva, or ayakka, or apa°, or with stem-final a, 
Mv ii.465.2, 13, some product of the carpenter’s craft; 
the mss. vary as indicated; the form ends in -a and is 
n. pi. 

a-yathavata, adj. (cf. Skt. a-yathavat, adv.; Pali 
yathava and a-yathava, adj.), not normal, not r comme il 
fauV: Gv 436.13 (prose) °vatena rupena. (Read a-yath°? 
Cf. yathSvatas.) 

[ayamaka, in Bbh 152.10, ep. of pratiharya, read 
yamaka, q.v.] 

ayava, m. or nt., a high number, Mvy 7774 (m.; so 
also Mironov) ; Gv 133.24 (nt.), cited in Mvy 7903 apparently 
in mss. as apavah, but Kyoto ed. in paren. adds (as em.?) 
ayavam, and Tib. rendering is clearly meant to be identical 
with that for ayava 7774. Altho Mironov reads apavah 
without v.l. in 7903, further confirmation of stem ayava 
is prob. furnished by Gv 106.13 where for text sattvajava- 
sya we should doubtless understand sattvaj 0 , that is 
-ajava = ayava (or even read sattvayavasya?). 

Ayaskila, m., n. of a mountain; AyaskilS, n. of a 
river: (both) Divy 106.25. 

ayas-prapatika, see prapatika. 

Ayatl-vana, n. of a forest: May 59. 
ayukta-yogin, one who has not practised discipline: 
SP 93.11 (vs) °gina, gen. pi.; Kern, yogins who are not self- 
restrained, and similarly Burnouf; this seems to me inac- 

ayuta, nt. (m. in Skt. only Mbh. Crit. ed. 3.21.24; 
in BHS noted as m. Mvy 7998), in Skt. only defined as 
10,000; so also Mvy 8054 = Tib. khri; but oftener = 100 
kotis or 1,000,000,000 = Tib. ther hbum, so defined LV 
147.20 (cited Mvy 7955), also Mvy 7998, and presumably 
also 7701, 7827 (in these at least higher than koti, and 
between this and niyuta); in Sukh 31.1 a very much 
higher number, listed between nayuta and aksobhya. 

ayoniSa, adj. (abstracted from ayonRo-manasikarah, 
cpd., see next, secondarily analyzed as °io (n. sg.) mana- 
sikarah; hence nonce-forin °sena, instr.), not fundamental 
or thoroughgoing, superficial : LV 419.17 (vs) samkalpakal- 
pajanitena ayonisena (so best mss., Lefm. °sena; sc. 
manasikarena?; no noun expressed, unless samkalpa, 
q.v., be taken as a separate instr.) bhavate avidya etc. 

a- yonisas (neg. of yonisas, and similarly used; 
= Pali ayoniso ; for usage see yonisas), not in a fundamen- 
tal or thoroughgoing way; superficially: (a) adv., Bbh 46.10 
°$o vikalpya; (b) in comp., °so-manasikara Dbh 48.6 
(prose); Tnanaskara Divy 445.2; Gv 495.7 (cited Siks 6.4, 
where read ayoniso-man°); Siks 157.14; °sas-citta (so Pali 
°so-citta) Suv 61.12; RP 48.10 (here could only be a cpd.); 
°so-vikalpena, by superficial (false) imagination. Lank 

ayyaka, m. (= Pali id.; MIndic for Skt. aryaka), 
grandfather: Mv ii.426.16; iii.264.2. Cf. aryaka, payyaka. 
Araktapravada, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.140.5. 
araksya (written also araksa, araksa, °sya in mss.), nt. 
(= Pali arakkheyya or ar°), point that does not need to be guar- 
ded; the Tathagata has three or four, in Pali and BHS; viz., 
his conduct is completely and automatically pure, so that 
he does not need to be on guard; in body, speech, and mind 
(kaya, vac, manas); when the fourth is added it is manner 
of livelihood (ajiva). True reading a-raksya; Tib. bsrun pa 
med pa (Mvy 191; note on Bbh 375.6), and so Chin. acc. 
to L6vi, Sutral. Transl. p. 303 note. Three (as in Pali DN 
iii.217.8 ff.): Sutral. xx.53; Bbh (mss. sometimes corrupt) 
89.6; 230.13 (ed. araksyani, ms. araksani); 375.6; 403.23; 
no number, 408.4; four (as in Pali AN iv.82.15 ff.) Mvy 
191-195; in 195 read ajiva for jiva; in 191 Mironov arak- 
sani, but Kyoto ed. correctly araksyani without v.l. 

arangana, some kind of flower: Mmk 668.8 (prose) 

Arajottariya, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.140.9. 
Arajovirajonayayukta, m., n. of a samadhi: Mvy 
616. Not in the list SsP 1425.17 (where it should be inserted), 
but in corresponding list 1414.16 (misprinted °rajo- 

a-rana, adj. and subst. nt., also arana subst. f. 
(= Pali a-rana, adj. and subst. nt. ; arana not in Pali 
unless, by em. m.c., in Pv iv.1.33 for text arana-vihari, 
see CPD-js.v.; neg. of Pali, BHS rana, q.v., = kleSa, 
Pali kilesa), (1) adj., free from depravity, passion, impurity, 
— Tib. non rnons pa (also = kleSa) med pa: Divy 395.30 
parvataguhanilayam aranam vairaparanmukham prasa- 
mayuktam; on Av ii.130.2 see s.v. aranya; RP i6.3 (vs), 
text aranya-vividhapranta sevamano, read arana (required 
by meter; for °nam) vivi°; in some cpds. seemingly adjec- 
tival, as aranasaya- (misprinted aranaSaya), passionless 
heart, Dbh.g. 7(343). 7, which suggests that for the corrupt 
text maitrapeSi ranvanaSayo (!) ghanah Gv 482.25 (vs) 
we must read maitra pe£ir aranasayo (°anva° is unmetr. !) 
ghanah; prob. also Mvy 617 arana-samavasarana, n. of a 
samadhi, cited from SsP 1414.17 where sarana is added 
after arana; Mvy 618, cited from same place; also arana- 




is the hero of the Mahaummagga-j., No. 546, and Amara 
is his wife. This has misled both CPD and DPPN into 
identifying this Pali Jataka with the story of Mv. Actually 
the stories are quite different, and Mv agrees with the 
Suci-j., which, to be sure, acc. to the Story of the Present, 
belongs to the same occasion as the Mahaummagga; 
hence doubtless the transfer of the names of the hero 
and heroine from one to the other. Which was the original? 
(2) n. of a river: May 253.6; in a list between ViSvamitra 
and Tamara; not in Kirfel; perhaps read Amala? (but 
this also is not recorded as a river-name). 

Amalagarbha, n. of a Bodhisattva: Mvy 710; Dbh 

2 . 12 . 

Amala, n. of a raksasl: May 243.26. 

a-matrjna (neg. of ma°, q.v.), not honoring one’s 
mother , regularly followed by apitrjna, asramanya, abrah- 
manya, not honoring fathers , monks, brahmans: Mv iii.363.8; 
Divy 293.25; Gv 228.15; 353.3; Bbh 252.21; SP 429.7; 
amatapitrjna-ta, asramanya-ta, abrahrnanya-ta Karmav 

amatya-preksita, Mv ii.1.9 (mss.), or amatya- 
veksita, LV 23.20, watched ( guarded ) by ministers, nt. 
adj., epithet of the family in which the Bodhisattva is 
to be born; to be taken closely with foil, phrase, Mv 
tarn kulam bhogam bhumjati, LY tat kulam bhavati 
bhogan paribhunakti, it eats its meals (or, enjoys its wealth ) 
under the guardianship of ministers ; so Tib. blon pos blta 
zhin Ions spyod la spyod pa yin. In Mv the mss. have 
°presitam, which Senart emends rightly; but he also, 
wrongly, em. amanya for amatya. The parallel Mv i.197.19 
is different and dountless corrupt. 

amatra, m., a high number: Mvy 7752a. So read 
with v.l. for Sumatra, m., which is read by Mironov 
without v.l. But Tib. gzhal yas, without measure. Cf. 

a-matrajna, adj. (neg. of ma°; = Pali amattannu; 
cf, next), immoderate (in eating): Ud xxix.15. 

a-matrajna-ta, adj., f. °ta (or, in mss., °jna°; see 
under matrajnata), Bhvr. cpd., which has no moderation 
(in eating): Mv iii.48.17; 49.4 (parsaye . . .) bhojane 
amatrajnataye (so Senart; it seems to me necessary to 
read °jnataye, with v.l. 48.17). 

amanusa, m. (1) = amanusya(ka), subst. : Divy 
456.21 (see s.v. amanusyaka); LY" 75.15; (2) n. of a 
naga king: May 247.26. 

amapya, amapiya (not in Pali or Skt. ; neg. gdve. 
to caus. of root ma), (1) adj. immeasurable : °pya SP 
66.4; Vaj 34.2; °piya Mv ii.362.11 (prose): (2) subst. nt., 
a high number: Mvy 7948 (cited from Gv); 8046; Gv 
106.25; 134.14 (all °pya). 

amapya- parivarta, m. (Mvy) or nt. (Gv 134.14), 
square of prec. (2): Mvy 7949 °tah (cited from Gv); Gv 
106.25 (gen.); 134.14 °tam, n. sg. 

amita, ppp. (to root am; recorded only in Skt. Gr.), 
sick : Mv ii. 430.3, mss. varam te amito (Senart em. ramito, 
implausibly) aham, sick as I am, I am a better choice for you . 

Amitateja(s), n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.136.16. 

Amita- tosala (nt. or m. ; cf. Tosala), n. of a country 
in the south: Gv 179.3 °le. 

Amitadhvaja, n. of a Buddha in the west: Sukh 

Amitanatha, another name for Amitabha: Sadh 
360.4; 363.13. 

Amitaprabha, (1) another name for Amitabha: 
Sukh 50.6 (vs); 53.15 (vs); 62.13-14 (prose), here one of 
three names for the same personage, Amitabham Amita- 
prabham Amitayusam (tathagatam etc.); (2) n. of a 
different (future) Buddha: Sukh 70.6. 

Amitalocana, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.138.11. 

Amitavyuhavatl, n. of the lokadhatu of Amita- 
yurjnanaviniScayarajendra: Mmk 303.24. 

Amitaskandha, n. of a Buddha in the west: Sukh 

Amita, n. of a sister of Suddhodana: Mv i.352.14; 

Amitabha, (1) n. of the Buddha who presides over 
the western paradise Sukhavatl (lokadhatu) ; also knowm 
as Amitayu(s), Amitaprabha, Amitanatha, and doubt- 
less intended by the Mmk names Amitayu(rjnana)- 
viniScayarajendra (or the like), even tho he is once 
depicted separately in a painting centering about that 
personage (Mmk 305.12-13, cf. 304.25). See these names 
separately. The two commonest names are Amitabha and 
Amitayus, and they are as a rule quite equivalent and 
interchangeable; see notably Sukh 62.13-14; 95.15 and 20. 
Often Sukhavatl is mentioned with him. He is the fourth 
of the ‘transcendent’ Buddhas, Dharmas 3; Mvy 85. Other 
occurrences: Suv 2.5; Bhad 49, 57, 59, 62; Siks 175.6; 
Kv 18.7; 21.8 etc.; Mmk 42.16; 426.7; Gv 82.5; Lank 
283.7; Sukh 1.6; 28.10 etc.; Sadh 16.10 etc.; (2) n. of a 
Bodhisattva: Gv 442.22 (one of a long list, and hardly 
to be identified with the Buddha A.). 

Amitayu (or °yus ; n. sg. always °yus), another name 
for Amitabha, q.v.: SP 184.13; 419.3 (one ms. °tabha); 
Suv 8.2; 120.6; RP 57.21; Sukh 32.13; 49.4; (in the 
‘Smaller Sukh’ mentioned before, and oftener than, 
Amitabha: 93.3; 95.15 etc.). 

Amitayurjnanaviniscayaraja, Mmk 7.12, or °rajan, 
id. 301.20, n. of a Tathagata, presumably = Amitabha 
(°tayu); see the following items. 

Amitayurjnanaviniscayarajendra, Mmk 301.15: 
303.23; 426.8; or °viniscayendra 365.16, = prec. 

Amitayurvati, n. of the lokadhatu of Amitayu- 
viniscayarajendra: Mmk 304.21 f. 

Amitayuviniscayarajendra = Amitayurjnana- 
viniscayaraja etc.: Mmk 304.25. 

Amitayus, see °yu. 

Amitauja(s; n. sg.), n. of a former Buddha: Mv 


amitraka (cited for Skt. by Galanos [pw]; = Skt. 
amitra, with -ka, perh. specifying), ( one that is) an enemy: 
MSV ii.20.7; 21.3. 

amila (v.l. amila, q.v.), m. (AMg. amila, ‘a cloth 
made in the Amila country', a woollen cloth’, Ratnach. ; 
there is no country called Amila in Kirfel; cf. also Pali 
amilaka, a certain kind of woolen cloth), Mvy 9172 = Tib. 
behu ras yug chen, which seems to mean about what the 
Chin, means, viz., large doth of calf’s hair. 

a-milana, see s.v. milayati. 

a-mukhara, adj. ( = Pali id.; neg. of Skt. mukhara), 
either not garrulous, or (acc. to CPD for Pali equivalent, 
used in parallel formula) not scurrilous (cf. also mukhara): 
Mv ii.356.12 = iii.280.18, with aviklrna-vaca, q.v. 

[amunciyam, Senart’s em. at Mv i.184.9, apparently 
understood as neg. gdve. from muncati, not to be escaped 
from. But mss. a-munciya (one °yah; at end of line of 
vs), and this is prob. to be kept, as neg. ger. : not having 
got rid of, i. e. if one does not get rid of (this evil thought).] 

amudha-vinaya, m. or nt. (= Pali amulha 0 , see 
CPD; described MN ii.248.5 ff.), disciplinary procedure for 
one not (any longer) insane (and forgiven sins committed 
during past insanity), one of the adhikaranagamatha : 
Mvy 8633; nt. MSV ii.207.12. 

a-mulaka, f. °ika (= Pali id., as adj.), groundless, 
baseless (of an accusation): Mvy 8494 amulakabhya- 
khyanam; Prat 519.7 amulakena samghavaSesena dharme- 
nanudhvamsayet; MSV iii.108.19 ff. ; as subst. nt., ground- 
less accusation: °kam Mvy 8376, a samghavasesa offense, 
described Prat 481.6-10 and in Pali Vin. iii.163.21 fT. 
(a monk falsely accuses another monk of a parajika sin, 
then of his own accord repents and confesses); MSV 





samadhi, passionless samddhi, Mv i. 164. 15, or having . . . 
(Bhvr.), Mvy 1125 (note that Pali uses arana as adj. 
with samadhi); (2) °na, subst. nt., freedom from passion or 
depravity , non-passion, etc. Mv i. 165.5 (vs) sukham sa- 
madhim aranani sevato; in cpds., arana-bhavanaya 
Samadh 19.4 (prose; cf. 3, below), by bringing to pass 
freedom from klesas; aranaviharin (= Pali id.), dwelling in 
a passionless state, Mvy 6366 (here arana-viharin, below, 
seems to indicate that arana is substantival in force); 
(3) arana, subst. f. (on Pali see above), in BHS seems = 
arana nt. ; as separate word, in AbhidhK, see below, and 
Bbh 89.1 ya ca tathagatasyarana; in comp., arana-viharin 
= arana-v°, above; sometimes a could be m.c., as Divy 
401.4; but in prose in the rest; Subhuti is the first of ara- 
naviharin, AsP 20.8; Vaj 26.12; Av ii. 131.5— 6 ; AdP, 
Konow MASI 69, 13.33; other cpds., pratisamvid arana- 
pranidhi-jnanadmam (contains a four-member dvandva) 
gunanam Bbh 207.22; arana-bhavanaya Samadh 8.16 
(prose, = arana-bh°, above, in a closely parallel passage); 
arana-sampanna(h) Mv ii.292.17; in LV 428.13 read with 
v.l. arana-dharma-supratilabdha for text aranya 0 . La 
Vallee-Poussin, AbhidhK vii. 86-88 defines arana as le 
pouvoir d’empecher la naissance de la passion d’autrui ; but 
in my texts it seems to be much less complicated, a simple 
equivalent of arana. Did it start in verses, m.c. (cf. Pali, 
above, Pv iv.1.33), and somehow come thence into prose? 
Or (more likely) was arana orig. adj. (to 1, above) with a 
fem. noun (sarnapatti? cf. AbhidhK LaV.-P. iv. 121; or 
maitra, Pali metta?). See also Renou, JA 1939, 369 note 1. 

Aranasamavasarana, m., n. of a samadhi, Mvy 617; 
cited from SsP 1414.17; 1425.17 where sarana is added 
after arana-; Tib. supports the BHS in Mvy. See arana. 

Aranasaranasarvasamavasarana, m., n. of a 
samadhi, Mvy 618; cited from SsP 1414.17; 1425.19 (here 

arana, see arana. 

Aranemi (°min, °mi?), m. (= Pali id.; also °nemi, 
q.v.), n. of a brahmanical sage: °nem!-Gautamau, dual 
dvandva, Divy 632.12; °ml (n. sg.) Gautamo (two words, 
but the same person) 651.7; °mis ca Gautamo (one person) 
653.12. Cf. next. Probably the dual cpd. is a mere error. 

Aranemika, m. pi., n. of a brahmanical school (of 
the Chandogas): Divy 632.23. Cf. prec. 

? aranya, adj.: in Av ii.13QJ.-2 ms. so Tanyam 
pratipadam samadaya vartate; Speyer em. Tanya-prati°, 
interpreting the rules of forest-life (see his note). But prob. 
read aranam pratipadam, the passionless (klesa-less) 
course of conduct or path; see s.vv. arana and pratipad; 
this would be paleographically close to the reading attrib- 
uted to the ms.; a similar error in RP 16.3, s*v. arana. 

aranyaka, m. (= Pali arannaka), = ar°, one of the 
dhutaguna: Divy 141.21. 

Arati (in Mv Aratl), (1) n. of a daughter of Mara: 
LV 378.4 °ti£ ca; Mv iii.281.15 (mss. Aparati); 284.12, 
17; 285.5; 286.6; (2) n. of one of the 'armies’ (sena) of 
Mara: LV 262.14 (see Arati, which Mv reads in the same 
vs). See also arati. 

Aranemi = °nemi, q.v. (= Pali id.), n. of a brah- 
manical rsi: Mvy 3472. 

Arapacana, a name of ManjuSri: Sadh 94.15 et alibi. 

Aravada (= Pali °vala, °vala), n. of a naga-king: 
Mvy 3282; see next. 

Aravala = prec.: May 247.29. 

araha, adj. (= Pali id., Skt. arha), worthy : nigra- 
haraham, pragraharaham Mv i. 347. 18 (prose). 

arahant (= Pali id. = Skt. and BHS arhant, q.v.,), 
see § 3.100. 

Arada = Arsida, q.v.: Mv ii.200.13 (vs; a here 
required by meter), in dvandva cpd. with -udraka; Bud- 
dhacarita (Johnston) vii. 54; xi.69; xii.l ff. (in 2 kalama). 
Pali also has Alara, but only of a different person. 

arava, nt., Mironov’s reading for arava, q.v. 
Arigupta, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 442.11. 
arincana (nt. ; neg. of rihcana = Pali id., to rincati), 
the not abandoning : Gv 456.25 sattvaparipakarincana- 
tayai, so as not to abandon the maturation of creatures. 
[aritiyate, read arti°: Bbh 282.7-8.] 

Arinihantar, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.140.13. 
Arindama (= Pali id.), n. of an ancient king (pre- 
vious incarnation of Sreniya Bimbisara; but in the Pali 
version, Jat. 529, of the Bodhisattva): Mv iii.449.17 ff. 
(one or both mss. often cited as reading Anindama). 

Arimardana, n. of two former Buddhas: Mv i.137.4; 
139.8 (here v.l. avi°). 

ariya, adj. (= Pali id.; MIndic for Skt. arya), noble: 
Mv iii.400.6 ariyo (both mss., Senart em. aryo) tayi (so 
with Senart, mss. tapi). 

Arista, (1) n. of a former Buddha: Mv iii. 231.1; 
(2) perhaps to be read for Rsta, q.v.; (3) n. of a monk 
(= Pali Arittha, see Vin. ii.25.12 ff.), punished for heresy 
by the utksepanlya: MSV iiL30.4 ff. 

Aristanemi, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i. 140.5. 
Arista, n. of a devakumari in the western quarter: 
Mv iii.308.8; cf. next. 

Aristika, n. of a goddess: Mahasamaj. 185.15, 
identified by Waldschmidt with prec.; the Pali (DN) 
correspondent Aritthaka appears to be m. pi., a class of 
gods (see CPD s.v.). 

Arisudana, n. of a Buddha, Mv i. 124. 10 (regarded 
by Senart as adj. epithet: he takes Mahabhaga as the 
name, Index). 

Aruna, n. of a naga king (note the naga priest Aruna 
Ata in PBr, see BR s.v. 2 g): May 246.19. 

arunavati, some kind of perfume: Gv 153.15 (prose) 
°vati-gandharaj a-. 

Aruna, n. of a devakumarika in the western quarter: 
LV 390.5*. 

arunodghata- (Mv), or arunodghatana- (LV), 
break of dawn (— Skt. arunodaya), cpd. with -kala-samaye 
(kala once omitted): Mv i.229.7 (here Senart em. °nopagh°, 
wrongly); ii.133.7; 284.16; 415.18; 422.6; 431.11; LV 
345.20; 350.8. The stems udghata and °tana both occur 
in Skt. in mg. opening, but do not seem to be used of 
the dawn. 

? arusya, adj. (to Skt. arus, wound, sore), characterized 
by sores : LV 189.14 (vs) kim sarathe purusa rusya-vivarna- 
gatrah, where rusya could well stand for arusya: with 
limbs full of sores and discolored. Cf. Pali aru-gatta, with 
limbs full of sores. Tib. rtsub, which otherwise = parusa; 
and accordingly Foucaux rude (rough). But connexion 
with ruksa is scarcely possible, unless by hyper-Sktism 
(AMg. rukkha). 

arupavacara, m. (= Pali id.; but in BHS usually 
arupyav 0 , q.v., or simply arupya(h) devah, see arupya), 
belonging to the sphere of the formless, ep. of a group of (4) 
classes of gods, Dharmas 129; see also next, and s.v. deva. 

arupin, adj. (= arupya, adj., °pyavacara, arupa- 
vacara), formless: Mmk 45.7 °pina£ ca deva(h). (Pali 
arupin, not in this sense). 

a-ruha, mss. at Mv ii.65.12, Senart em. aHuha, q.v. 
Arka, n. of a king (previous incarnation of Sakya- 
muni): Mv i.54.5. 

argada, m. (= Skt. °la, Pali °la or °la; once in $B 
Madhy., ^BK. reading °la, see BR), bolt, bar: Mv ii.115.12 
(read) nivatani spar^itargadani (kutagarani), see spar£ita; 
Mvy 5581; Prat 506.11; SP acc. to KN Preface vi, in. 
Nep. (Kashgar rec. °ta). 

argalaka (nt. ? = Pali aggala), patch (on garments, 
here sandals): MSV iv.203.11. 

argalapasa, m. (= Pali aggala-pasaka or aggala 0 , 
AMg. aggalapasaga), receptacle or latch in which the bolt 
fits, a part of a city gate: Mv i.195.19 (prose). 





-arghyeya, see an-a°. 

Arciketu, n. of a former Buddha: LV 172.10. 

(arcita, ppp. [ — Skt., used, tho rarely, in this sense, 
pw s.v. arc; cf. BR 5.1042], [decorated,] beset , studded 
[with jewels]: Mvy 6056, defined as = the preceding 
khacita [and cf. the following racita].) 

Arcitanama (read Arcitamana, for °manas?), n. of 
a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.6 (prose) °masya, gen. 

Arcinetradhipati, n. of a yaksa: Mvy 3371. 

Arcimant (°mat, °ma), (1) n. of a legendary 
cakravartin who became the father of DIpamkara: Mv 
i.193.14 °mam (v.l. °mo; n. sg.); 198.16 °mo, etc.; (2) n. 
of a previous incarnation of Sakyamuni: LY 170.17. See 
also Arcismant. 

Arcimahendra, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 442.15 
(prose) °rasya, gen. 

ArcirmandalagStra, n. of a Tathagata: Gv 422.18 

ArciSiri (semi-M Indie = *Arcihsri), n. of a Tatha- 
gata: Gv 259.8 (vs) °ris, n. sg. 

Arci£candra (see s.v. Kundasriyarciscandra), n. 
of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.1. 

Arcismati, n. of the 4th (bodhisattva-) bhumi: Dbh 
5.8 etc.; Mvy 889; Dharmas 64; Bbh 341.2. 

Arcismant, (1) n. of a Tathagata: Siks 9.3; (2) n. 
of a Bodhisattva: Gv 442.11; (3) n. of an ancient king, 
a previous incarnation of Amitayus, and father of Punya- 
raSmi: RP 36.18 ff. Cf. also Arcimant. 

Arcihsamudramukhavegapradipa, n. of a Tatha- 
gata: Gv *422.20. 

Arjuna, (1) n. of a king of Hastinapura (= Pali 
Ajjuna; identified with Arjuna Kartavirya of Skt. epic), 
character in the Sarabhanga (q.v.) Jataka: Mv iii.361.4 if. ; 
368.15; (2) n. of a yaksa: May 23; (3) n. of a Sakyan 
mathematician: LV 146.9 ff. 

Arjunavana (a for a m.c.), n. of a locality (pertaining 
to Arjuna 2, above): May 23. 

artita, distressed: pple. of next. 

ar(t)tiyati or °tiyati, °te; in one doubtful passage 
perhaps arti°, otherwise always art 0 when not fused in 
samdhi with preceding vowel; forms occurring include 
ar(t)tiyati, °yanti, °tlyate, °tiyante, °tlyanto and °tam 
(pres, pple.), aritiyeran (! read art°), artita (ppp.); also 
artlyate (? v.l. atti 0 ); attiyanta (and probably attlyate 
for prec.); rtiyate, °yante, °yamana (pres, pple.; for rt° 
we usually find rit° written); ardiyamana (pres, pple.); 
astlryati; and noun attiyana. The corresp. Pali (see CPD) 
is written atttyati, atthT 0 , addh!°, addiyati. Despite all 
this confusion, there is no doubt that we are dealing with 
essentially one word, with modifications due to diverse 
influences, including popular etymology and hyper-Sktism. 
Wogihara, ZDMG 58.454, gives the ‘correct form’ as 
rtiyate (which, or rather usually rit°, is customary in Bbh, 
but I believe occurs nowhere else), and the mg. as er 
schamt sich ; both statements are wrong, I believe. As to 
mg., Wogihara was evidently influenced by the fact that 
the word is often associated in Pali with harayati, jiguc- 
chati, and in BHS with jehrlyate, (vi)jugupsati, or equiv- 
alents. But it is also often used where shame cannot be 
involved. Most likely the M Indie word is a denominative 
from arti (for which arti, with semi-M Indie shortening, 
is recorded even in Skt.). All forms are included here since 
the word is clearly a unit, but they are also entered under 
the several headings : (1) is grieved , perturbed, distressed : 
Mv i. 219. 17 = ii.21.19 kecit samsarapaSena arttiyante 
(ii.21.19 samsaracarena artlyanti) yatha aham (said by 
the infant Bodhisattva), are distressed ; Mv ii. 161 .7 bo- 
dhisattvo jatiye arttiyanto, being pained by (or, on ac- 
count of) birth , 11-12 . . . maranena artt°, 13 sokehi artt°; 
Mv ii.242.13 arttiyati (Senart em. atti°); Mv i.89.18 
(aklrnaviharena) nartiyanti; Mv ii. 480.7 sokartita; T.V 

174.14 jarartita ; Bbh 166.11 rtiyamanah (of a Bodhisattva); 
Bbh 171.9 ritiyamanam. (2) In some transitional cases, 
leading over to the next group, the additional note of 
aversion, revulsion seems more or less clearly present: 
Bbh 282.7-8 tena purvakenadhimoksenaritiyeran (read 
°nartiyeran ; but in same phrase line 23 °moksena ritiyante), 
they would be annoyed by, sick of, disgusted with their for- 
mer enthusiasm; Bbh 168.23 ritiyate; Mvy 1830 nartlyate 
(no context); (3) like preceding but accompanied by 
parallel forms of hri-, jugups-, or the like: SP 108.6 
daridracintayartiyantam jehrlyamanam jugupsamanam, 
distressed, ashamed, disgusted by the thought of being poor ; 
Mv i.343.1 (tena adharmena) attiyanta (Senart em. artl°) 
vijigupsanta or °sata (mss. °satam, evidently pres, pple., 
Senart em. wrongly °sita) distressed and disgusted by this 
immorality; Karmav 47.26 astirvati jihreti vigarhati 
vijugupsati, is distressed, ashamed, offended, disgusted (by 
acts he has done); 49.2; Divy 39.7 ye 'nena putikayen- 
ardlyamana jehriyante vijugupsamanah, being distressed, 
are ashamed, disgusted; (4) with abl., feels aversion (from): 
MadhK 297.2, text artlyate (ebhyo dharmebhyo), but v.l. 
attiyate, so prob. read; followed by jehrlyate vitarati 
vijugupsate; in line 4 below (see note 1) mss. dharmebhyo 
attiyana (text arti°) vijugupsana (nouns). 

[artiyana, read attiyana, q.v.] 

artha, nt. (as in RV generally; in later Skt. only m.), 
aim, goal , etc.: idam eva cartham (acc.) SP 97.5 (vs); 
paramartham etat (acc.) 8,10 (vss) ; yad artham samudagato 
tad artham abhisambhavayitva Mv i.4.12, formula re- 
peated i.34.1 etc.; in these tw r o occurrences all mss. yad, 
tad. (As one of the four pratisamvid, see this.) 

arthakriya, action for the benefit (of others), one of 
the four samgraha-vastu (q.v.), but only in LV (in- 
stead of the usual arthacarya, q.v.): LV 38.17; 160.6; 
182.6; 429.13. 

artha-cara, adj. (~ Pali attha°), helpful, rendering 
service : Jm 2.8. Cf. next. 

artha-carya (— Pali attha-cariya; cf. prec.), conduct 
for the benefit or profit (of, gen. or comp.): devanam (Mv 
iii.91.1, 3 deva-) manusyanani (i.231.6 adds ca) °ryam 
caramano (or caranto) Mv i. 231. 6-7; iii.91.1, 3; svamy- 
arth° Jm 85.1 ; pararth 0 Jm 95.8, etc. ; technically as one 
of the samgraha-vastu (q.v.; in LV replaced by artha- 
kriya, q.v.), conduct for the religious benefit of others, viz., 
inspiring them to act for their own religious profit, as 
explained Bbh 220.25 ff. ; in lists of the 4 samgra 0 , Mv 
i.3.12 ; ii.395.8 ; Mvy 927; Dharmas 19. 

Arthadarsi(n), (1) n. of a former Buddha: Mv 
iii.236.9; (2) n. of another former Buddha, in the same list, 
iii.240.4 f.; 241.15; 243.10; 244.2; 245.12 f.; 247.8; 248.16. 

artha- darsimant (~ Pali attha-dassima(nt), cf. 
dar£imant), having insight into meanings: Mv iii.345.7 
tattvarthadarsimam (v.l. sattva 0 ). 
artha- dharani, see dharani. 

arthanata (— Skt. arthana, Pali atthana; §22.41), 
request, prayer: LV 393.13 (vs). 

ArthavacanasrI, n. of a Buddha: Gv 259.2. 
Arthavarglya, nt. pi., n. of certain Buddhist sutras 
(= Pali atthaka-vaggika, or °iya, — Sn sect. 4, see CPD 
s.v. ; acc. to Levi, JAs. 1915, I, p. 413, the BHS form 
points to the true interpretation of the Pali), Divy 20.24 ; 
35.1 (in both, mss. °vadgiya); Bbh 48.23 (citing a vs 
Sn 897, in the above section). 

artha- va^a, nt. (? = Pali attha-vasa, see CPD, 
‘-vasa . . . little more than a suffix’; called masc. by CPD, 
but idam, kim, are used with it), reason, motive, purpose 
(virtually = artha): LV 244.8 idam arthavasam adhikrtya; 
Mv iii.48.5 (kati), 10 (dve) arthavasam, acc. pi.; kim- 
arthavasam samanupasyantl MSV ii.84.19; 85.3 etc. 
(same phrase with kim-artham 84.15; Pali uses kim with 




Arthaviniscaya, m., n. of a work: Mvy 1405. 
Arthasiddhi, n. of a king, former incarnation of 
Sakyamuni: RP 24.12. 

arthika (Pali atthika; very rare in Skt., see BR 
5.1048, and pw s.v. ; essentially a Buddhist word; cf. 
anarthika), (1) desirous (of, instr. or in comp.): with 
instr., LY 111.13 (kamagunebhir) ; 242.2 (id.); Mv i.327.2 
(tehi bhajanehi); ii.354.2, and 355.1, 3 (buddhajnanena); 

11.426.8 (striyaya arthiko, wanting a woman); iii.391.14 
aham tvaya arthiko, 15 aham tvaya arthika, I am in 
love with you, I want you; Divy 616,8 arthikasi . . . Anan- 
dena, are you in love with A.?; Divy 345.7 (punyena); 
RP 19.7 (buddhajnanena); Siks 38.1 (kah purusenarthikah, 
who wants a man?); 342.20; in comp., LV 139.22 (na . . .) 
kularthiko na gotrarthiko, gunarthika eva; 179.10 dhar- 
marthiko, 431.22 sarvarasarthikebhyas ; Mv ii.121.8 
jyotiarthiko jyotigavesi; ii. 124,1 prahanarthikasya (with 
v.l., see prahana 1; Pali padhanatthikassa MN i.167.6); 
ii. 183.5 and 238.16 punyarthika; as subst., petitioner, 
RP 17.1; aiming at (in comp.), vighatarthika aiming at 
prevention (of evil), Bbh 114.5, 14, etc. (common in Bbh, 
see Wogihara's Index); (2) ep. of a Buddha, or in the 
first passage of the Bodhisattva at the moment of his 
attaining Buddhahood; this usage seems unknown in 
Pali and I have not seen it noted previously; perhaps it 
means in possession oh having attained (his proper, i. e. 
the supreme religious) aim : Mv ii.284.19 (in a long list of 
epithets of the Enlightened One); Mv iii.63.10 alam 
arthikasya aprasadena, away with disbelief in the One 
(Buddha) who has attained the goal ! (see s.v. aprasada; 
misunderstood by Senart); (3) see pratyarthika. 

ardlyate, pple. °yamana, see ar(t)tiyati: Divy 39.7. 
Ardravalika, n. of a naga king: May 246.29. 
(ardha-kaya [= Skt. id., recorded only from the 
Yogayatra 6.7, I.St. 14.327; Pali addha-kaya, also rare], 
half the body; the bust: Gv 519.15 ff.)‘ 

ardhakayika, adj. (from prec. ; cf. Pali addhakayi’ka), 
with half the body (visible): LV 124.5 (°ka gaganatalat . . . 
abhipralambayanti); 295.2; 367.9 (all prose). 

ardhagalll (cf. galli), some kind of vehicle: Mv 

11.434.8 (prose; v.l. agalli). 

ardhacandra, m. (? or nt. ; in Skt. half-moon, crescent, 
etc.), (1) a kind of (presumably crescent-shaped) personal 
ornament (also °draka, q.v.): LV 201.19; Mv ii.317.7 
(here hung on the bodhi-tree); (2) as in Skt. acc. to Schmidt, 
Nachtr., s.v., from Haravijaya, a (crescent-shaped) de- 
coration on a building (Schmidt Torbogenschmuck ): Gv 
167.16 °dra(h), n. pi.; 154.4, 202.23 (all prose). 

ardhacandraka (m. or nt. ; = °dra, 1), a kind of 
ornament: LV 367.10 °kai£. 

ardha-cola, m. (Skt, Lex. °colaka; otherwise un- 
recorded), short jacket : Mvy 5847. 

Ardha-narayana (m.), a ‘/za//-Narayana’ (q.v.), 
whose power is used as a unit of strength: MPS 31.21; 
LV 229.14, see s.v. samghatana. 

ardha-paryanka (m.; = Pali addha-pallanka), half- 
paruahka position (with only one leg bent under): LV 
155.1 (°kam krtva). 

ardhaparyankin, adj. (from prec. plus -in; cf. 
paryankin), sitting in the ardha-paryanka position : °kinam, 
acc. sg., Sadh 64.14 et alibi. 

ardha-rStri (f. or) nt. (= Pali addha-ratti, f., rarely; 
usually °ratta, m. = Skt. ardha-ratra; cf. Skt. ratri), 
midnight : LV 210.2 (prose) °trim ca samayam samprap- 
tam. drstva ca . . . (best punctuated so with Lefm.), and 
the time (of) midnight was arrived. And seeing (all this) . . . 
(Foucaux takes °trim and samayam as objects of drstva; 
the two ca's are against it); LV 217.9 (prose) °tri-samayam 

[ardhapayati, read vardh°.| 
ardhusta, see adhyusta. 

arpana (cf. also vyarpana; prob. = Pali appana; 
in Skt. only °na, nt., not in this mg.), ' fixing of thought 
. . . application of mind, esp. in jhana = complete concen- 
tration, ecstasy ’ (CPD): Mvy 7428; Tib. hbul ba, gtod, 
etymolog. renderings, giving, delivering. 

Arbuda, m. (nt. in Ud? = Pali Abbuda), n. of a 
hell, acc. to Mvy and Dharmas a cold one (so in Pali, 
CPD): Mvy 4929; Dharmas 122; Divy 67.22; 138.7; Av 

1.4.9 etc.; Ud viii.5 arbudani, gender app. influenced by 
sahasrani of prec. line, which as Chakravarti assumes may 
be understood here, i. e. arbudani short for °da-sahasrani? 

aryaka, m. (= ayyaka, q.v.; semi-MIndic for Skt. 
aryaka), grandfather: Mv iii.265.9 (Senart em. ary°). 

[arSangi (some mss. add kustam; Mironov arsa), 
hemorrhoids; Mvy 9518. Read arSamsi, pi of Skt. arsas 
(also arsa); cf. Bhik 17a.l, in parallel passage, arsansi.] 
arhata-ghati-cakra (Mironov arhad-gh°; cf. Skt. 
araghatta, Pali arahattha- (once v.l. °hata, see CPD) 
-ghati-yanta), Persian, ( wel\-)wheel : Mvy 2833. 

arhati, ought , is normally construed with inf. as in 
Skt. In Mv ii.491. 11-12, by a curious blend construction, 
it is followed by an opt. : arhasi putrl (mss.) . . . bhar- 
taram . . . upasthihesi (2 sg. opt. § 29.21), you, daughter , 
ought — you should serve your husband, etc. 

arhant, also (M Indie) arahant, q.v., the ideal 
personage in Hinayana Buddhism, fourth and last stage 
in religious development (see srota-apanna), SP 1.6 et 
passim. In Mvy 4, 5138, etymologically rendered Tib. dgra 
bcom pa, having conquered the enemy, as if ari plus root 
han! Fern, arhantl Av ii.4.12; Siks 171.16; arhantinl MSV 

1.22.9 (prose); abstract arhattva, nt., Mvy 5137 etc. 
arhavant = arhant (§ 22.50; not otherwise recorded; 

m.c. ?): LV 283.7, repeated 19 (vss), bhavi (read bhavl 
m.c.) tvam adyarhavan, thou shalt become an arhat today 
(no v.l.). 

? Alamvarsa, see Alambusa. 

Alaka, n. of a yaksa (prob. really a generic name, 
an inhabitant of Alaka or °ka-pura, q.v.; pi. so used in 
Skt.): May 103. 

Alakasirsa, n. of a naga king: May 246.27. 
Alaka-pura (nt.), the city Alaka, capital of Kubera 
and home of the yaksas (= next, etc.): May 103. L6vi 
p. 115 very strangely calls it a ville inconnue. 
Alakavati, v.l. for Ata°, q.v. 

Alakundalabhattiya, n. of a disciple of Buddha: 
Mv i.75.1. 

alaksana, adj., without characteristic mark (so Skt.); 
ep. of dharma, unde finable, absolute: Mvy 353. 

alaksanaka, adj., with Buddha, (a Buddha) with- 
out the (32) marks (so Burnouf Intr. 378, note 1), i. e. a 
substitute for a Buddha, a 'near-Buddha' (not actually 
a Buddha but a saint living in the absence of a B. and 
'Buddha- work’, buddha-karya), said of Upagupta: Divy 
348.24; 350.28; 356.20; 357.24; 385.8; MSV i.4.3. 

alamkaraniya, adj., °yena, adv. (corresponds to 
Pali alamkammaniya, used in same mg. and context), 
in a suitable or convenient situation (for the undertaking in 
question; here, as in Pali, specifically for sexual relations): 
Prat 488.10 °niyena, adv. (in Pali, Vin. iii.187.19, °niye, 
adj. with asane, the seat occupied by the accused monk). 
Alamkarabhusita, n. of a gandharva king: Kv 2.20. 
AIamkara-£ubha (m.), n. of a samadhi: SP 458.3 
(one ms. °sura for °£ubha; so Burnouf and Kern Transl.). 

-alamkarika, adj. ifc. (cf. pw 7.309), in tad-alam- 
karikam (read as cpd.) Divy 247.24, pertaining to that 
(or those) ornament(s). 

Alamkrta, n. of a former Buddha: Mv 4.137.2. 
alamkrtaka, f. °ika, = Skt. °ta, adorned , with 
endearing diminutive flavor: LV 322.5 (vs) su-lamkrtika 
(== *sv-alamkrtikah), said by the daughters of Mara of 
themselves; $§4.11; 22.34. 

5 * 

ala j jit a 



alajjita (nt.), shamelessness , impudence: MSV ii.188.4 
(see s.v. vaitarika). 

a-lajjitavya (= Pali °tabba), see lajjitavya. 
a-lajjin (cf. lajjin; = Pali id.), not ashamed : Ud 
xvi.4 °nah, n. pi. (? text °na, but oldest ms. alajjita, for 
°tah); shameless , MSV ii.210.12; °ji-samgha MSV iii.116.18, 
20 .' 

alam-arya, adj. (= Pali alam-ariya), truly noble : of 
dharma LV 392.11; jnana LV 407.21; 409.4; Bhik 26a.3 
(°ya-vi£esadhigamam jnanam...); anta LV 416.17 and 
Mv iii.331.4 (same passage) nalamaryo. 

alambu, or al°, or alambu, or al° (= Skt. and Pali 
alabu, Skt. Lex. alabu), bottle-gourd : Mv ii.126.4; 127.8; 
128.13; 129.15 (in all these tiktal 0 ); 232.3; °bu-Sreni, row 
of gourds (used as a raft), Mv iii.68.6 (°iyam, acc. sg.); 

78.3 (°iyo, acc. pi.). Initial a in one ms. iii.68.6; short a 

iii.78.3, and Senart with v.l. 68.6 (tiktalambu mss. ii.129. 
15); otherwise samdhi makes quantity undetermined. In 
second syllable mss. regularly -amb-; -amb- only ii.232.3; 
-ab- in one ms. only ii.126.4; iii.68.6; Senart usually prints 
-ab-. 7 

Alambusa, n. of a devakumarika in the western 
quarter: Mv iii.308.8 (mss. Alamvarsa, em. Senart) = LV 
390.5 (Lefm. with all mss. °£a). 

a-layana, adj. (= Pali alena), without refuge : Gv 

a-lavanaka, f. °ika, adj. (also alonaka, q.v. ; = Pali 
alonaka), unsalted: f. Divy 87.1, 9; 88.8 IT.; = MSV 
i.86.12 ff. 

alatacakra, nt. (= Skt., pw 7.310, wheel of fire, of 
a firebrand whirled in the air), used as symbol of some- 
thing transitory and illusory (so Pali °cakka, CPD); Lank 

9.3 (vs; separate alatacakra = °kram from dhumo); Mvy 
2832; MadhK 173.3; as symbol of restless, unceasing 
motion, LV 205.13 °kra-samarudhasya (lokasya), of per- 
sons living in the samsara. 

alambu, see alambu. 

alika, (1) adj. (— Pali id., Skt. alika; see §3.40), 
false: LV 174.7 (vs); Mv ii.70.2 (prose); 71.2 (vs); (2) n. 
of a naga king: Mvy 3275; May 247.22. 

alinda, nt. (= AMg. id., rendered by Hindi kumra 
and Eng. a round tub-like vessel ; cf. also next), a kind of 
dish (v.l. sometimes alinda): Mv ii.461.21 mahantam 
alindam odanasya (dinnam); similarly 462.3, 12, 13 (in 
the last two read alindam odanasya instead of Seriart’s 
reading). Regularly a receptacle for soft food, esp. odana, 

alinda, (1) = prec. (v.l. °nda): mahati ca alinda 
bhaktasya (q.v.) Mv iii.15.9; (odanasya mahati) alinda 
ibid. 13; (2) n. of a queen, wife of Iksvaku and mother 
of Ku£a (in the Pali version named Silavati): Mv ii.425.2 fT. ; 
iii.2.20 ff. 

Alimanmatha, n. of a form of ManjuSrl: Sadh 146.1 
et alibi. 

a-llna, adj. ( = Pali id.; neg. of lina, q.v.), not dis- 
pirited or faint-hearted ; intrepid: Mvy 491 — Tib. ma 
zhum pa; often assoc, with adina: LV 2344, 18 (in 18 
adinallnam); 284.19 alina adina; 318.12 adlno ’linah (of 
the Bodhisattva) ; 415.6 -virya alinu; Mv ii.354.1 °na- 
kaya-manasah; alina- vikrantam (cognate acc.) vikramanto 
Mv ii.267.17, or ... vikrame (aor.) 399.12, marching 
( striding ) an intrepid march (stride), or he marched etc. 

a-ludita (== Pali alulita; neg. of ludita, q.v.), not 
agitated, unperturbed; calm, imperturbable: LV 318.13 (of 
the Bodhisattva); 361.16 (of Buddha); °ta-citta LV 181.12; 
Sukh 59.1; °ta-gati LV 272.12. 

a-lukha, adj. (== Pali id., of the pupil of the eye; 
neg. of lukha, q.v., and cf. next), not coarse , of food, 
Mv iii.120.22; not harsh, i. e. comfortable, of the house- 
holder’s life (grhavasa, q.v.; v.l. grha°), Mv iii. 50.12. 
a-luha, adj. (= prec.; neg. of luha, q.v.), not coarse , 

of food, Mv ii.65.12, but mss. (a)riiha, q.v.; not harsh, 
comfortable , of grhavasa: Mv ii.69.1; 117.19. 
alena, see lena. 

aloka, m., a high number: Mvy 7869 (cited from 
Gv) = Tib. sugs sbyon, or £ugs hphyo (the latter also 
renders heluga, q.v.); in Gv 133.13 aloka, m.; but in Gv 

106.3 sattva-lokasya, for which certainly read sattvaloka- 

alonaka, adj. (= Pali id.; also alavanaka, q.v.), 
unsalted: Mv iii. 120.21 °kani (food). 

alohini (f. to Vedic a-lohita; cf. Pali alohita, same 
mg.), (a woman) who does not menstruate : Mvy 8929. 

alpa-kisarena (mss. often s for s, 1 for r, n for n; 
= Pali appa-kasirena; Sktized as °krcchrena, a form not 
recorded in Skt., Mvy 6370; SP 103.9, and elsewhere, 
also in Mv, see Senart i note p. 580; no correspondent 
recorded in Pkt. ; the only Pkt. resultant of krcchra is 
kiccha), with little difficulty : Mv i.270.8 (here Senart 
wrongly em. °kisaram); ii. 216.6, 9; 227.5; 286.9; 418.3; 
iii.31.13; 318.6. See kisara. 

alpa-guna, adj. (= Pali appa 0 ), insignificant: Mv 
i.89.18 °na-paritusta, content with insignificant (worldly) 

alpa-jnata, adj. (seems — Pali appanhata, which 
\ acc. to CPD ~ Skt. aprajnata), little known, not celebrated: 
MSV ii.124.12; bhiksur badhaglanah alpajhatah sve 
mutrapurlse nimagno 128.13; yah parsadvinirmukto 
’lpajnatas ca 131.13. Is our form hyper-Skt., or the true 
orig. of the Pali? 

alpataraka, adj. comparative (= °tara; nowhere 
recorded), less numerous: AsP 430.8, 9. In 430.2 bahu- 
taraka, q.v.; in vicinity alpaka, and alpatama (without 
ka); the suffix has no special force that I can detect; the 
whole passage is prose. 

alpabhiksuka, nt. (cf. Pali appabhikkhuka, adj., 
having few monks), a state of having few monks : (parantakesu) 
janapadesv °kam, krcchrena dasavargo ganah paripuryate 
Divy 18.7. 

alpamanyate (= Pali appamannati, pendant to 
bahu manyate, tw r o words in Skt., may be one in Pali), 
thinks little of (gen.): nalpamanyeta punyasya Ud xvii.6. 

aiparajaska, adj. Bhvr. (= Pali apparajakkha), of 
slight passion, free from passion, in °ka-jatiya (= Pali 
°jatika), see -jatiya, Mv iii.322.16 (prose). 

alpatanka, adj. (and subst. m.? = Pali appa°, acc. 
to CPD subst. as well as adj.; see below), (almost) free 
from illness, following alpabadha, q.v. for occurrences; 
in Av i.325.13 text °tankam (acc. sg.), after alpabadha- 
tam, seemingly subst., (relative) freedom from disease; 
but in the same cliche ii.90.14; 93.15 °ka-tam is read, 
matching °badhatam. See next. 

alpatanka- ta (= Pali appa°), state of being (almost) 
free from illness, abstr. to prec.; usually follows alpaba- 
dhata, q.v. for occurrences (as in Pali). But also without 
that word, Kv 18.8. In Av i.325.13 read prob. °tankatam 
for °tankam, see prec. 

alpabadha, adj. (= Pali appa°, acc. to CPD noun, 
= °dha-ta, as well as adj.), (almost) free from disease, 
often followed by alpatanka, as in Pali by appatanka: 
so Mv i.211.6 = ii.15.5; Av i. 168.8; but also without this, 
Divy 396.5; Suv 182.15; Bbh 20.1. See next. 

alpabadha-ta (= Pali appa 0 ), state of being (almost) 
free from disease , abstr. to prec..; usually followed (as in 
Pali) bv alpatankata: so Mv i.323.20; Mvy 6284; Divy 
156.13;" Kv 89.12; Av i.325.13 (see alpatanka); ii.90.13; 
93.15; in Divy 21.4 no alpatankata occurs but it may 
have been included in what is understood by the abbre- 
viation yavat. 

alpayuska, adj. (= Pali appayuka; cf. Skt. alpayus), 
short-lived : Mvi.199.1 = ii.2.19; i.200.2 = ii.3.18; ii.208.16; 
Av i.296.4; 316.2 (all prose). Cf. next. 




alpayuska-ta, abstr. to prec. : Dbh 26.19 (prose), 
alpartha, adj. (= Pali appattha), wanting little, un- 
demanding , modest , ep. of proper monks: MSV iii.96.14. 

alpasvada, adj. (subst. ? — Pali appassada), affording 
little pleasure , in Mv i.121.4 perhaps subst., a sort of 
kenning for kama (the Pali word is often an epithet of 
kama, and sometimes seems to be a substitute for it). 
The Mv line (vs) is corrupt; perhaps alpasvada-nibaddho 
(or read °dha?) means kama-nibaddho; in the second 
half line surely loka vartenti darunah is intended, rather 
than Senart’s em, ; as adj., e. g. Divy 41.26 (mahasamudro) 
’lpasvado bahvadinavas. 

alpesakhya, adj. (= Pali appesakkha), opp. of the 
much commoner mahesakhya (q.v.), with which it is 
contrasted Mvy 6412; Karmav 29.26, insignificant, petty : 
of persons Mv i.28.7; Mink 74.15; of a caitya Divy 243.2, 5. 
alpesakhya- tva, abstract from prec.: Av ii.177.6. 
alpotsuka (= Pali appossuka, °kka), indifferent, 
unconcerned, undisturbed, unworried: Mv ii.427.4; Divy 
41.23 fT. ; LV 396.2 °ka-viharenaiva viharevam (in con- 
trast with preaching the Law; Buddha speaks); Ud 
xiv.16 (= Pali appossukko Dhp. 330); Av i.89.1 °kas 
tvam . . . bhava, don’t worry, and similarly 93.10; 331.10 

alpotsuka- ta (== Pali appossukka-ta), abstr. to prec.: 
LV 393.21-394.1 alpotsukatayai bhagavatas cittam 
abhinatam na dharmadesanayam, the mind of the Lord 
inclined to being unconcerned (with the fate of the world), 
not to teaching the Law; similarly 394.5; 396.7; 398.1; 
freedom from desires, Bbh 219.24. 

alpotsuka- tva, nt., = prec., Mv i. 170. 10 (in the 
sense of LV 393.21 etc.). 

allapayati, alllna, alllpayati, see next, 
alllyati (only in Mv; Pali id., in different mg.; AMg. 
alliai, resorts to; to Skt. aliyate; see §§ 3.4a; 38.66, 67), 
comes (to), approaches, with gen., loc., or acc. : °yati (gen.) 
Mv ii. 210.19; 480.8; °yanti Mv ii.252.6 (with form in 
-ehi, intended as loc.), 10; 253.12 (with loc. in -esu); 
iii. 127.8 (gen.); °yatha, 2 pi. impv., Mv iii.24.5 (acc.); 
allisyatha (fut. with ma[atra], don’t go therel) Mv ii.253.5, 
7 (in 7 v.l. alliyisyatha) ; with caus. mg., bring, put, place, 
Mv ii. 190.5 tf. alliyanti, five times; iii.127.17 mss. alliyeya 
(-h, or -n), opt., should bring (Senart em. alllpeya); see 
also Mv iii. 144. 12 under causative below; ppp. alllna, 
(a) commonly went to, as periphrasis for past tense, with 
acc., gen., or loc.: Mv ii.32.1; 48.8, 11 fT. ; 64.5. 6; 70.4, 
9; 107.8; 172.12; 198.1; 200.8; 463.1; 464.1, 19; 470.6; 
iii.16.1; 69.9; 362.2; 365.23; (b) attached (in love) to (gen.; 
Pali id.): kumarasya alllna (kimnari) Mv ii. 100.1; caus. 
(1) *allapayati; ppp. allapita (see § 38.66), brought, caused 
to come (to, gen.) Mv iii. 362. 3; (2) alllpayati, usually 
brings, causes to come, but occasionally causes to be brought, 
and on the other hand sometimes apparently intrans., 
approaches (these exceptional meanings will be noted; 
the former may be based on the trans. use of alllyati, 
brings ): °payati Mv ii.435.14 causes to be brought; (°peti, 
Senart’s em. Mv iii.144.12, mss. °yeti, °yanti, read prob. 
°yati, as trans., brings ;) ppp. °pita i.311.2; ii.107.5 {were 
caused to be brought ); 471.1; 472.11; iii.24.4; 408.4; 421.8; 
passive °piyanti iii.68.11; 405.15; °plyati iii.127.4; gdve. 
alllpitavyam, intrans. to be approached, Mv iii.288.9-10 
(or em. to alllyitavyam?). 

Alluka, n. of a naga king: May 247.28. 
ava, as neg. prefix with nouns (so also in Pali): see 
ava- kama- seva. 

ava-kattati (mss.: Senart em. ava-kaddhati), see 


avakara, m., prob. read with Index and Mironov 
avakara, rendered by Tib. hgod pa, perhaps arrangement, 
placement, ordering, or the like: Mvy 571 sainaksaravakaro 
(°karo) nama samadhih. No v.l. in either ed. But SsP 

1421.3 (from which, or an allied text, Mvy cites) reads 
samaksarakaro, explaining: sarvasamadhlnam samaksara- 
tam pratilabhate. This seems to fit the reading °ksarakara, 
and definitely does not fit the apparent meaning of ava- 
kara, q.v. Yet in another list SsP 1413.15 reads °ksara- 

avakarsati (corresponds to Pali apakassati, used in 
same passage SN ii.198.1-5, see CPD s.v.), holds back, 
keeps under control : ger. avakrsya (kayam, cittam), 
Candropama Sutra, Hoernle, MR 42.11 (43.5, 9); see s.v. 

avakalpanata = next, the putting faith or confidence 
in: abhisraddadhanatavakalp 0 SsP 615.10. 

avakalpana = prec. (= Pali okappana; to next): 
Dbh 13.17 (substantially = sraddha, adhimukti, in prec. 
line); Mvy 7289 = Tib. hes par (also legs par) rtog pa, 
the former of which is rendered avakalpana in Das, whose 
English rendering is not quite in accord with BHS usage; 
the Tib. could, it seems, mean considering certain. 

avakalpayati, °te (= Pali okappati, °peti), has 
confidence in, puts faith in, synonym of srad-dha, as also 
in Pali, with gen. of person, acc. of thing: SP 44.3 sradda- 
dhadhvam me . . . pattiyatavakalpayata; 315.1 avakal- 
payadhvam me . . . abhisraddadhadhvam tathagatasya; 
LY 88.8 (rddhipratiharyam api . . .) navakalpayisyanti; 
Gv 171.2 °yantam, pres, pple., perhaps putting trust in, 
relying on, object bodhisattvaparivarasarapatparisuddhim. 

*ava-kas- ? see okasta. 

ava-kama-seva (see ava), no practice of love: LV 
28.22 (vs; wrongly divided in ed.) dvatriinsa masam 
(= masan, acc. pi.) avakamaseva (= °va, n. sg.) hi, 
for she abstained from love-making for 32 months; so Tib. 
renders. There is a v.l. akama for avakama but it is 
metrically impossible. 

avakara, m. (1) see avakara; (2) okaram acc. sg. 
(= Pali okara, in phrase kamanam adinavo okaro sam- 
kileso; cf. Pali anavakara), perhaps elimination, getting rid 
(sc. of desires): Mv iii. 357. 13 kamesu bhayam okaram 
(mss. okara-) samkileSam, in regard to desires (he preached) 
the danger of them, the elimination of them, their impurity. 
Senart’s em. seems confirmed by the Pali. 

avakasa, (1) in Skt. mg., room, space, but nt. instead 
of m., LV 367.20 (vs) nabhud °sam asmin; RP 31.4 tesv 
°sam asti (or assume m as ‘Hiatus-bridger’?); see also 
an-avakasa; (2) appearance, in aksudravakasa, q.v.; 
(3) see an-avakasa, an-okasa. 

avakasati (ms. °sati; denom. to avakasa), gets a 
chance at, works upon, with loc.: Av ii.183.13 nagnih kave 
’vakasati; caus. °sayati, gdve. °sayitavyah, to be given a 
chance to work (in a certain function), MSV ii.154.12, 
where prob. read a negative before it; this is read by em. 
in text in line 18, where, it seems to me, the neg. is not 

avakasayati (caus. to Pali avakassati, apak°, apa- 
kasati; cf. Skt. kas-), removes, dismisses: °yitavyali MSV 
iv.77.13 ff. 

avaklrna, confused, mixed up (of speech): LV 158.16 
sadanavakirnavacah, always of unconfused speech; so Tib., 
tshig hchal med gyur la. 

avaklrnakusuma, n. of a group of (predicted) future 
Buddhas: AsP 458.9. 

avakunthita, adj. (ppp.; cited in MW as Skt. Lex., 
but not in BR or pw; cf. Skt. avakunthana), covered, 
clothed: Mmk 290.10 suklavastravak 0 . 

avakubja and °jaka, adj. (= Pali avakujja, cf. AMg. 
avaujjiya, denom. ppp.; from ava and kubja), prone, 
flat on the face on the ground: in Mv i.213.7 — ii.16.11 na 
ca avakubjako (ii.16.11 mss. avakubjam, may be kept as 
adv. ; sc. tisthati; said of the Bodhisattva in his mother’s 
womb); otherwise only with a form of prapatati, falls , 
and only as adj.: °ja LV 254.21; 256.3; Mv i.28.13; °jaka 




Mv ii. 126.6 ; 127.11; 128.15; 130.1; 283.1; 412.16. In two 
of these Senart erroneously apa° with one of his two 
mss. ; read ava° with the other. 

? avakota, see antakota. 

avakotimaka, adj. (= Pali okol°), deformed , mis- 
shapen; so Tib. ace. to Speyer, byad (on i. 280.3 byed) 
nan po; the precise mg. in Pali is disputed; Av i. 280.3 
and ii.152.10, in phrase durvarno durdarsano ava°; in Pali 
only in corresp. phrase dubbanna duddas(s)ika oko°. But 
mss. of Av avahotimako or °dimako, and in ii.152.10 
Speyer adopts the latter, stating that it is also written 
so in the Ratnavadanamala version of the same story. 
It seems that it should be the same as the Pali word, 
which is well attested. Yet I think the form with h is 
supported by Lank 27.4, mss. uhatrima, ed. em. uhodima, 
and 33.15, text ahodima, most mss. uho°; both initially 
in anustubh lines, where avaho° could be read as a stan- 
dard hypermetric type, or u- could stand for ava- (cf. 
§3.55, ukirati); Tib. cited as nan pahi mi, miserable 
man , in Suzuki, Index, which attributes to Wogihara 
the interpretation unendriya (fitting our word). 

avakramana, okramana, nt. (== Pali avakkamana, 
okka°), entrance (into the womb): ava° LV 36.2 = gar- 
bhavakranti; garbhokramanam, Mv ii.18.1 (vs, = i.215.4 
where read so; mss. corrupt, Senart garbhavakramanam). 
avakramati, see °kramati. 

-avakrantaka, also °ika, f. °ika, only in tlrthikav 0 , 
one who has gone over to heretics , a renegade Buddhist : 
Mvy 8759 °takah; Bhik 16b. 2 °tika. The corresp. Pali, 
Vin. i.89.35, has titthiya-pakkantaka, apparently = 
prakranta(ka) ; but I suspect that the true original of 
both this and avakr° was *apakrantaka; Pali apakkamati 
and apakkanta are used in mgs. very close to this, and 
neither ava- nor pra-kram- seems so appropriate. 

avakranti, f. (= Skt. id., in garbhava 0 , Caraka, 
pw 2.159; Pali avakkanti, okk°), entrance ; comrqon in 
garbhava 0 entrance into the womb (as in Skt.), LV 87.15, 
21 etc.; tathagatadivasavakranti-vijnapti-vyuhanam (bo- 
dhisattvanam) Gv 114.18, having ‘Supernal manifestations 
(or, a mass'!) of knowledge of the coming in (? occurrence) 
of the day of the T. (or, the T.’s entrance into the light of 

-avakrantika = °taka: tirthikav 0 MSV ii.204.10. 
-avakrama (to avakramati), entrance (into a way 
or course; so Pali avakkanti, with niyama): Gv 460.3 
dur-avakramo bodhisattvaniyamo ’vakramitavyah. 

avakramati, °kramati, °kramayati, o-kr°, ukr°, 
§ 3.54 (Pali avakkamati, okk°; in Skt. in this sense only 
of entering the womb, conception; so Caraka, pw 2.111; 
so LV 39.8 kuksav avakrameyam; Mv i.205.5 etc.), enters 
(a condition or state): Gv 460.3 (see s.v. -avakrama) gdve. 
avakramitavyah ; LV 180.6 sattvesu ca mahakarunam 
avakramati sma; in Mv i.51.3 (prose) okrami (aor.) has 
as its subject, not goal, mahakarunam (sattvesu), great 
compassion entered into him (gen.); yaksagraho ukrami 
(§ 3.54) tesa kaye SP 95.8 (vs); enters into , realizes (dharma, 
true religion; cf. Pali dhammassa avakkanti, see CPD), 
dharmam avakrantah MSV iii.62.11; middham (sleep) 
avakrantc Divy 579.20; avakramayati, formally caus., 
could by a forced interpretation be taken to mean allows 
(e. g. compassion, or sluggishness) to enter (into himself), 
but prob. more realistically to be taken as meaning the 
same as the simplex, enters into (a state): LV 400.14 
(prose) mahakarunam avakramayati, and in same context 
Mv iii.318.15 °nam okrametva; HP 56.17 styanamiddham 
navakrainitavan, and similarly 57.11; note close resem- 
blance to passages using the simplex, above, 
ava-ksapayati, see o-ksap°. 

avaksipta, ppp. (Skt.), (1) °ta-caksus(a) — Pali 
avakkhittacakkhu (or okkhi°), with downcast eyes , of a 
monk: LV 191.15, read avaksipta-caksusam (acc. sg.), for 

text avi° (confirmed by Tib. phab ba); (2) svedamalava- 
ksiptah (sc. bhogah?) Mvy 7055, acquired (Tib. bsgrubs pa) 
by sweat-stain , i. e. by the sweat of one’s brow , cf. Pali AN 

ii. 67.27 (bhogehi bahabalaparicitehi) sedavakkhittehi ; 

comm, iii.99.4 = avakkhittasedehi, sedam muncitva 

vayamena payogena samhatehi ti attho. 

avaga, nt., a high number, Mvy 7713 = Tib. rig(s) 
sdom; see s.v. arava, for which prob. read this; in Mvy 
7839 arava (Tib. id.) is cited from Gv, but Gv 133.3 reads 
avagam; avaga should also be read for vaga, q.v., in Gv 

avaglta, ppp. (lit. sung down), reduced , diminished : 
°ta-pratanubhutantahpura- . . . sokasya (Bhvr.) Jm 11.21. 

? avagunthika (Skt. Lex.), veil : LV 321.5 (prose) 
kascid (daughters of Mara) avagunthikaya vadanani cha- 
dayanti sma. But the mss. are said to read avaguntita- 
kaya (t for th), or °ta-kaya (°ta-ya? not clear). 

avaguhayati (cf. guhati, guhayati; perhaps related 
to Pali ogumpheti; -umph- yielding -uph-, then -iih-?), 
winds (garlands): Mv i. 304. 15 dirghamalam (but v.l. 
°mala) vaguliayet (aor.); see §4.7. 

avagrahana (nt. ; Skt. only Lex. in different mgs.; 
not in Pali; seems — AMg. uggahana, equated with 
avagrahana by Ratnach. and defined general perception , 
perception of broad outlines ), perception , (sensual or mental) 
grasping: Dbh 75.19 traidhatukavagraliana-samjnaniskar- 
sana-tam, state of getting rid of notions based on perception of 
the triple universe. 

avaghosana, nt., and °na, f., proclamation , public 
announcement: udghosanavaghosanani krtva Divy 502.27 
(dvandva? or public proclamation of an announcement ?); 
ahvanavaghosanayam, loc. sg., Jm 8.9; very commonly 
ghantavaghosana or °na, proclamation by bell-ringing: 
°nam, n. sg., Mvy 9263; Divy (usually with krtam or 
kiaritam) 4.11; 34.10; 118.28; 274.22; 285.22; ’ 317.19; 
320.2; 501.22; 524.7; 540.4; 556.16; Av i.48.2; 58.4 etc.; 
°nam acc. sg., Divy 242.13; Av i.18.11; ii.2.11, etc.; Gv 
327.23; °nena, instr. sg. Av i.366.2; °nam, acc. sg. LV 
187.8; Divy 122.6; 317.21 (srutva; tw r o lines after °nam, 
n. sg.); in Divy 134.28 mss. °nam karitam, rightly em. in 
ed. to °nam. 

a-vaiika, adj. (= Pali id.; see vanka), not crooked 
(fig.), not dishonest: LV 8.8. 

a- vanka- ta, subst. from prec., non-dishonesty: AsP 
327.6 cittavankatam. 

avacanlkaroti (cf. Skt. and Pali avacana-kara), 
disobeys, does not agree to (words): tasya vacanam °krtya 
MSV iii.24.1. 

-avacara (= Pali id.; orig. noun, cf. Senart Mv 
i.397, but only used at end of Bhvr. cpds., having . . as 
scope; f. °rl; called ‘ts.’ by CPD, but clearly a Buddhist 
word, as stated in pw s.v.; found virtually only in Bu. 
works and Lexx. in Skt. ; otherwise occurs once in Rajat.(?), 
and, to be sure, yajnavacara in MS., see pw s.v. ; despite 
these rare Skt. occurrences belongs fundamentally to Pali 
and BHS, where it is very common); scope , sphere, range 
of activity or existence: antarlksav 0 who live in the atmo- 
sphereS P 288.10 (devatah); Mv i.33.5 (suddhavasakayika 
deva); daksinavacara, vamav°, having the right (left; viz. 
part of the womb) as his abiding-place LV 55.5, 6; buddha- 
sasanav 0 Siks 214.10 within the scope of the Buddha’s 
commands (wrongly Bendall); samsaravacarlm . . . sain- 
yagdrstim £iks 316.16, true views regarding the samsara; 
samskrtav 0 Gv 496.6, things in the realm of the conditioned; 
traidhatukav 0 Bbh 246.25, belonging to the sphere of the 
trai° ; caturbhir marav° Dbh 54.17, with Rahder, citing 
a Jap. source, things belonging to the four Mara-domains, 
i. e. the domains of the four Mara, q.v. ; atarkav 0 Mv 

iii. 314.2, not within the scope of reasoning (of dharma; so 
Pali atakkav 0 , of dhamma); aksudrav 0 Mv ii.9.1 (of the 
Bodhisattva’s mother); ii. 1.7 (of the family where the 




Bodhisattva is born); antahpurav 0 Jm 185.24, whose 
business was the harem : turagav 0 Buddhac. v. 68, groom; 
esp. in kamav°, rupav°, arupav° (or arupyav c ), of classes 
of gods, see under these entries. See also tadavacara. 

avacaraka (1) in. (= Pali id.), messenger, (secret) 
agent : Mvy 3807 = Tib. bya ma rta, courier (v.l. apa°, but 
Mironov ava° without v.l.); Divy 32.25; 127.26; 287.3; 
(2) (m.?) in Gv 522.1 tac ca grhain va avacarakam va 
vipulam pasyet, and he would see (in his dream) that house 
or locality (? the preceding sentence is our only clue to the 
mg. and it is so general that it gives little help) as vast. 
Is it a ka-derivative of avacara (physical) domain ? Or an 
otherwise unrecorded word for some kind of building? 
Ratnach. records AMg.ocara ( = avacara), a granary or 
store-house of grain , which does not fit our context. 

avacarati (cf. Pali id. or ocarati, similarly used), 
busies or occupies oneself with (intellectually): °ti Gv 
252.20, may perhaps be rendered investigates, see s.v. 
vyavacarayati ; ppp. °rita, frequented (physically), occu- 
pied, besetzt: Divy 102.11 mahapattano Tnanusyavacarito, 
and similarly 103.13; 110.8; 119.22 etc.; neg. an-avacarita, 
Divy 103.4 mahasamudre manusyanavacarite. 

avacaraka, adj. or subst m., perhaps slinking off : 
muktahastavacarakah Divy 165.19. See also ekavacaraka. 

avacira- viclraka, adj., in Divy 83.21 epithet of a 
(dilapidated) house, acc. to Index, tumbledown; perh. cf. 
Pali oclraka, said of a tree, stripped of its bark , to be read 
with PTSD for odlraka in SN iv. 193.30; same passage MSV 
i.82.11 cira-cira-clvaraka. 

avacodayati, ppp. dita, instructed (religiously): 
MSV i.266.7, 13, 17; 267.10-12, 18, 20. One is tempted 
to emend to ava\adita, which fits, at any rate. 

avajata, adj. ( = Pali id., cf. Skt. apajata), mis- 
begotten. unworthy (offspring), only in phrase jato me syan 
navajatah (sc. putrah) Divy 2.13; 440.27; Av i.14.14 etc/ 
avajiryati, wastes away. °yatu, impv., Mv ii.239.4 
mansani lohitam caiva ava Q . 

[ava-diyati, see ava-li°.] 

avatamsaka, m. or nt., fig. a large number, collection : 
buddhava 0 *Divy 162.26; 401.14; Av i.87.9. 

avatarana, n. act., (1) overpowering, subduing , in dur- 
avatarana-, hard to overcome: Gv 242.6 -vlrya-karma- ; (2) 
taking off, clipping (of hair), in kesavataranam (of a pro- 
spective monk) krtva MSV ii. 140.2. 

avatarati, otarati (see also avatlrna, avatarayati), 
penetrates (intellectually), comprehends: SP 125.2 (sam- 
dhabhasitam tathagatasya) avataritum; 232.9 (dharma- 
paryayam . . .) avataranti vijananti; Gv 253.18 (vs) 
buddha-bala-naya-pravesan otarasi; RP 4.16 avatara- 
manah, and 17 avataran, both penetrating, comprehending ; 
Dbh 56.2 ff. ; buddha-sarasvatim otari (opt.) Bhad 30. See 
also uttarati. 

avatara, m. ( = Pali otara, esp. in mg. 4) [(1) as in 
Skt., descent, appearance (on earth), e. g. Mv ii.263.6 °ram 
gacchati, appears, is born;] (2) entrance into, attainment of 
(a moral state), LV 182.10 -mahakarunavatara-tam, state 
of attainment of great compassion; so, perhaps (or to 3), 
pratisamvid-avataro and pratisaranavataro, LV 35.16 and 
17; Samadh 19.6 mahakarunavatarabhimukhani cittani, 
thoughts tending to attainment of great compassion ; (3) 
intellectual penetration , comprehension (cf. avatarati): LV 
423.2 and 11 and Gv 469.9 pratityavatara-, penetration, 
comprehension of (origination by) dependence, see pratitya ; 
LV 423.5 ekavisaya-sarvadharma-samatavatara-cakram 
wheel of the comprehension of the equality of all substantial 
states as belonging to one sphere; followed in cpd. by (-jnana)- 
kuSala or -kausalya, clever(-ness) in (the knowledge of) 
the penetration of . . . (Tib. hjug pa, entrance), -avatara- 
kusala Mvy 856, 858; -kausalya RP 8.10; -avatara- 
jnana-kusala LV 8.13; Mvy 835; -svabhavavatara(-ta) RP 
4.13, 15; in Mv i.47.6 = 81.15 meter (supported by some 

readings of mss.) indicates reading jhanasagar’avatara 
nayaka(h), the cpd. agreeing with preceding manasam, 
(a mind) that penetrates into the ocean of knowledge; avata- 
rena, by penetration , Gv 40.2; yathasvam avataraih (so 
read) Gv 253.19; avataratah Rbh 80.4; avatarah Bbh 
80.22; 81.6; -sukhopayavatara-dharmadesanata Bbh 82.18, 
preaching doctrines that are capable of comprehension by 
easy means; mahayana-samudayavatara-nirdesanam ava- 
tarati Dbh 56.14-15; (4) (way of) entrance, ingress in the 
sense of opportunity for hostile approach; weak spot, often 
as object of a form of labh or adhi-gam, find , obtain, the 
subject often being Mara the Evil One, so SP 145.3 (na 
ca tatra marah papiyan) avataram lapsyate (om. WT 
with v.l.); esp. often in cpds. avatara-preksin (cf. Pali 
otarapekkha), avatara- (or ram)-gavesin, looking for, 
seeking a point of attack, these two often together and esp. 
with Mara as subject; SP 474.6 and 7 na . . . avatarapreksy 
avataragavesy avataram lapsyate; SP 398.1 na . . . 
G rapreksy . . . avataram lapsyate; LV 47.10 (vs) yasyava- 
tara (acc. sg. ; so divide) labhate na manah pradustam; 
LV 260.18 avatarapreksl avataragavesi (marah, bodhi- 
sattvasya) . . . (19) na ... avataram adhyagacchat ; Mv 
iii.298.16 °ram adhigantum; avatararthl (= °ra-preksi) 
avataramgavesi, of Mara, with reference to the Bodhisattva, 
Mv ii.24l.5; of the daughters of Mara Mv iii.286.10; 
299.4; avatarapreksl skhalitam gavesl RP 18.10; avatara- 
preksin also Mvy 5357; Divy 322.7; Siks 152.9; satruvad 
avatarapreksl 230.14; avataragavesin Divy 322.7; (Marah 
. . .) avataram labhisyati Samadh 22.35. 

avataraka, adj. (1) one who causes to penetrate (in- 
tellectually) or comprehend (cf. avatara 3): SP 40.12 
tathagatajhana-darsanavataraka evaham; 121.9 sarvajha- 
jnanavatarakah (of Buddha); 183.6 buddhajnanavat 0 ; 
(2) f. °ika, one who cuts off (hair; cf. avatarayati 2): Bhik 
10b. 5 kesavatarika bhiksuni. 

avatarana, nt. (to avatarayati, mg. 1), the causing to 
penetrate (intellectually), bringing to comprehension, usually 
in comp., preceded by the thing taught (or with loc..): 
tathagatajnanavatarana- SP 3.2 (-kusalair); 40.5 (-hetuni- 
mittam); avataranartham (sattvanam; sc. regarding 
enlightenment) 318.4; karmakriyavataranartham LV 251. 
1-2; with loc., avataranam buddhavisaye LV 423.13; 
avataranaya to make them penetrate (religious knowledge) 
Bbh 308.11. 

Avatarapreksin (see s.v. avatara 4), n. of a son of 
Mara (ill-disposed to the Bodhisattva): LV 311.16. 

avatarayati, otareti (caus. to avatarati; in mg. 1, 
associated with avatara 3), (1) causes to penetrate intel- 
lectually to comprehend; initiates into, introduces to, with 
acc. or (oftener) loc. of what is taught or explained: SP 

49.7 (vs) sarve ca te darsayi ekayanam ekam ca yanarri 
avatarayanti ; 182.11 (anuttarayam samyaksambodhau ...) 
avataritavan; 347.8 (dharmavinaye) ’vatarayeyam ; with 
(buddha-)sasane, Bbh 222.26; 261.26 (here buddhasasane 
or °nam implied from prec.); Av i.112.8; with tasyam 
(pratipadi) Bbh 262.17; (2) removes (hair, kesa, or also 
beard), of a barber’s activity, esp. with reference to monks 
and nuns, cf. avataraka (2): kesani otareti Mv iii.179.10, 
11, 12 (in 9 °resyati by em.); kesany otaretva (mss. otarita, 
avat°) iii.268.18; kesan avatarya Bhik 10b. 1; Jm 122.11; 
kesasmasruny avatarya Divy 35.8; 37.11; 556.6; Samadh 
8.15; kesasmasru avatarya Av i. 136.6; 234.1; an-avatarita- 
kesa, with hair unshorn Bhik 10a.5; with causative mg., 
kesasmasruny avatarayitva, having had the hair and beard 
cut, caused it to be cut Mv iii.222.17 (in the same passage In 
Pali, DN ii.249.20, the form used is oharetva); object 
unexpressed, avataraya MSV i. 280.18; °rayitum id.; °rita, 

ppp., 281.1, 2. 

avatlrna, ppp. of avatarati, q.v., that has penetrated 
(intellectually), comprehended : avatirnasva pudgalasya Bbh 

81.8 (cf. avatara 3, q.v., 81.6); avatirnanam paripacanava 




Bbh 308.12 (follows madhyasthanam avataranaya, see 
avatarana); -dharmanayavatirnah LV 181.21. 

avatrapin, adj. ( = Pali ottapin; cf. Asokan avatra- 
peyu, Skt. apa-trap-), modest : (with hrlmant) MPS 1.21. 

avada, nt., a high number: Mvy 7925 (cited from 
Gv) = Tib. gsal yas, or bsal yas (cf. avanta); Gv 106.19, 
read sattvavadasya 0 ; 134.3 avadam (avadanam), n. sg. 

avadadhati, odhSya (ger.), avahita (ppp.), cf. also 
under odahana (= Pali avadahati, with sotam, give ear 
attentively ; cf. Skt. avadhlyate attention is paid, avahita 
attentive), with srota (q.v.), gives ear attentively : srotam 
avadadhata LV 409.10, pay heed closely !; avahita-srotah 
LV 442.1-2 (so read with Weller 39; Pali ohita-sota); 
°srota, n. sg. f., Mv i. 158.3; in Mv i.10.8 for srotum adaya 
read srotam odhaya (satkrtya srnotha mama bhasatah). 

? avadarpita, in LV 275.8 sv-avadarpita-vimala- 
buddhir; textually uncertain; mss. vary greatly on ava°; 
many omit vimala; Tib. sin tu (= su) dkar bahi (white, 
often = avadata) bio (= buddhi) dan ldan pa (having), 
apparently omitting vimala, and suggesting that it is 
based on avadata, white, i. e., bright, instead of avadarpita, 
which is nowhere recorded and seems senseless, as do the 
alternative readings of the other BHS mss. 

Avadatakesa, n. of a goddess: Mahasamaj. Wald- 
schmidt Kl. Skt. Texte 4.187.3; confirmed by Tib. ibid. 
204.20. In the Pali correspondent DN ii. 260.23 the name 
Odatagayha, v.l. Odatavhaya, is taken as n. pi. masc. 
by DPPN. 

avadana, nt. (= Pali apadana), n. of a part, or parts, 
of the Buddhist canon (and of other Buddhist works): 
Mvy 1273; colophons of Divy,Av, etc. See also savadanam. 
The word avadana occurs in Skt.; its exact mg. is much 
disputed; see e. g. Speyer, Av Preface p. Iff. 

avadya-bhiru, dreading (and shunning) reproach 
(blame, evil, sin), ep. of the family into which a Bodhisattva 
is born in his last existence: Mv i. 198.1; ii.1.11; LV 24.4. 
All these are forms of the same passage; in LV text anava- 
dya-, with v.l. avadya-; in Mv, ii.1.11 Senart reads anava- 
dya, tho he recognizes at i p. 532* that the corrupt mss. 
point rather to avadya-, which he reads with mss. at 
i. 198.1. The reading avadya- is confirmed by Tib. on LV 
kha na ma tho bas (= avadya, see Das s.v.) hjigs pa 
(= bhiru). Note the noun avadya-b hi RV 10.107.3 (isolated). 

? avadraga, m., acc. to N. Dutt’s interpretation of 
Tib., dinner : °go nasti; taya vrso darsitah, etam pragha- 
tayata MSV ii.79.7. Tib. sa (ground, etc.) hdzar ba (for 
which Das gives a mg. taking dinner at midday). Acc. 
to Skt. Lex. avadranga (cf. next) or v.l. avadanga = market 
(BR 1.473); avadraga could be an error for avadramga, 
and there was no market (where meat could be bought) 
would be a possible mg.; I do not understand Tib. 

avadranga, m. or nt., deposit (on a business trans- 
action); earnest : Divy 32.22 tisro laksa avadrangam (so 
one ms.; v.l. drangam) grhnlta; 33.1, 2, 6 (no v.l.) ava- 
drange dattam, given in (by way of) deposit. Can this be 
somehow related to Niya Pkt. dranga, ' taxation depot or 
office in general’, said to be an Iranian loanword (Burrow, 
BSOS 7.509 f.)? 

avadvarapayati (ava plus caus. to denom. from 
dvara), shuts off (a gate): Mv ii.490.1 nagaradvaram 
avadvarapayitva (v.l. avaddhar 0 ), having had the city gate 

[avadharin? in MSV i.63.20 vranapuyotkirnair anga- 
pratyangavadharibhih pattakopanibaddhaih, of a sick 
man; -avadharibhih seems to conceal a substantive, 
perhaps a cpd. of avayava, member of the body; parallels 
accessible to me have failed to clear up the apparent cor- 

? avadhika, adv. °kam (cf. Pali -odhika, in yathodh 0 ; 
from Skt. avadhi, limit), to the limit; in an extreme degree : 
LV 29.8 pasyeta evavadhikam gunanvita, dayasuta sa 

jananl ca maya. So Lefm.; but the text is uncertain at 
more than one place; Tib. also apparently confused; 
Foucaux’s text (see his transl. 35 n. 3) reads mchog, 
superior, modifying yon tan = guna. I suspect that 
originally the text had adhikam, exceedingly. 

avadhuta (cf. BR 5.1527, dhu with ava, ppp., glossed 
malina), in a list of evil (magic) powers and influences: 
May 220.19; 245.19; 259.13. Not in the similar list Mvy 

avadhutT, f., n. of an artery, vein, or canal (nad!) 
in the body: Sadh 366.15 °ti-randhrena; 383.13 °ti-margena ; 
448.11 nadyo lalanarasanavadhutayah ; 14 avadhuti 

madhyadese tu mahasukhadhararupini; 16 avadhuty 
amitanathasya adharabhavinl saaa. Cf. rasana, lalana. 

-avadhunakam, adv., accompanied by shaking: Prat 
534.3 na hastavadhunakam (pindapatam paribhoksyamah), 
not with waving of the hands. Corresponds to -samdhuna- 
kam, q.v. 

? avadhya, adj., ep. of silpa, art, in LV 23.21 avadhya- 
silpa-nivesanam (kulam, in which the Bodhisattva is 
reborn for the last time); so all Lefm.’s mss., but he trans- 
lates niitzlichen (freien) Kunsten zugetan, prob. following 
Tib. don vod pa (which once renders amogha, unfailing, 
see Das), useful, successful. Calc, reads abandhya (i. e. 
avandhya, not barren); I suspect that this should be 
adopted. But cf. next but one. 

ava-dhyati or °dhyati (cf. Pali avajjhayati, apa°; 
to Skt. dhyati with ava, in Skt. with different mg.), 
ponders, meditates on: Mv i.9.4 (vs), read with mss. avadh- 
yanto saphalatam karmanam (n. sg. m. pres. pple. ; v.l. 
°nta; Senart wrongly em. avajjanto). Skt. pres, dhyati = 
dhyayati; in ava-dhyanto the short a of the penult may be 
MIndic, before a consonant cluster, cf. § 3.34. 

Avadhyaparamabuddhi, n. of a former Buddha: 
Mv i.137.13 (or should Avadhya(h) be taken as a separate 
name? there is no v.l.; see s.v. avadhya). 

avadhyana, nt. (to Skt. ava-dhya-; cited once from 
Bhag.P. as mg. Geringachtung, BR 5.1059; cf. AMg. 
avajjhana, painful and revengeful meditation , Ratnach.), 
ill-feeling, censoriousness, abusiveness: Mvy 8432, 8594 
= hphya ba, hphyas (by Das rendered avadhyayana; 
blame, censure; abuse, deride); Prat 504.12 avadhyana- 
ksepanat (Chin, si un bhiksu blame irrespectueusement). 

avana, nt., a high number: Mvy 7854 (cited from Gv); 
Gv 105.25 (read sattvavanasya for text sattvavanasya) ; 
133.8 avanam. 

avanata (cf. Pali avana, free from lust, CPD, and see 
vanata), freedom from desire: SsP 633.18 °tam upadaya. 

avanamana (nt.) and onamana, f. (= Pali onamana), 
bending: Gv 400.22 an-avanamanena . . . panibhyam 

janumandale parimarjati, he touches his knees with his 
hands without bending (because his arms are so long); 
usually of bowing, bending in humility, a sign of absence 
of pride: Siks 153.18 (here text by error avanama) and 19 
avanamana-pranamanatayam (sarvasattvesu, in 19 defines 
nirmanata, freedom from pride); LV 182.20 (vs) nirmanata 
onamana gurunam; LV 430.22 (prose) -avanamana-pra- 
namana- (in a long cpd.), bowing and bending (in humility- 
before persons worthy of deference). 

avanadayati, onadeti, makes resound: Mv i.237.4 
(vs) onadenti (v.l. onadyanti) puravaram (mss. puna, or 
punah, varam). No ava-nad- recorded. Read unnad°? 

avanama (not in Pali or Pkt. ; in Skt. only of (rever- 
ential) bowing), depression (of spirits), opposite of unnama, 
and only in comp, with that word, q.v. for citations, 
avanamana = prec., LV 33.7; see s.v. unnama. 
avanaha, m. (Pali onaha; cf. Pali Vin. iv.169.28 
pltham va tulonaddham karapeyya), covering, upholstering 
(of a seat; a sin for a monk): Mvy 8513. 

Avantaka, m. pi., n. of a school: Mvy 9087 (v.l. 
Av°; so Mironov). 




avapatana (nt., = AMg. ovadana, Sheth; to Skt. 
ava-pat- plus -ana), rending , tearing: ahgavapatana- 

samarjana- (q.v.) Kalpana-manditika (Luders, Kl. Skt. 
Texte 2) 44 V 1 (p. 143). 

*avapunati, °punapayati, see o-pu°, 

Avapura, see Opura. 

avaprcchati, asks permission (not recorded); neg. 
ger. an-avaprcchya (santam bhiksum) Prat. 521.10; 522.2, 
without asking permission of; disregarding (corresponds to 
Pali anapuccha). 

avaprsthikrta, adj. (see s.v. prsthibhavati), with 
back turned, away (from the world): Divy 326.11, see s.v. 

avapravrajati (unrecorded), withdraws from ascetic- 
life: Kalpanamanditika 114 V 2 (Liiders, Kl. Skt. Texte 2 
p. 45) °jatu, impv. 

? avabodhi, see samyag-ava°. 

avabha (unrecorded), (illusory) appearance (to Skt. 
avabhati; cf. next): Gv 69.26 nasti me sarvasattva-citta- 
(so 2d ed.) -caritavabhasu sangah, 1 have no attachment to 
the appearances of thoughts and actions of all creatures. 

avabhana (unrecorded), appearance or sheen (cf. 
prec.): Gv 29.21 samantavabhano loke (buddhakayah). 

avabhasa, m. (in Skt. sheen; appearance; manifesta- 
tion , and so also in BHS; in mg. 1 = Pali obhasa), (1) hint 
given in words by a monk as to something he desires (a 
sinful act); cf. Childers 298; Vism. i.23.17 and 41.1 ff., 
where it as well as nimitta, 3, suggestion, and parikatha, 
qq.v., are briefly explained: Siks 131.3 navabhasa-karena 
bhavitavyam, one should not be a maker of hints; 4 katamo 
'vabhasah (in the following example a monk says things 
designed to get tasty food from donors); 6 avabhasa- 
nimittam; see avabhasa- ta; (2) range, = abhasa, q.v., 
used in similar cpds. : (aham . . .) balanam sravanavabha- 
sam agacchami Lank 192.10; bodhisattvasya . . . dharma- 
sabda (text °dha) srotravabhasam agacchanti, Bhadrapada 
Sutra, Thomas ap. Hoernle MR 89.13; rupasabdagandhara- 
sasparSavabhasam agacchanti KP 105.8 (prose). 

Avabhasakara, n. of a devaputra, one of the 16 
guardians of the bodhiinanda: LV 277.13. 

avabhasa-ta, state of (making) hints (see avabhasa 
1): Siks 140.6 °tam ca pratilabdhukamena, by one who (is 
sinful in that he) wants to attain this state (misunderstood 
by Bendall and Rouse, Transl.). 

Avabhasanasikhin, n. of a naga, Mvy 3357; of a 
naga-king, Megh 308.9 (here with the epithet saptasirsa; 
see Saptasirsaka, apparently the same personage). 
Avabhasaprabha, n. of a devaputra: SP 4.4. 
Avabhasaprapta, n. of the lokadhatu in which 
Kasyapa is to appear as a Buddha: SP 144.4. 

Avabhasamakuta, n. of a Tathagata: Gv 361.7. 
Obhasayanta- (for Avabhasayat-)-prabharajan, n. 
of a Buddha: Gv 259.7 (vs; n. sg. °ja). 

avabhasayitar, one who makes to shine: Gv 463.8 
°taro dharmalokamukhanam. 

(Avabhas 0 ) Obhasaraja, n. of a Buddha: Gv 256.19 


Avabhasaraja-prabhaketuS(i)rI, n. of a Buddha: 
Gv 284.16 (vs). Perhaps two separate names (cf. prec..); 
see s.v. Citrartha. 

(Avabhas 0 ) Obhasasagaraviyuha, n. of a Buddha: 
Gv 257.24 (vs; read °hah for °ham). 

[avabhasya, brilliance: LV 16.20 (antahpurain) ava- 
bhasyena sphutam bhavati. Read probably avabhasena, 
as in 17.2, tho here all mss. °syena acc. to Lefin.] 

avabhusita, adorned: nagarajanau saptasphatava- 
bhusitau Mmk 76.6. 

avamanyana-tS = next: RP 20.11 (prose; mss. 
paratimanyanata ; cf. 20.16). 

avamanyana, and (?) °na, nt. (to avamanyate; = 
Pali avamahnana, °na), contempt: Siks 9.7 (prose; text 

°yata, see Corr.); 52.9; 271.5; KP 22.3; Bbh 104.20; 
145.15. In these always °na, f. ; in RP 21.4 (vs) avamanyana- 
manyana (acc. sg.) tvaktva, apparently nt., but could 
be m.c. for °na (or °nam). 

(avamardita-cittam, SP 108.5, rendered by Kern 
mentally developed; similarly Burnouf. But Skt. avamardati 
and Pali omaddati mean only distress or the like. The 
form means having his spirit depressed , crushed; note that 
it follows viditva; it is not parallel with the words preceding 
viditva, but is modified by the following udarasamjnaya : 
the phrase is explained by what follows.) 

Avamurdha, m. (adj., with head downward, upside 
down; cf. next, and Skt. Gr. avamurdhasaya), n. of a 
lokadhatu, associated with Vyatyasta (lokadhatu), q.v.: 
°dhah Mvy 3068 (followed by Vyatyastah); Gv 126.2 
(after Vyatyasta-lokadhatu-mukham) Avamurdha-hara- 
mukham (hara seems to be corrupt; should we read 
lokadhatu for it?); Dbh 15.14 -vyatyastavamiirdha- (in 
long cpd., beginning niravasesasarvalokadhatu-) ; Ava- 
murdha-lipi, a kind of script, the script of the Avamurdha 
lokadhatu , LV 125.22 (cf. Vyatyasta-iipi Mv i. 135.6). 

avamurdhaka (also omurdhaka, omuddhaka, 
qq.v., and s.v. -mtirdhaka; see preceding), with head 
downwards, upside down: Mvy 6800; Divy 9.24; 505.16. 

avayana (nt. or m.), retreat (of an army), one of the 
arts mastered by the Bodhisattva as prince: LV 156.12 
°ne, loc. = Tib. bzur ba, giving way. 

avara, m., a high number: Mvy 7708, or nt. 7834, 
in the latter cited from Gv; Gv 105.20, text sattva- 
varasya, read sattvavarasya (gen.). In Gv 133.2 the item 
seems to be omitted (in a list which generally corresponds 
better to Mvy). 

avaraka, adj. (= Pali oraka; -ka prob. pejorative), 
wretchedly poor, inferior, mean: °kena kusalamulena SP 
456.3; LV 89.22; AsP 79.12 (all prose); °kam, quasi- 
substantive (?) nt., Mvy 2701 = Tib. nan non sordid , 
etc. (Das). In some cases the mss. of Divy and Av read 
avaraka for avavaraka, q.v., which Mironov reads for 
Mvy 2701. 

Avara- godanlya, see Apara°. 

avarabhaglya, adj. (Pali orambhagiya), ( binding ) to 
lower states (viz. to the kamadhatu), only said of the first 
five samyojana (q.v.): Mvy 2156 (without mention of 
samyojana); Divy 533.24; MSV ii.87.7. They cause rebirth 
in a state of desire (kamabhave) also in Pali, MN comm. 
iii.143.21 ; in Pugg. 22.11-12 called personal,, internal 
(ajjhatta). See urdhvabhagiya. 

[avarunda? see orunda.] 

avarupta, also orupta, quasi ppp., analogical back- 
formation to avaropita (ppp. of avaropayati, q.v.), on 
some model like gopayati (gopita): gupta; planted, literally 
of a tree: Gv 278.22 taddivasavaruptasya salakalyanavrk- 
sasya; oftener fig., of (roots of) merit, (ku$ala-)mula ; 
Mv ii.314.11 avarupta-kusalamula(h), v.l. avalupta 0 ; 
iii.406.11 avarupta-kusalamiilo, v.l. anavarupta 0 , which 
could be interpreted as not cut off (see avaropayati, 
2); avarupta (of kusalamula) Suv 91.8; 103.7; 113.5; 
114.1 etc.; acc. to Kern, SP Preface vi, in Kashgar rec. 
for Nep. avaropita; orupta (kusalamula) Mv iii.104.18; 
432.9; orupta-kusalesu Mv iii.155.6. 

(avarupayati,) orupayati, cuts off (hair): Mv i.169.14 
(vs) kesam ca orupayanti. On the form see Chap. 43, 
s.v. ruh- (5). 

avaropana, nt. (to avaropayati; in Skt. in mg. 
planting ), (1) cutting off (hair) (in this sense — Pali oropana) : 
LY 432.15 -kesavaropana- ; (2) depositing (of relics, in a 
stupa): dhatv-avaropana Kv 20.2 (text dhyanava 0 ); 
40.24; 41.1 ; 77.3 (in all three text dhatvava 0 ); (3) discredi- 
ting, lowering in estimation : Siks 126.4 na mukhasaksy-a- 
varopana-vacano bhavati, he is not one to speak to the dis- 
credit of a direct witness . 




Avaropanaraja (text has n. not n), n. of a Bodhisal- 
tva: Gv 442.7. 

avaropayati (caus. to ava-ruh; Skt. in sense 1; in 
Sense 2 — Pali oropeti; cf. avarupayati, orup°), (1) 
plants (so Skt., of planting trees); here very commonly 
of planting roots of merit , kiisalamiila (not in Pali in either 
literal or fig. sense) ; cf. avarupta, °ropana: kusalamulany 
avaropayami Divy 95.25; avaropayitum, inf., Sukh 16.4; 
Daily avaropitani Mv i.1.5; 57.7; Suv 81.15 (here most 
mss. avaruptani); avaropitakusaiamula- that has (have) 
planted r. of in. Mvy 7417; Vaj 22.20; 23.1; Gv 47.12; 
kusalam avaropitani Mv i. 136.10; avaropitam cittabijam 
Dbh 48.8; (2) cuts of] (hair, beard): -avaropitakesasmasrur 
Divy 37.2; -avaropitair iva kesair Av i.284.8; (evil condi- 
tions) buddhavaropitanam (so read with mss.) akusalanam 
dharmanam Divy 359.26, that are (-- are to be, can be) 
cut off (— obliterated) by a Buddha. 

? a varna, adj., in Mv iii.343. J °nas ca, epithet of the 
Buddha’s voice (svara); hence must be complimentary; 
but Skt. id. and Pali avanna are normally uncomplimen- 
tary. Senart has no v.l. or note and does not list the word 
in his Index. Perhaps semi-Minnie for Skt. avarnya (or 
read this?), indescribable ; cf. Pali avannaniya. 

avalaksana (lit. ; cf. apala° and Pali avalakkhana, 
Bhvr. adj.). evil , inauspicious , bodily mark: astadasabhir 
°naih MSV i.100.9; 106.3. 

-avalambaka, in., and °ika, f., see nagaravalam- 
baka, °ika. 

avalambana (~ Skt. °na, nt.), dependence : Divy 
199.19 tau Buddha-dharma-samghavaiambanaya smrtya 
kalagatau . . . devestipapannau. 

Avalamba, see Olamba. 

avalava, m. (v.l. avalapa; so Mironov), harvest: Mvy 
5314 °vas ca na prajnayate = Tib. brnas sar (v.l. par) 
yah mi mhon. 

avalina, see 2 avaliyate. 

1 avaliyati, oliyati (= ava-di°; Skt. avalina, said 
of birds, BR 6.550; cf. Skt. avadina, n., pw 2.292), flies 
down: gaganapathagata oliyanti (mss. khagapatha 0 ) Mv 

i. 216.5; in the parallel ii.19.2 gaganapathagata prallyanti 
(mss.; better meter; Senart pradi°). 

2 avaliyate (Skt. avaliyate, not quite in this mg.; 
= Pali oliyati, ppp. ollna; wrongly defined PTSD; cf. 
GPD v. an-olina, not shrinking , not downcast , and °vuttika, 
not sluggish in one’s duties ), is depressed , downcast: cittam 
navaliyate AsP 5.6 eK. ; SsP 1643.20; ppp. avalina, 
downcast, despondent: Siks 126.1 navalina-vacano, not 
despondent in his talk ; Siks 309.17 na cavalina-samtatayo 
bhavanti (see s.v. samtati); the opposite is udara-samta- 
tikas, following. 

avaliyana, see an-avaliyana-ta. 

?avalupta, planted , v.l. for avarupta, q.v. : Mv 

ii. 314.11, Senart avarupta-kusalamula(h), v.l. avalu{5ta 0 . 
Also elsewhere as v.l. 

-avalehakam, adv. (Skt. °ka, adj., one who licks, 
BR 5.1063; so, hastavalehaka(h) abudhah, foolish hand- 
lickers, said of certain ascetics, LV 258.5), in a manner 
accompanied by licking (of the hands or bowl; said of the 
eating process): Prat 533.10 (Mvy 8587) na hastavaleha- 
kani pindapatain paribhoksyamah, and Prat 533.11 (Mvy 
8588) na patravaiehakam . . . The Pali equivalent (Vin. 
iv.198.5, 11) is -nillehakam; but hatthapalekhana also 
occurs (PTSD). 

avalokanaka (gender? = olok°, ullok°, qq.v.), 
window : Divy 221.29 °naka (for °kah? or °kani? followed 
by s-; n. pi., in a list of structures and their accessories). 

Avalokana- sutra, or Avalokana- sutra, nt., n. of 
a work: Siks 297.10 and 89.15 respectively. It is a variant 
form of the Avalokitam (nama sutram, or vyakaranam), 
q.v., in the second Mv version. On the language and 
meter see §§ 1.47.48. 

avalokanlya, adj., pleasant, of sounds: prasadanlya 
avalokaniyah prahladanlyah (sabclah) LV 52.6; 411.9; of 
persons, worthy of (admiring) contemplation: Mv i. 103.5 
ullokanlyas cavalokaniyas cabhivandaniyas cadeyavakyas 
ca. (All prose.) Cf. ullokamya. 

avalokayati (= Pali apaloketi), (1) asks permission 
of (acc.): Bhik 3b. 5 yavad aham bhagavantam avaloka- 
yami, until I ask the Lord’s permission (for the admission 
of nuns); Divy 331.18 nahani svadhlna upadhyayam 
avalokayata; 331.23; 511.10 rajanam avalokya; 439.22, 
23 matapitarav avalokya, having asked permission of my 
parents ; (2, cf. Skt. apreebate) takes leave of, says farewell 
lo (acc.): Divy 4.26 gacchami avalokita bhava, I am 
going ; be greeted in farewelll; 128.2; 580.26; °to bhava 
MSV i.41.6; -bandhavan avalokya Divy 281.17; 524.14; 
(3) entrusts (acc.) with a function (cf. Pali apaloketi, d, 
in CPD, consult ): bhiksum avalokayitva (Tib. bcol nas, 
entrusted to one’s charge ) gantavyam yo ’sya labham 
grhnati MSV ii.97.8 (and fT.); avalokayasi (perh. do you 
consult ? as in Pali) tvam . . . Upanandam MSV ii. 119.2 
and f. 

avalokita (1) nt., and once °ta, f. (= Pali °ta, of teller 
apalokita, nt.), act of looking ; a look, gaze: fern, only LV 
227.9-10 anyonya-mukhavalokitaya rudanti sma, they 
wept with a gazing look at each other’s faces; nt. LV 84.5 
simhavalokitam mahapurusavalokitam vyavalokayati sma; 
LV 191.17 (prasadikena) avalokita-vyavalokitena (see s.v. 
vyavalokita), acc. to Tib., looking forward; Siks 215.10 
sthanam; elsewhere in a similar cliche alokita-(instead 
of ava°)-vilokita, q.v.; esp. nagavalokita (== Pali id., 
oftener °palokita), the gaze of an elephant (turning the 
whole body), Mv iii.55.18 sarvavantena kayena (so read 
with v.l. for text kalena) nagavalokitena; Divy 208.16-17 
sarvakayena nagavalokitena; Gv 48.15 nagavalokitena 
pratyudavrtya (q.v.); MSV i.62.17; (2) nt., n. of a work 
(called a vyakaranam Mv ii.257.13; 259.4; but a sutram 
in the colophons, 293.15; 397.7) imbedded in the Mv in 
two forms, following one another, ii.257. 6-293. 15, and 
293.16-397.7. The second of these, under the name 
Avalokana- (or °na-)sutra, q.v., was used (in a rather 
widely variant form) as one of the sources of Siks. (3) 
m., said to be used for Avalokitesvara, q.v.: Burnouf, 
Introd. 224 (and Skt. Lex.). 

Avalokitanetra, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 3.2 
avalokita- murdhi-ta (suffix ta added to stem in 
-in from *avalokita-murdhan), state of having his head 
gazed upon (revered) by others, said of a Tathagata: Gv 

AvalokitalaksmI, n. of a kimnara-maid: Kv 6.3. 
Avalokitesvara (on the name cf. Mironov, JRAS 
1927.241 ff., suggesting that the original form was Avalo- 
kita-svara), n. of a celebrated Bodhisattva: first in lists 
of Bodhisattvas, SP 3.4; Mvy 645; cf. also Kv 1.2; lives 
on Mt. Potalaka Gv 208.8; subject of ch. 24 of SP (named 
438.4 ff.), where he has the epithet Samantamukha, 
q.v.; other occurrences Siks 286.7; Samadh p. 36 1. 1; 
Kv 1.16; 8.19 etc.; Mmk 62.24 etc.; Sukh 52.4; 56.7-8; 
Sadh 42.10 etc. 

AvalokiteSvaravimoksa, n. of a work: Siks 296.2. 
avavadati, ovadati (— Pali ovadati), admonishes, 
instructs; regularly followed by parallel anusas(a)ti, as 
also in Pali: samyag avavadati samyag anusasti Divy 
299.10; avavadamy anusasmi, yatha maya samyag 
avavaditah samyag avaSista(h) LV 409.11 ; tarn bhagavam 
ovadatu anuSasatu Mv i.321.17; ovadatu me bhavam . . . 
anusasatu me Mv iii.206.2-3; ovadeyam SP 351.6; ppp. 
avavadita SP 70.13; 101.4; gdve. avavaditavya Divy 
492.29; kevarupena ovadepa ovadanti Mv i.104.9. 

avavaraka (also avaraka? m. or nt. ; = Pali ovaraka, 
Skt. apavaraka, which is read also in mss. of Divy), 




a secret apartment or chamber ; acc. to Speyer Av ii.158.10 
n., a subterranean room. Several times mss. (of Av, Divy) 
present avaraka, which might be regarded as a case of 
haplology or haplography; but twice, at least, Pali seems 
to read (a)varaka instead of ovaraka: jato (’)varake Jat. 
i. 391. 21 and Vv comm. 158.14 (PTSD would understand 
jat' ovarake; both prose): KP 71.1 (prose) grhe va layane 
va avavarake va; Mmk 519.27 (prose) guhyc pradese 
avavarake va; 534.10 (vs) prachanne . . . svagrhe vavava- 
rake 'pi ca (meter corrupt); Av ii.54.5 avarakam prli vista 
udbandhanahetoh (to hang herself); here text with ms. 
avara 0 ; 55.7 avavarakam (so ms., text avara°) avabha- 
samana; 158.10 avavarakam pravisa, and °kam pravista; 
Divy 471.8 apavarakam (no v.l.) pravisat; avavarake (or 
avarake) strl prasuta Divy 471.9 (text apav°, but no ms. 
has -p-; they point to avarake or avavarake); 479.25 
(text apav°, but all mss. avarake), 26-27 (text apav° 
with 1 ms., 2 mss. (a)varake, actually varake after -e). 

avavahati (not in Skt. ; in Pali only pass, ovuyhati 
is carried off by a river, Itiv. 114.1, 3), carries , bears (a 
burden): Siks 13.13 -dhuram avavodhum (inf.). 

avavada, ovada (so regularly Mv, otherwise ava°; 
to avavadati) m. (= Pali ovada), admonition, instruction: 
SP 202.10 sattvavavada-kusalanam ; LV 244.16 datto 
'vavado 'bhut, the admonition ( instruction ) was granted; 
Mv i.104.9 ovadena ovadanti; 307.10; iii.53.8, 10; Mvy 
1440; 6534; 7600; 8442-4; Divy 240.17; 281.28; bodhi- 
sattvavavada, SP 65.1 et alibi, epithet of Mahavaipulya 
sutras such as SP (for this Kashgar rec. regularly reads 
bodhisattvotpada, KN note to 1. c.); parallel with the 
virtual synonym anusasani, q.v., Mv iii. 51. 16-17 karaniyo 
ovado karaniya anusasani; these two often compounded 
as avavadanusasani (Mv ovadanu 0 ), dvandva, but regularly 
sg. with fern, gender (§ 23.3): LY 244.15 (read with mss. 
avavadanusasani, or °nim, asya; the reading of both edd. 
is impossible), admonition and instruction: Divy 318.24; 
340.28 = 567.9; Mv iii.60.16; 206.4; Bbh 178.17; 224.16; 
Bhik 5a. 1. 

avavadaka, adj. (to avavadati; — Pali ovadaka), 
instructing, admonishing; m., instructor (in religion); nt. 
also used of a text: Divy 48.26 yas tesam rsir avavadakah; 
385.8 °kanam agro; 493.5 (ko ’smakam) avavadaka 
ajnaptah; 254.10 kulavavadako, a family (religious) 
instructor, of a rich man; Gv 171.14 mahayanasyavavada- 
kani ( are instructors in the Mahaydna) mama kalyanami- 
trani; nt., of a work, Rajavavadakam, see this. 

avavad(ay)ati, ova° = avavadati; noted only in 
imina ovadena ovadito Mv iii.53.8 and . . . ovaditva 10; 
prob. denom. to ovada (ava°). 

avavaditar (n. ag. to avavadati, or to prec. ?), 
one who instructs or admonishes: Gv 463.3 °tarah para- 

ava-vayati, see o-va°. 

[-avavicarad Siks 271.13, seeming text, but only 
by misprint; see gurula.] 

aVa-vidhyana, see ovidhyana-kha. 

[avagamsyati Mvy 2637, read avamamsyati, fut, of 
ava-manyate, with var. in Kyoto ed., and with Mironov's 
text without v.l. No ava-sams is recorded anywhere, if 
we except the AY noun avasas, an. Xey. Moreover no 
ya-present to Sams is known.] 

avasayati (nowhere recorded), lies down: Divy 559.14 
(vs) paryanke 'vasayitva (ger.). Cf. avagayita. 

1 avagakha, or osakha, only in °kha-prasakha, adj., 
having down-hanging twigs or branches, said of several 
kinds of trees: osakha-prasakham (nyagrodhapoiam) Mv 
iii.302.1; °kho (kakubho nama vrkso) 313.9; avasakha- 
praSakha (haritakl) 311.4. 

avagayita, ppp. (cf. avagayati; this form could be 
m.c. for avasayita), lying, resting , bedded: Mv ii.351.19 
fvs) darika daraka caiva sayyasanavasayitah (Senart; 

mss. sayyayam avas°, sayyasanasayita, the latter metri- 
cally bad). 

avagavasam, adv. (amredita cpd. ; avasam, adv. from 
Skt. avasa), quite certainly: Mv iii. 88. 18. 

avasirati, osirati, °reti (also spelled with s, s for 
s, and mss. sometimes show a for i after the sibilant, 
osarati, (2) osarati; see avasarati; cf. Pkt. Lex. osirana 
— vyutsarjana, parityaga, Sheth ; etym. obscure, cf. 
Senart Mv i note 380, noting semantic correspondence 
with Skt. ava-srj): (1) clears away: LV 240.15 (vs) vithi 
racita ratnavastra-dharyai(r) (Foucaux °dhanyair, grain , 
with Tib. hbrus) avasiriya (ger.), having cleared the streets 
which were adorned etc. (before the Bodhisattva); (2) 
sends off, throws (into prison): osiranti Mv i.24.1 (see 
Senart' s note, 389); (3) sends forth , emits (light, sound, 
breath): Mv ii.315.6 mukhavatam (so with v.l. for Senart 
°vatam) osireya, (if the Bodhisattva) should send forth the 
breath of his mouth; Mv ii.344.15, read prob. avasiri sent forth 
(a ray of light; mss. avasiti, avati; Senart ein. avasrjati); 
LV 357.3 (should be read) °sahasrams c’osari(r) atmabhava, 
probably (Buddha) sent forth from his body (hundreds of) 
thousands (of rays), see §8.85; Gv 255.14 (vs) rasmisa- 
rnudra osiratu (n.. sg. m. pres, pple.); in Gv 254.26 (vs) 
1st ed. esirisu jinah, read osiri pujitah (see 2d ed.); Mv 
ii.383.7 OvSire (v.l. osire) would send forth (svaram, a sound); 
(4) throws down (fragrant powder, flowers; said of gods, 
upon the Bodhisattva or Buddha; = avakirati, which 
Senart reads by em. in Mv ii.343.19 and 349.16): Mv 
ii.343.19 avasire (or °sire, mss.) curnadharam . . . vara- 
candanasya; iii.273.16 ratanacurnam antariksato osire 
(v.l. osire; here kept by Senart); ii.349.16 puspavarsani 
antariksena osiri (mss.); also of throwing down missiles, 
SP 449.3 (vs) vajramayaparvata-sani (i. e. asani; v.l. 
yadi, so WT, emending to °parvato; acc.) ghatanartliaya 
ca (WT hi) murdhi (better-with v.l. °dha, loc. ; WT °dhni) 
osaret, if one should hurl down on his head to kill him . . . 
(for WT’s interpretation see avasarati 1); (5) lets loose, 
releases: Mv ii.452.16 (devlm) osiritva (after violently 
seizing her); ii.459.15 yadi me na osarisyasi (so mss., 
Senart em. osir°) . . . atmanam marayisyam; lets go 
(women from a harem), gives license to: osiritavya (Senart 
em. °yam) Mv ii.424.20; (note osista, v.l. osirista, 425.3, 
not osrsta as quoted from this place by Senart i note 380 ; 
text seems to intend pple. of ava-sis, left alone, and so 
abandoned ;) the subject is strikagaram (v.l. striyag 0 ), 
the women of the harem must be turned loose (to carry on 
affairs with other men); so 425.16 (istriyagaram, v.l. 
strya°) osiritavya (Senart em. °yam); 426.7 striyagaram 
(mss.) osirati (mss. °riti); in another version of the same 
story, iii.1.4, mss. osare(yam) (Senart em. osir°), but 1.6 
and 2.11 osirati (stryagaram) ; but on the borderline 
between this and the next, or belonging perhaps to the 
next, are (in the same story) Mv ii.426.17-18 ma hevam 
mam imasya brahmanasya upasthanaparicaryaye osiri- 
syati (Senart; mss. osiri 0 , osari°), Fm afraid he will hand 
me over to serve and wait on this brahman (spoken by the 
chief queen); 427.10 na me . . . eso brahmano osirisyati, 
. . . will not give me up; (6) abandons, throws out or away , 
renounces (cf. the last two citations): Mv iii.165.12 padu- 
mavatlm vadhyam avasirasi, you abandon P. to be killed; 
osiritva kamaratim, abandoning the pleasure of desire Mv 

i. 143. 13, repeated i.200.9 where mss. osaritva (Senart 
osir°) and ii.4.6 where mss. okiritva (Senart osir 0 ); Mv 

ii. 272.13 osirahi (v.l. osirehi) bhagavato traimasam 
bhaktam, give up ( renounce , resign the right to); ii.298.6 
(vs) divy a osiritva (so 1 ms., v.l. okiritva, Senart wrongly 
em. otaritva) giving up heavenly things; Mv ii.367.19 
vasudham sarvam osiritva (so 1 ms., v.l. osar°), abandoning 
the whole earth; 367.22 osiritvana (one’s family, to lead a 
religious life); ii. 334.22 suvarnaniskarn . . . osiritva, 
throwing away gold coins; ii.335.4, mss. manusya-patram 




(read madhusya p°? Senart amrtasya p°, bad metrically 
and otherwise) . . . osiritva visasya patram pibed bala- 

avasesa, adj. (— Pali avasesa), left over , remaining : 
Mv i.7.6 yam tesam asthini avasesani (but so only 1 ms., 
the other 5 avasesanti) bhuyo ! pi mansachavi(?) . . . 
upajayati, when (only) their bones are left , flesh and skin 
is produced again. See also kalpava^esam, niravasesa, 
samghavasesa, sava^esa. 

avasya, osa (m. or nt. ; = AMg. osa; Skt. avaSyaya, 
once Lex. avasya, f.), hoarfrost , as symbol of transitoriness, 
used of life or worldly things: LY 214.8 (vs) osavindupama 
. . . sunyasvabhava(h), like drops of hoarfrost (fleeting and 
vain); Samadh 22.6 jlviti svapnanibhe call ’vasve (Rega- 
mey’s note states that Tib. renders hoarfrost , w T hich he 
unwisely abandons); Siks 18.12 (vs. cited from Candra- 
pradipa Sutra Samadh, but not the same vs) jivite 
cancale ’vasye mayasvapnanibhopame. In the LY osa 
could be m.c. for osa — Skt. (Lex.) avasya; but the loc. 
(a)vasye in the others points to a m. or nt. stem; AMg. 
osa is given by Ratnach. as m. 

ava^yayati (denom. from prec.), turns into hoarfrost : 
LY 251.8 (prose) (svedah . . .) bhumau nipatanti sma, 
avasvayanta usmavanto . . . 

avasyaya-patta or -pata, m., lit. frost-cloth , a fine 
silk fabric, allegedly ‘used for protection against frost’ 
(Das) — Tib. dar-la (which also renders pattamSu Mvy 
5881 and amsuka 9166): Mvy 5880 °pattah (v.l. °patah: 
Mironov °pattah, no v.l,); LY 162.17 (prose) avasyaya- 

avasruta, f. °ta ( = Pali avassuta; cf. an-ava°; 
derived from Skt. root sru, for which even Skt. texts 
often read sru), (sexually) lustful: Bhik 27b.5 bhiksuni 
avasruta avasrutena purusena . . .; 28a.3 (see s.v. sam- 

avasanga, m., some part of a building: Mvy 5570 = 
Tib. ya phubs (? top roof ?). Prof. Lo Ch’ang-pei informs 
me that the Chin, translation now means grand , huge or 
empty, but. that the 'radical’ of the sign suggests a pos- 
sible original meaning roof. In MPS 34.61 acc. to Tib. large 
beam, gdun bo cbe. 

avastabhya, ger. (cf. BR s.v. stabh with ava, 4), 
embracing, enveloping : Lank 16.5 bhagavantam bodhi- 
sattv.ims ca ratnajalenava 0 , embracing, enclosing in a 
(? magic) network (? mass ) of jewels. 

ava-sakkati, o-sa° (= Pali o-sa°; see s.v. -sakkati), 
withdraws, retreats : Mv i.23.10 (apy ekatyah palayanti) 
apy ekatya na palayanti apy ekatya kutrapi avasakkanti 
(mss. °sappanti, one °sarppanti) apy ekatya na avasak- 
kanti (so 2 mss. ; others °sarkkanti, °sakyanti, °sappanti); 
i.353.14 so dani vyaghro tarn rsim drstva osakkito (no 
v.l. in Critical App., but note p. 626 indicates that mss. 
read osamkito); ii.83.2 (vs) yadi si na maritukamo, osakka 
(2 sg. impv.) mama rajyato. 

(avasanna, see osanna.) 

avasarati, (1) osarati, once osar°(?); on forms with 
-sar- see below, but also caus. s.v. 1 osarati (cf. Pali 
avasarati, osarati, to enter, to arrive, CPD), (1) approaches, 
arrives: Mv i.13.6 (vs) tasmim narake osaranti, they arrive 
at this hell (otherwise Senart); osarantasya Mv ii. 108.7, 
9, 11, and °nto 10 (pres, pple.), approaching, drawing 
near; aor. avasari or c rim, 1st or 3d sg., in phrase yena 
. . . tad avasari(ni), arrived at, went to where . . . was (on 
the long a see § 38.23; the corresponding Pali phrase 
is tad avasari, e. g. Yin. iii.11.30) Mv i.319.14, . 16, 20; 
323.13, 16 (in 16 mss. anusari); ii.117.20; 119.6; 120,17; 
123.16; iii.47.12; aor. with short a, osare Mv ii.222.1 
(mrgabhimukham, approched, went up in the direction 
of the deer, in hunting); iii.364.19 vanato so osare raja- 
dhanim; iii.453.3 (— Pali Jat. v.252.20), read: na te 
kosthesmim osaranti (go to, resort to; Pali upenti) na 

kumbhe na kalopiyam (see s.v. kalopi); Gv 241.13 ekaromi 
sugatasya osar! (3 pi. aor.), settled, lodged; osari Siks 336.3 
(read) prajnapradlpa ya osari, and 15; 337.3, 17; osaret 
(opt.) SP 449.3, see avasirati 4, WT vajramaya-parvato 
yadi ghatanarthava hi murdhni osaret, should alight, fall 
upon his head, which is perhaps possible; (2) osarati and 
its forms also are written for osirati (avasirati, q.v.); 
in my opinion this set of forms must be wholly unrelated 
to the above (despite Senart i note 380). Perhaps osir° 
(or osir°) should always be read by cm. when osar° occurs 
in the mss. in the meanings of avasirati. Note especially 
Mv iii.1.4 osare(yam), mss. (Senart osir°), but in 1.6 
and 2.11 mss. osirati in precisely similar context. 

avasavya, adj. (Skt. and Pali apasavya: Pkt. avasav- 
vaya, cf. AMg. avasavva, a particular kind of the motions 
of the planets), not left, right (-hand): °vyam Sadh 20.5; 
°vyena (adv.) on the right 20.10; utsangasthitavasavyaha- 
stam 24.10. 

avasada, m. (to avasadayati), abuse: Mvy 2636 = 
Tib. smad pa, or spyo ba. 

avasadana (to avasadayati), (1) adj., f. °nl, censuring , 
rebuking: Bbh 220.3 (ku§ale sthane pratisthapanartham . . .) 
-samcodanavasadani priyavadita; (2) °na, subst. f. censure, 
rebuke: Bbh 83.18 avasadana madhyame vyatikrame, 
censure (is appropriate) in case of a transgression (of) 
middling (gravity); 179.18, see s.v. avasadayati; 295.21 
avasadanasadhyah, to be perfected by censure; Jm 217.8 
tarn avasadanam amrsyamanah, impatient of this rebuke; 
Divy 490.5, 6 avasadanavineyah, to be converted (sub- 
stantially = °na-sadhyah, above) by rebuke (which is 
applied in 7 in the words tvam tavac cudah etc. ; ed. 
Index discouragement , not quite rightly; the opposite is 
utsahana-vineya, see utsahana); in LY 70.11 (samcarya) 
vicaryavasadanak arena panim samcarayati sma (subject, 
the Bodhisattva in his mother’s womb); Foucaux, ‘en 
l’etendant pour le signal du depart’ (sc. for the attendant 
gods), but avasadana can hardly mean this. Tib. had a 
quite different reading, containing smrtah samprajanan 
as in 1. 15 (dran zhiii Ses bzhin du, both times). I cannot 
solve the passage but think it probably corrupt, despite 
the lack of variants. Perhaps follow the lead of Tib. 

avasadanika, censure, rebuke: Bbh 150.22, see prec. 
and s.v. avasadayati; similarly 151.3, 4. 

avasadayati (= Pali apasadayati, in both mgs.; cf. 
prec. two), ( 1 ) rejects, repulses: Mv iii.184.11 taye mana- 
vikaye . . . avasadito, rejected by this girl (with whom 
he was in love); (2) censures , rebukes: Bbh 150.22 (mrdv- 
aparadham mrdu-vyatikramam . . .) mrdvya (text 
mrdhvya) avasadanikaya avasadayati; so also 151.3; 
Bbh 107.16 tosayata utsahayata anavasadayata, by him 
gratifying , enthusing, not reproaching; Bbh 179.18-20 
bodhisattvah avasadanarhan . . . pravasanarhan klistacitto 
navasadayati, avasadayati va na ca dandakarmana 
samanusasti; °yitavyah MSY iii.53.11. 

avasarana, nt. (seemingly = osarana, q.v.), restitu- 
tion (of a monk that has been suspended from the order): 
°nam Mvy 9306 = Tib. bzod par gsol ba, request for 
forgiveness ; so also Chin. 

avasirati, see avasirati. 

avasrjana, nt. (to Skt. avasrjati), emission, pouring 
forth: Gv 18.9 (prose) bodhisattvanirmitameghavasrjanam. 

avasevita-vant (no ava-sev is recorded), having 
cultivated, devoted oneself to : LY 10.5-6 pancavidhapunyakri- 
yavastv-avasevitavatas (bodhisattvasya) ; Calc. 11.1 reads 
upasev 0 for avasev 0 , unsupported by any of Lefm.’s mss. 

avaskandana (cf. Skt. avaskandana, nt., accusation, 
legal attack; to ava-skand-, attack , usually in military 
sense), (verbal) attack; injurious speech; °skandana is read 
for °sphandanam in a text parallel to Siks 172.1 idam 
agram parusyanam yad utaryanam avasphandanam, see 
Bendall’s note p. 408; Tib. gnod pa, injure. 



avinipSta- dharmin 

avaskhalita, adj. (ppp. of Skt. skhal, not cpd. with 
ava in Skt.; cf. Pali avakkhalita, n., offense ), guilty , at 
fault ; having offended : Divy 359.26 (tvam hi) bhagavaty 
asakrd-asakrd avaskhalito. 

avastabdha, ppp. (— Pali avatthaddha, also with 
dental ttha; Skt. avastabdha, ppp. to ava-stambh), 
founded (upon), supported (by), in comp.: Divy 45.4 
tirthikavastabdham tan nagaram. 

avasphandaka (to next but one with -aka), one 
who addresses contemptuously, bhiksor grhapater °kasya 
MSV iii.24.10, of a monk who speaks contemptuously to a 

avasphandana, in Bbh °spa°, nt. (n. act. to next, 
q.v.), ridicule or contemptuous treatment : Bbh 238.8 

(ksamas) ca bhavati parato ’vamananam avahasanava- 
spandana-durukta-duragatadinam . . . vacanapathanam ; 
Siks 172.1, see avaskandana. 

avasphandayati, in Bbh °spa° (cf. Skt. Dhatup. 
sphand, parihase; see prec. two) ridicules or treats with 
contempt : Bbh 123.10 (na ca bodhisattvo) yacanakam 
avahasati navaspand 0 ; 150.4 (na ca ... bodhisattvah 
param avahasati) navaspand 0 ; 175.16 avahasati avaspand 0 ; 
maya . . . grhapatir °ditah MSV iii.24.7; Tib. brnas tliabs 
gyiso (gyis so?), acted contemptuously (towards). 

avasphotana, nt. (Skt. id., snapping of the fingers , 
pw; possibly the same word, applied to "casual rejection’ 
of an argument?), reading of Mironov in Mvy and of Das 
s.v. Tib. sphrugs bsigs instead of apasphotana, q.v. 

avasyandana (? the same word recorded in Pan.’s 
gana gahadi? cf. Skt. avasyandita), changing the meaning 
of one's own words: Siks 126.1 navasyandanavacanah. 

avasruta, adj. ( = Pali avassuta), wet , dripping, and 
so foul , rotten, orig. of a tree the inside of which is rotten, 
Pali AN iv.171.9 (rukkhani) antoputini avassutani kasam- 
bujatani; fig., usually in Pali, and in BHS, of evil monks: 
Mvy 9138 antarputy (read as separate word, see antahputi) 
avasrutah; foil, by kasambaka-jatah (see kasambaka); 
MSV i.50.7 antahputir °tah kasambaka-jatah. 
avasvapati, °pana, see osopati, °pana. 
avasvapana, see osvapana, apa°. 

(avasvapayati,) ppp. avasvapita, osva° (caus. to 
ava-svap-, in Skt. recorded only in ppp. avasupta, asleep, 
Ram.; but see osopati; note also Jain Skt. (Hem.) 
avasvapanika and °pani, pw 2.292), put to sleep, asleep: 
LV 220.10 (vs) te capy avasvapitah (so Lefm. em., con- 
firmed by Tib. nal; mss. avasthapitah, avasamsthitah) ; 
221.5 sayavati (q.v., read prob. yasavati) osvapita 
devataih, and 10 puravaram osvapitam devataih, . . . put 
to sleep by the gods. Cf. also apasvapana, osvapana. 
avahotimaka (or °dimaka), see avakotimaka. 
avanta, m., a high number: Mvy 7796 = Tib. bsam 
yas, or bsal yas (cf. avada). 

avarsika, adj. (or subst.?), (1) (an ascetic practice) 
that consists of not going abroad in the rainy season: LV 
248.18 avarsikair (sc. atapanaparitapanaih, 1. 15); Tib. 
dbyar mi byun ba; (2) (a monk) who does not observe the 
(rule for not wandering during the) rains: MSV ii. 154.12; 
read so with v.l. and Mironov in Mvy 9426 (Tib. dbyar 
gnas su ma zhugs pa). 

avasiro, adj. n. sg. m. (or could be adv., acc. sg. 
nt.; = Pali avarnsira(s), avasira(s), Skt. avakSiras), head 
downwards, headlong: Mv iii.454.6 = 457.4 atha (457.4 
ma; ( so Senart; mss. apparently lack any such word, 
except that one reads na in 457.4) ghorarupam narakam 
prapatisye avasiro (so clearly the mss. read or intend; 
w. 11. avarasiro, avasiro, unmetr. ; Senart em. avak 4 i ro). 

avasruta, ppp. (to Skt. ava-a-sru-, not recorded; 
cf. Pali avassuta, taken by CPD as from ava plus Skt. 
sru-), descending in floods: Divy 608.19 (vs, printed as 
prose) payomucah . . . avaSrutambhaso. 

avikampana-ta (cf. vika°; = Pali avikampana, 

nt.), the not-wavering (from . . ., in comp.): Bbh 251.1 

Avikara, m., n. of a samadhi: Mvy 575; SsP 1413.17; 

aviklrna-vaca, adj. (= Pali avikinna-vaca), not 
loose, not uncontrolled, in speech: Mv ii.356.12 — iii.280.18 
(in both read: amukhara (ca?) abhu avikirnavaca; in 
prec. line acapala, anuddhata; these four adj. associated 
formulaically in Pali). 

a-vikopana (nt. ; ~ Pali id.), the not disturbing, non- 
confusion: LV 423.1 bhutakoty-avikopana-cakram; 3 
-dharmadhatv-avikopana-cakram; Dbh 71.16 paraviko- 
pana-tvat, because of the fact that it is not subject to distur- 
bance by others (or, by foes). 

a-vikopita (neg. ppp. of vikopayati, q.v.), unpertur- 
bed, undisturbed, unmoved: avikopitaya carya (instr.) LV 
259.14; -avikopitajnana- LV 428.11 ; avikopita (asthisam- 
ghata, q.v.) Divy 61.22, 24; 76.27; 465.25; replaced by 
avigopita, Bhagavatah sarlram °tam MPS 48.3; 49.15 
(Tib. ma nams pa, undisturbed; but in 49.15 occurs vigo- 
payati, opens , Tib. kha phye, see vigopita). 

* (aviksana, nt. ; see s.v. abhibhaksana). 

Aviksiptamsa, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.137.6. 
avikhinna, see vikh°. 
avigopita, see avikopita. 

Avigraha, nt., n. of a Buddhaksetra : Mv i.124.3. 
avijahanata, see vija°. 
avijugupsanata, see viju°. 
avijnaptika, see vijna°. 

avitarka(-dhyayin), (= Pali avitakka-jhayl, SN 

i. 126.27), (devoted to the [2d] stage of dhyana) in which 
there is no ratiocination: Mv iii.284.4, Senart avitarka- 
(mss. avitakayam, avitarkam kayam)-dhyayi (mss. -dhya- 
yino, which is possible in sense and meter and should 
perhaps be kept, despite the Pali parallel -jhayl). 

avitrpti, f. (neg. to *vitrpti, nowhere recorded; to 
vi-trp-), insatiableness: Dbh 49.15 vedayato ’vitrptis trsna. 
avidu, see vidu (1). 

aviddasu, adj. (= Pali id.; see avidvasu), ignorant: 
°su, n. sg. (or perhaps °su, cf. ms. B in 1. 16 abhidda^u) 
is plausibly conjectured by Senart for corrupt readings of 
mss. Mv ii.369.5 and 16. 

avidyata, ignorance (= avidya): LV 420.13 (vs) 

avidya, ignorance , occurs in Mv ii.99.10 (text without 
v.l.) in the place of abhidhya in a list of the 10 karma- 
patha; certainly in some sense secondary and perhaps 
a mere textual corruption for abhidhya, covetousness. 

AvidySndhakaravidhvamsanakara, n. of a former 
Buddha: Sukh 6.1. 

? avidvala, v.l. for next, q.v. 

avidvasu, adj. (Sktized form of aviddasu, q.v.; 
Geiger 100.2 records but does not explain the Pali form, 
which seems to be a curious blend of Pali avidva = Skt. 
a-vidvan with a- vidu, the s due to Skt. vidus-, cf. vidusa- 
ka), ignorant: °su, nom. pi., SP 45.9; 55.2 (Kashgar rec. 
avidvalag); 56.2; 204.6; °sunam, gen. pi., 57.8 (all vss). 

avidham, avidha, interj. (always repeated; most 
often followed by (i)ti; = Pkt. aviha, cf. avida, avida, 
exclamation of sorrow, Sheth), exclamation of disapproval 
or dismay; only noted in Mv; mss. sometimes abhi- for 
avi-, occasionally -dham for -dham or -dha: avidha avidha 

ii. 450.5; avidhavidham (ti; so mss.) ii.450.7; avidhavidha 
(usually followed by ti) i.301.19; iii.73.17; 86.16; °dham 
(mss.) ii.452.11; °dheti i. 303. 21 (mss.); °dham or °dhan 
(ti) i. 301. 20; 302.1 ; 303.19; ii.452.8 (mss.) ; 462.15; iii.15.15 ; 
189.10, 11. Rarely a- is written in mss. for initial a-. 

avinipata-dharman, adj.(= Pali°dhamma), not liable 
to fall (to evil existences): Sukh 56.16 °dharmanah, n. pi. m. 

avinipata- dharmin, adj. — prec.: Divy 534.4 

°rminyo, n. pi. f. 




avinirbhaga (m. ; corresponds to Pali avinibbhoga; 
see also vinirbhaga; note AbhidhK. La V-P. vii.122 
avinirbhuta = avinirbhagena avasthita; acc. to CPD 
s.v. avinibbhutta, avinirbhuta = this Pali form 'through 
confusion with a-vina-bhuta’), non-differentiation , non- 
distinction , confusion: Dbh 18.7; 74.8 (klesanam . . .) 
sahajavinirbhaga-tam, innate (natural) confusion ; Dbh 
53.4, see vinirbhaga; Lank 63.9; Mvy 6569, text avinir- 
bhava, v.l. °bhaga, which read with Mironov without 
v.l. (-varti, abiding in non-discrimination ) = Tib. tha 
(so Tib. Index, misprinted thad in text) dad du mi hjug 
pa (or, gnas pa), not differing, not admitting of differentia- 
tion , Das. 

(avinirbhava, read avinirbhaga, q.v. ; but cf. 
avinirbhuta, cited there.) 

avinivarta (see s.v. °tya), not liable to turning back : 
Dbh 30.29 °ta-cittasayamanaskarair, of Bodhisattvas in 3d 
bhumi; in vs Dbh.g. 10(346). 17 replaced by anivartiya, q.v. 

avinivartaniya, incapable of turning back (= avini- 
vartya, q.v., etc.), of persons destined for enlightenment, 
commonly with the word Bodhisattva, often (e. g. SP 
260.5; 265.11; Sukh 99.4) with dependent phrase anut- 
tarayam samyaksambodhau: SP 260.5; 265.11 ; £iks 313.20; 
Sukh 99.4; AsP 323.1 ff. ; Gv 514.6: as subst. m.. n. of a 
Bodhisattva-samadhi: Mvy 740. 

avinivartin (Skt. not fleeing in battle , Yajh., see pw r 
s.v. ; here = avinivartya, anivart(i)ya, avivart(i)ya, 
qq.v., etc.), not liable to turning back (religiously): SP 
263.5 bodhicittavinivartinl (of a woman). 

avinivartya ( = 0 ta, °tin, °tamya; also avivart(i)ya, 
anivart(i)ya, avaivartika, qq.v.; in Pali only forms of 
anivatt- seem to be recorded), not liable to turning back: 
Siks 317.15 (prose). 

a-vipancita, see vip°. 
a-viparoksa(-ta), see vi-paroksa. 
avipratisara, m. (neg. of vi°, q.v. ; — Pali avippati- 
sara), absence of regret or remorse; contentment: Bbh 72.15 
°rah pramodyam; Divy 78.7 and 467.3 °ra-samjananar- 
tham (in 467.3 text °samjanartham). See the next entries. 

avipratisari-ta, abstr. to next, state of non-discon- 
tent, absence of regrets: Siks 20.3 prltim pramodyam avi- 
pratisaritam ca janayisyati (said of an act of giving). 

avipratisarin, adj. (= Pali avippati 0 ; cf. viprati 0 
and avipratisara), unregretful (esp. about something one 
has given away): Siks 21.14 asocann avipratisari avi- 
pakapratikanksl parityaksyami ; Bbh 72.2 dattva cavi- 
pratisan; same Bbh 123.1; Dbh 57.7 ya ’vipratisary- 
avisrtamarga-ta, state of being not regretful and of not 
turning aside from the Path (lit. having iin-turned-aside-from 
Path, see avisrta). 

Avipranastarastra, n. of a former Buddha: Mv 

aviprapanca, adj.: n. sg. m. °cah Mvy 2926, fol- 
lowing aprapancah and nisprapancah, and evidently sub- 
stantially a synonym of these; all occur in a list of syn- 
onyms of gambhira, most of which mean something like 
hard to comprehend. See s.v. prapaiica. 
a-vipravasa, m., see vipra°. 

a-vimardana-ta (cf. Skt. vimardana), non-destruc- 
tion: Sraddhabalam °natayai &iks 3.6 (vs), the power of 
faith tends to non-destruction (of the indriyas). 

Aviraktarastra, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.140.2. 
avi-rajas, nt., = edaka- rajas, q.v.: Mvy 8195. 
Avirasa, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i. 14 1.7. 
a-viragana (nt. ; neg. of n. act. to virSgayati, q.v.), 
non-displeasing: -araganaviragana- Gv 529.23. 

a-viragayati, neg. of viragayati, q.v., is not averse 
to, does not turn away from: Dbh 52.20 (na catyantopa- 
samam . . .) aviragayisyamah, and we shall not fail to be 
averse to complete cessation (of sentient existence, until all 
creatures are matured). 

a-vilomana (nt. ; neg. n. act. to vilomayati, q.v.; 
cf. Pali vilomana), the not going contrary to: Gv 463.23 
sisyasamacittena, sarvabhijhavilomana-taya (i. e.- bhijna- 
avil°; better with 2d ed. sarvajna 0 ), by reason of not going 
contrary to all the abhijhd (rather, to all commands ); Bet 

Avivarta (see under avivartya), m., n. of a samadhi: 
SsP 1419.3; cited as .Avaivarta, q.v., from this list in 
Mvy 553. Orig. adj., not liable to turning back; see next. 

avivarta- carya (= avaivarta-, anivartana-carya), 
course that is not liable to turning back (backsliding): Mv 
i.63.13. The text explains by vivartanti samsaranti vivar- 
tacarya (cf. vivarta, world-evolution ); but I agree with 
Senart, note on i.1.3, that this is mere fantasy and wholly 

avivartika = avivartya, q.v. ; see also avaivartika : 
of Bodhisattvas SP 32,11; 90.8 (v.l. avaiv°, unmetr.); 
93.2; Mv i.83.12 (prose); prob. also Bodhisattvas are meant 
in Siks 3.16, 17; °ka-ta, state of being..., Mv i.101.2 
°kataye (instr. or loc. sg. ; of Bodhisattvas). 

avivartiya = next, in Mv i.80.4 (prose); Bodhisattvas 
in 2d bhumi may be either vivartiya, q.v., or a-vi°; (vss) 
SP 294.8; 330.3. 

avivartya (— °tiya, °tika, °ta; for other forms of 
same mg. see under anivart(i)ya, avinivartya, avaivar- 
tika; Pali has only forms of anivatt-), not liable to turning 
back: SP 149.13 -(dharma-)cakra; RP 10.10 bodhimarga- 
avivartya-manasa (so mss. ; as one word, with minds that 
are not to be turned back on the path of enlightenment ); 
Gv 104.10 °tyah; avivartyapratyudavartya- Gv 246.20; 
Dbh 19.17; jnanavivartya-tvat Dbh 71.12. 

Avivartyadharmadhatunirghosa, n. of a Buddha: 
Gv 296.12. 

avivarya, nt., Mvy 5205 = Tib. mi zlogs pa, what 
can not be repulsed or diverted , turned away; of this ani- 
dharya, q.v., is a var. Are both corruptions of anivarya? 
Mironov only avivarya. 

Avisuskamula, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i. 141. 13. 
Avisahya (corresponds to Pali Visayha, which may 
be an error for Avisayha, cf. Speyer, transl. of Jm, p. 30, 
n. 3), n. of a 6resthin: Jm 22.15. 

a-visamvadana-ta (Pali id.; Skt. a- °na), keeping 
one's word: (devama)nusyavisam°tayai LV 32.10. 
a-visabhaga, see visa 0 . 

a-visarana, noti-relaxation , non-distraction, not turn- 
ing aside (of thoughts): Bbh 109.27 (cittasyacalanam . . .) 
samgraho 'visarana. Cf. next. 

a-visrta (neg. ppp. of vi-sr; = Pali visata, visata, 
for the mg. of whi,ch cf. CPD s.v. anuvisata), undistracted, 
not turned aside: Dbh 57.7 (see s.v. avipratisarin); in 
Mmk 92.20 text dharmameghavisrta-samanupravesana- 
tayai, read °meghavisrta ? for penetration without being 
turned aside ... Cf. prec. 

avistara, adj. (Bhvr. cpd. of a- and vistara), not 
diffuse; compact, full, of sound: Mv i.171.7 (vs) avistara- 
pindita-rava, having a full and compact (cf. pindita) sound. 
Cf. Pali avisata ( = Skt. avisrta), used in the same w 7 ay 
as synonym of pindita applied to a sound, Jat. ii.439.8 
(comm.) bindussaro ti binduna avisatena pinditena sarena. 
Wrongly Senart’s note. 

a-vismarana (nt. ; neg. of Skt. vismarana), non- 
forgetting: -dharmavi 0 Mvy 784. 

(a-visvara, adj. (cf. Skt. visvara, and adv. avisvaram, 
BR s.v. visvara), not discordant: read avisvara-ruta, of 
not discordant note, Mv i.172.3 (of Buddha’s voice); so 
half the mss.; Senart abhisvara 0 .) 

avici, m. or f. (in Skt. only m. ; rarely also f. in Pali, 
see CPD s.v.), n. of a hell (= Skt. and Pali id.), a hot hell 
acc. to Mvy 4927 and Dharmas 121 ; passim. Fern. e. g. RP 
30.16 (vs) darunam (short -a- m.c.) aviclm (end of line). 
Most forms, of course, are ambiguous as to gender. Cf. avici. 




avlcika, adj., pertaining to the hell Avici : Dbh.g. 
12(348). 18 dukham avicikam utsahami; Gv 160.2-3 apa- 
rantikavicikaduhkhena (2d ed. °khe); m., an inhabitant 
of Avici , Lank 138.4 kulaputro va kuladuhita vaviciko 
bhavati. In the last two avlcika might be intended; it 
is clearly read (as adj.) in MSV iv.251.9. 

[avustam LV 388.13 (vs), both edd., no v.l. ; read 
avustam, q.v.] 

avrha, or abrha, rarely abrhat ( = Pali aviha; Tib. 
on Mvy mi che ba not great, abrhat noted only Gv 249.10 
abrliac [chuddhavasa-] ; this interpretation could be due 
to popular etymology; however, no other etym. is known 
for the Pali, and. as the lowest of the five Su. classes these 
gods may have been called [relatively] not great ; cf. s.v. 
brhatphala, which gives some confirmation of the ety- 
mology), n. of a heavenly world, the first of the five sud- 
dhavasa, and of a class of gods who inhabit it, see s.v. 
deva: usually spelled avrha, Mvy 3102; Dharmas 128; 
Mv ii.314.8 ; 349.1; 360.22; LV 150.10; Divy 568.28; Mmk 
43.21 (in 19.10 corruptly attaha); abrha Divy 68.16; 
138.23; 367.14; Av i.5.3; Bbh 62.5; abrhat, see above. 

aveksavant, adj., n. sg. m. °van (from Skt. aveksa 
with -vant; Pali apekkhavant, with the same shortening 
of a m.c.), attentive (to, loc.): Ud xiii.9, 10, 11 ; in 10 and 11 
text unmetrically aveksavam; same vss in Pali, Therag. 
228-230, apekkhava. 

Aveksita, nt., n. of a Buddhaksetra: Mv i. 123. 14 
c tam (Senart’s em. ; mss. °ksatam). 

avetya-prasada, m. (= Pali avecca-ppasada), 
serenity based on trusting faith (cf. Wogihara, Lex. 17): 
°dah Mvy 6823; buddhe 'vetya-prasadena AsP 59.20, and 
similarly in foil, (in Pali also with buddhe etc., loc.); °da- 
labhi Bbh 161.2, and °da-praptali 327.2. 

a-vaira (adj., = Pali avera), without enmity ; -ta, 
state of being . . .: samyanti vairani °tabhih MSV ii.184.8 
(vs; so ms., cd. em. avairi°, needlessly). In Jm 127.17 
avaira prob. noun, non-enmity, with pw 7.312. 

Avaivarta, m., n. of a samadhi: Mvy 553, cited from 
Prajnaparamita; the list occurs in SsP where Avivarta, 
q.v., is read for this, 1419.3. Cf. next two. 

avaivarta- carya = avivarta 0 , anivartana 0 , qq.v. : 
Mv i.63.14 (mss.; Senart em. avivarta 0 ). 

avaivarta- varna, with color not subject to passing 
aivay(l): Gv 347.6 °na, of a ratri-devata. 

avaivartika (perhaps the commonest BHS form of 
many equivalents; see also avaivarta, °tya, and s.vv. 
anivart(i)ya, avivart(i)ya, avinivartya), not liable to 
turning back: regularly of Bodhisattvas (usually this 
word being used; if not, of persons firmly set on the road 
to enlightenment, which is the same thing): SP 2.11; 
264.12; 383.2; LV 23.2; 39.14; 181.6; 370.2; Mv i.82.8; 
102.13; 104.8; 107.9, 12; 128.2, 6; Suv 81.8; 89.9; HP 
56.4; Gv 104.3; 308.8 etc.; Dbh 1.8; Sukh 21.13 etc.; 
°ka-bhumi Kv 82.10; Bbh 235.17-18; °ka-dharma LV 
424.14 (here of the Tathagata); Mv i. 124. 19; °ka-ksanti- 
pratilabdha SP 259.13 (see ksanti); °ka-dharmacakra- 
SP 270.9. 

Avaivartikacakra, nt., n. of a work: Mvy 1371. 
avaivartika-ta, state of being avaivartika: Mv 
i.81.1; -tva, id., LV 432.10. 

avaivartiya — °tika: Mv i.63.13 (but 3 mss. out of 
6 °tika); 82.19 (v.l. °tika). Both prose. 

avaivartya = °tika: SP 2.12 (of dharmacakra); LV 
277^16 (-ksantipratilabdhah); HP 59.18; Gv 287.12. All 

[avoditah is kept in ed. with mss. at Divy 300.2. 
Instead, some form of the n. pi. m. of ppp. of ava-vad 
should be read; possibly ovaditah or ovaditah, if not 
avavad 0 or avavad 0 .] 

avyakta, adj. (~ Pali avyatta; neg. of vyakta, 
q.v.), ( 1 ) ignorant: SP 210.3 °ta akusala: i.V 264.20 °to 

balo; Divy 301.2 °tan apy akusalan api; 617.18; (2) (cf. 
Skt. id., Pali avyatta) obscure: avyaktendriyah Karmav 
31.12, see s.v. jihma. 

avyayam, adv., permanently: LV 186.7 (prose) na 
khalv avyayam kumarena kadacid udyanabhumim abhi- 
nirgantavyam, the prince must never , as a permanent rule, 
go forth to the park. 

a-vyavakirna, aaj. (neg. of vyava°, q.v.; = Pali 
abbokinna), uninterrupted: SsP 1333.1, 3, etc. °naih . . . 

avyavacara, m., (neg. of vyavacara, q.v.), non- 
consideration, contempt , despising (Tib. khyad du gsod pa, 
despise): Mvy 8510, in siksapadadravyatavyavacarah, 
which I analyze °dravyat,a-avyavacarah, as the Tib. and 
the sense seem to require (the situation is that of Vin. 
iv. 143. 16-19; the Pali equivalent is vivannaka, line 19). 
It seems hardly possible that vyavacara, without a neg., 
should have this mg. 

a-vyavahara, adj., not capable of discussion (mention 
in words, see BR s.v. vyavahara 8); followed by syn. 
anabhilapya, Vaj 45.6, or anabhilapya, Siks 251.11. 

Vavyasta, in Mmk 51.7 (sarvamantramudrasadha- 
nesu ca) avyasto bhavati (read abhyasto, practised, 
exercised ?). 

avyakrta, adj. (= Pali avyakata, indeterminate ), 
indistinct, neutral, median (neither good nor bad): kusa- 
lakusalavyakrta- good, bad, and indifferent, Dbh 73.18; 
74.14; 75.23; kusalas ca dharnf akusalas ca avyakrtas ca 
Dbh.g. 44(70). 7. 

a-vyapanna, adj. (= Pali id.; neg. of vyapanna, 
q.v., and cf. next), unmalicious: °na-citta Divy 302.9; 
Dbh 25.1; Gv 531.14 (with 2d ed. for 1st ed. adhya 0 ); 
°nena cittena Divy 105.18; °na-manaskara SP 339.17; 
all having unmalicious mind or thoughts. 

avyapada, m. (— Pali id.; neg. of vyapada, q.v.), 
non-malice: LV 32.22, see s.v. vyapada; Mvy 1597, see 
id.; Ud xv. 18, read avyapade for text tyapade with initial 
syllable missing. (Tib. hchi ba med, non-death or non- 
killing, is due to false rendering of vyapada, in accord 
with regular Skt. usage.) 

a-vyabadhya or °vadhya, adj. and nt. subst. (see 
next, and cf. Pali avyapajjha, as mentioned there), (1) 
adj., that cannot be injured or disturbed, inviolable: Mv 
ii.259.15 °dhyam (ms.) . . . dharmam desayisyati; 279.9 
°dhyam artham prarthayamano ; in both of these spelled 
avyavadhyam, and associated with asadharanam; (2) ap- 
parently subst., not doing harm (so Tib., gnod pa mi 
byed): LV 380.17 avyabadhyam (Foucaux la mansuetude) 
sukhani loke. There is a v.l., in mss. usually regarded as 
the best, adhyavadhya; one might conjecture a-vya- 
vadhya, or °badhya, ger., not committing injury. But the 
context suggests that a nom, sg. noun is intended, sukharp 
being apparently predicate (Foucaux douce): so Tib. 
takes it. In all of these forms the root vadh may have 
been felt to be concerned ; or the short a of the root may 
be semi-MIndic (based on forms of badh which are cer- 
tainly commoner). 

a-vyabadha, also written °vadha, in MSV i.97.19 
wrongly °vada, adj. (cf. prec. and next, also vyabadha 
etc.; corresponds to Pali avyapajjha, avyabajjha), ap- 
parently usually free from injury, inviolable , secure, but 
possibly in some passages free from injuriousness , i. e. not 
given to injuring others, kindly ; the Pali equivalent appears 
to be interpreted in the same two ways, but it is not easy 
to distinguish them clearly: Mvy 1508 maitrisahagatena 
cittena ’vairena 'sapatnena ’vyabadhena; to this passage 
corresponds Mv iii.213.13 (cetasa . . .) avairena ’vyaba- 
dhena (so Senart em., mss. 'vyabaddhena or °rddhena); 
also Dbh 34.(1 8-)19 (maitrisahagatena cittena . . .) avai- 
rena ’sapatnena ’navaranena ’vyabadhena ; and in Pali 
DN ii.242.11 (celasa . . .)averena avyapaj jhena ; the mg. 




uninjur ious, kindly might be assumed in SP 288.8 (prose) 
(bodhisattvo . . .) avyavadho bhavati, but Kern unmo- 
lested , and similarly Burnout. Cf. avyabadhya, said of a 
Bodhisattva, Bbh 73.21. 

a-vyabadhya, adj. (cf. prec.), that cannot be injured , 
inviolable, undisturbed: said of punya Bbh 19.21, 22; 
20.24, 26; of sukha, 25.13; 26.9 (there are four avya° su°, 
listed as naiskramya-, praviveka-, upasama-, and sam- 
bodhi-su°); 27.2, 6; of a Bodhisattva, 73.21 (cf. avyaba- 
dha SP 288.8). 

avyavadhya, see avyabadhya. 

a-vyosita, adj., ppp. (neg. of Skt. vyavasita; but 
actually Sktization of Pali a-v(y)osit.a, acc. to CPD who 
has not reached his place of rest, i. e. final emancipation), 
restless, unsteady, activated by desires (for, loc.): papeccha 
(text paye 0 ) vyosita (read avyo°) patra-civare Samadh 
p. 53 line 4 (vs); kulesu (read ku°?) cavyosita labhakamah 
5 (vs); bhonti utsukah, panesu cavyosita tesu lajjah 
(? doubtless corrupt; lagnah?) 12 (vs). 

a-vrana, see vrana. 

(asate,) asate, 1 sg. ase (to Skt. a£-nati), I eat (cf. 
Pali *asati, pres. pple. asamana, etc.): Mv ii.56.10 amrtam 
pi no ase (so with mss.), I do not eat even nectar ; the cor- 
responding Pali vs, Jat. v. 397.29, has udakain pi nasiniye 
(asmiye, I [would] eat, see CPD s.v.). 

[Asanl? see As°.] 

asabala, adj. (= Pali asabala, in same sense and 
associated with akammasa, DN ii.80.24), unspotted, pure, 
of brahmacarya (together with akalmasa, q.v.): Mv 
i. 211. 11 = ii.15.10; of sila, MPS 2.34. 

asata, also asata, adj. (and subst. nt. ?) (= Pali 
asata; neg. of 6ata, q.v.), unpleasant, disagreeable : asata 
vedana (acc. pi.), disagreeable pains (same phrase in Pali) 
Mv i.5.9; asatanubhavanam (£iks asat 0 ) duhkham Sal 
81.2; Siks 222.9 anandasatakantarani AsP 367.19; dis- 
pleased, averse , offended : Mv iii.16.4 sudarSanapi . . . asata 
vareti. Cf. also visata. 

asasvatam (after anucchedam) in LY 423.10 (prose), 
applied to the (dharma-)cakra, is misunderstood by Fou- 
caux ( non immobile). Like everything in the universe acc. 
to the Sunyavada, it is neither annihilable nor eternal; 
neither of these attributes, nor any attribute contrastable 
with an opposite, can be predicated of anything. Tib. 
rtag pa med pa, not eternal. See 6asvatoccheda and 
references there to Lank. 

asitaka, a6Ita(ka) = asltakl, q.v. 

Asucikunapa, (prob.) m., n. of a hell (of impure 
corpses ): °pam, acc. sg., Jm 197.5. 

asubhata-samjni(n), engaging in contemplation of 
the offensiveness (of corpses; see a£ubha-bhavana, 
-samjna), Siks 328.10 (vs). I take aSubhata- as = asu- 
bhata (m.c.), offensive-ness, so substantially = a£ubha 
(-samjna, with suffix -in). Bendall assumes the adverbial 
suffix -ta(s). 

aSubha-bhavana, f. pi. °nah Mvy 1155; Bbh 98.18 
(read aSubha-bhavana for ed. a$ubha-bh°); or aSubha- 
samjha, Bhik 27a. 2 (= Pali asubha-bhavana or -saflna), 
see samjfta, contemplation of offensive things, specifically 
of human corpses in various states of disintegration; there 
are nine (in Pali, Vism. i.l 10.29-31 ten) such monkish 
disciplines, elsewhere called simply nava samjnah, the 
nine concepts (of offensive things), SsP 59.1; 1258.5; a 
less schematized passage of the same sort in older Pali, 
MN i.58.9 ff. In Mvy 1156-64 they are listed, each cpd. 
with -samjna: (1) vinllaka-, (2) vipuyaka- (so read), 
(3) vipadumaka-, (4) vyadhmataka- , (5) vilohitaka-, 
(6) vikhaditaka-, (7) viksiptaka-, (8)' vidagdhaka-, 
(9) asthi-samjna (see each of these). Bhik 27a. 2-3 agrees 
except that it transposes Nos. 5 and 6 and accidentally 
omits 8 (which perhaps should be put after 9; only Mvy 
has it before 9). There are three lists (one incomplete, 

one very corrupt) in SsP 59.1 ff., 1258.5 ff., 1431.19 ff. 
(six items only ; cited from the last, with only four items 
one of which is not in this SsP list, in Siks 211.1). Barring 
corruptions, the SsP lists agree with Mvy and Bhik ex- 
cept in order of the terms, fn which they show some 
(slight) resemblance to the Pali (Vism.) arrangement. 
SsP 1 (Siks 1) = Vism 1 = Mvy 4; SsP 3 (= 1431.19 ff.) 
2 = Siks 2 = Vism 2= ^sP J (= 59.1 ff.) and 2 (=-- 1258.5ff.) 

5 = Mvy 1; £sP and §iks 3 = Vism 3 = Mvy 2; &iks 4 
(not in SsP 3 ) = SsP 1 and 2 2 = Vism 9 = Mvy 3; SsP 1 
and 2 4 = £sP 3 5 — Vism 8 = Mvy 5 (Bhik 6); SsP 1 and 2 

6 = ^sP 3 4 = Vism 5 = Mvy 6 (Bhik 5); ^sP 1 and 2 , 
Mvy 7 = ^sP 3 , Vism 6; &SP 1 and 2 8 = Vism 10 = Mvy 9; 
SsP 1 and 2 9 == Mvy 8 (omitted in Bhik; Vism 4 has a 
different term, vicchiddaka, fissured Pe Maung Tin; Vism 

7 hata-vikkhittaka is a variation on Vism 7 vikkhittaka = 
Mvy 7). On the meanings, as well as the variants and cor- 
ruptions, see the terms as listed above from Mvy. 

aSesa, nt., a high number: Mmk 343.26 (= 10 ghara; 
see mahasesa). 

asaiksa, m. (= Pali asekha, asekkha; neg. of ^aiksa, 
q.v.), one who no longer needs religious training, being in 
the 8th stage (see Childers s.v. sekho); = arhant: °sah 
Mvy 1734; °sa-margah Mvy 1320, the third parivarta of 
the dharmacakra, in which ‘misery is known, its origin 
abandoned, its suppression attained, the way leading to 
its suppression realized’ (1321-24). Often in cpd. 6aik- 
sasaiksa, or bracketed with saiksa as separate word; see 
gaiksa; its place may be taken by arhant, e. g. Mv i.l 58.7; 
Divy 399.24. Written asaisya in LV 250.18, see s.v. 

Asoka, n. pr. : (1) name of a former Buddha, Mv 
iii.238.6, 7 ; ( 2 ) name of a nephew and disciple of the 
Buddha KaSyapa, Av i.237.14 ff. ; ( 3 ) name of a king 
who lived in the time of the Buddha Krakucchanda, Divy 

418.26 f. ; ( 4 ) name of a yaksa, May 68; ( 5 ) name of an 
uncle of King Mahapranada, and previous incarnation 
of Bhaddalin, q.v., Divy 59.20; 60.10; (6) name of the 
historic emperor, Mvy 3653; Mmk 606.14; Karmav 154.14; 
was given the epithet Dharmasoka, q.v.; his family 
name was Maurya, q.v. ; he lived 100 years after Buddha’s 
death acc. to Av ii.200.7; in Divy 364.17 ff. is told first 
his previous life as Jaya, in which he gave some dust 
(this is the pam£u-pradana) to the Buddha, made a 
pranidhana, and hence became later the emperor Asoka, 

368.26 ff. ; his birth and life as emperor, 370.10 ff. 

a&oka-bhanda, nt., LV 141.13; Mv ii.48.4; and 

-bhandaka, nt., LV 141.10, 16; 142.3, 5, 6, 11 (but many 
mss. -bhanda in some of these), perhaps lit. good-luck 
(no-sorrow) articles-of -value; gifts of largess, said of pre- 
sents (of gold, silver, and jewels, LV 141.14) provided by 
Suddhodana for Prince Siddhartha to give to the maidens 
who appeared before him as possible brides. Acc. to pw, 
present to an affianced bride; but note that the prince gives 
them to all the girls who present themselves, LV 142.4-5. 

A£okavarna, n. of a future cakravartin who is to 
become a pratyekabuddha: Divy 140.21; 141.2. 

ASokaviraja, m., n. of a kalpa: Gv 233.14. 

ASokaSri, (1) m., name of a Buddha: Siks 169.12; 
(in the south) SsP 32.1 (misprinted A6ika°); ( 2 ) f., n. of 
a deity of the bodhisattva-samgiti-prasada in Kapilavastu : 
Gv 385.19. 

A6okasattva, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.141.4. 

Asoka (= Pali Asoka), n. of a leading female lay- 
disciple under Mangala Buddha: Mv i. 248. 19; 252.8. 

(aSokahvaya,) with ‘hiatus-bridging m* (m.c.) aSoka- 
m-ahvaya, adj., of auspicious name: voc. °ya Mv i.68.3 
(vs); so mss., addressed by KaSyapa to Aniruddha; for 
this mg. of aSoka cf. a£oka-bhanda(ka). Senart em. 
aSesam ahvaya, but does not indicate how he interprets 
ahvaya, which in both Skt. and Pali (avhaya) is used 

aSmagarbha 81 

chiefly at the end of cpds. meaning having . . . (as) 

asmagarbha (mss. sometimes asma°), m. or nt. 
(only Lex. in Skt. except once in a Jain work, pw 7 Add.; 
recorded nowhere else; popular etym. based on [asma-] 
marakata?), emerald : n. sg. °bham Mvy 5957; °bho, 
°bhah Divy 51.24; 229.7; 502.7; Av i.205.3; other forms 
SP 50.5; 151.2; 153.3-4; 239.7; 256.12; LV 383.2; Mv 
ii.302.9; 309.16; 310.8; Mvy 6245; Divy 115.3; 297.25; 
Mmk 63.19; 436.11; Gv 52.15. 

asmantaka, m. or nt. (Skt. Lex.; whether it occurs 
in this sense in Skt. literature seems doubtful, cf. BR 
5.1071), stove : Karmav 22.3, 5. 

Asmaparantaka, MSV iv.186.7, f. °tika, 188.8 belong- 
ing to the country Qanapada., 186.7) called by that name, which 
is supported by regular Tib. tradition; see aparantaka. 

a-sraddadhana-ta (§ 22.42), state of not believing , 
infidelity : RP 18.1-2. 

a-sraddadhanlya, adj,, incredible , SP Kashgar rec., 
for a-6raddheya acc. to Kern, Preface, p. vii. 

a-sraddha, adj. (neg. of sraddha; = Pali a(s)saddha), 

(1) not credulous (in good sense; Pali saddha sometimes 
credulous, in bad sense), °dhas cakrtajriaS ca Ud xxix.33 
= Pali Dhp. 97; (2) unbelieving, not having (true) faith, 

Av i.83.7 (ms.; ed. em. a£ra°). 

? asraddhya, var. for asraddhya, q.v. 

[a-sraddha, adj., unbelieving, not having (true) faith: 

Av i.83.7, ed. by em. ; but ms. a-6raddha, q.v.] 

a-sraddhya, nt. (= asraddhya, q.v.; Pali assad- 
dhiya), disbelief, lack of (true) faith: Dharmas 30,69. 

a-6ramanaka, adj. (= Pali assam°; cf. sram°), 
unseemly for monks: °kani karmani MSV iii.16.1. 

a-§ramanya, adj. (= Pali asamanna), not devoted to 
monks ; regularly with amatrjna, apitrjna, and abrahmanya, 
see s.v. amatrjfta for references; in Mvy 2460 °yam, nt., 
following abrahmanyam, also nt., but just before apitrjnah, 
amatrjnah, m. pi.; perhaps collective, the group of those 
who are not devoted to monks ? 

agruka, nt. (= Pali assuka; Skt. a£ru), tear: °kani 
Mv i.326.4 (prose). 

a-grenlka, adj. (neg. of grenika), with parivrajakah 
SsP 615.9, an uncomplimentary epithet of a wandering 
mendicant, not a grenika (q.v.). 

aslesa, m., non-binding , disconnection , freedom: AsP 
294.18-19 yah . . . rupasyasambandhah sa rupasya£lesah 
. . . sa rupasyanutpado 'nirodhah. 

a&lesaka, adj., applied to colors: °kai rangaih Mmk 
61.14; 68.8; 74.22; °kair varnaih id. 289.11; 304.15; 
699.17; 702.6; °kair varnakaih 318.7; 322.20; 567.25; 
perhaps not bound or mixed (with foreign substances), 
pure; so apparently Lalou, Iconographie p. 30, 1. 3, 
couleurs f ranches; she cites Tib. (78.24) as chon (read 
surely tshon) ma hdres, unmixed color. 

a-gloka (m.; = Pali a-siloka), dispraise , ill-repute, 
blame: asloka-bhaya- fear of blame or ill-repute , Siks 
296.6: Dbh 13.6. 

-agva, see gajagva. 

agvaka, m., (1) (= Pali assaka) toy-horse: °kah Jm 
63.10; (2) n. of one of the Sadvargika (q.v.) monks, 
Mvy 9475; = Pali Assaji, one of the chabbaggiya monks; 
with Punarvasuka disciplined for immoral conduct, 
MSV iii.15.21 ff. ; cf. Agvaki(n) = Asvajit as one of the 
bhadravarglya monks; ASvaka was later incarnate as a 
naga, MSV i.xviii.5. 

Agvakarna, m. (= Pali Assakanna), n. of one of 
the 7 mountains surrounding Sumeru (Kirfel, Kosm. 
186): Mw ii.300.18; Mvy 4141; Divy 217.6, 7; Dbh 96.4; 
(with Sumeru eight,) Dharmas 125. 

Agvaki(n), = Agvajit, q.v., in Mv only: Mv iii.328.20 
(°kl, nom.); °ki also iii.139.5; °ki (m.c., nom.) 13; °kina 
(instr.) 8; °kisya (gen.) iii.337.5; 339.1. 


Agvagupta, n. of a son of Gupta the perfumer: 
Divy 351.14. 

Asvaghosa, n. of a teacher (and author): Mvy 3480. 

Asvajit (= Pali Assaji, one of the pancavaggiya 
bhikkhu; cf. Agvaki[n]), n. of one of the five monks 
(see bhadravarglya, with variants): SP 1.10; LV 1.7; 
Mvy 1037; Divy 268.6; Sukh 2.3. 

Asvatirthika, var. °aka, n. of a naga: Divy 184.5 ff. 

(asvaprstha, m., is not exclusively BHS, though 
not clearly defined in BR (s.v. prstha) or pw (s.v. a£vap°); 
cf. Pali assapittha; the art of riding horseback: °thah Mvy 
5003 = Tib. rta la gzhon pa, riding on a horse; LV 156.10, 
in list of arts mastered by Prince Siddhartha; Divy 58.24; 
100.10; 442.6.) 

? Agvara, read prob. Asvala, n. of a rsi: Mmk 18.18. 

Asvasirsa, n. of a naga king: May 246.28. 

Asvastha, n. of a mountain: May 253.35. 

asta, ppp. of asnoti (Vedic -asta in cpds.), obtained: 
LV 390.9 (vs) astam artham. A word-play is clearly 
intended; see Astamga. (Calc, reads istam, without 
support of any of Lefm.’s mss.) 

Astaka (= Pali Atthaka), n. of a king: Mviii.375.7 
(vs); he is otherwise in Mv always called Astamaka, q.v. 

astaka- ratri, in LV 251.6 (prose) haimantikasv 
astakaratrisu (read astaka 0 ?), the nights between the eighth 
days after the full moon of the two winter months, see CPD 
s.vv. atthaka, antaratthaka. 

Astamga, m. (for * Astamga = Pali Atthamga; Skt. 
Asta; st for st seems arbitrarily used for the sake of word- 
play with astam in the next line, § 2.61, see asta), n. of 
the western (sunset) mountain: LV 390.8 astamgo nama 
parvatah . . . astam artham dadatu vah. (Some mss. 
astamo, so Calc. ; all have st.) 

Astabhaginl, n. of the gotra of the naksatra Revatl: 
Divy 641.11. 

astamaka, (1) adj. or subst. m. (== Pali atthamaka, 
see CPD s.v.), one who is in the eighth (and lowest) stage 
of (Hlnayana) religious development, = srotaSpanna- 
phala-pratipannaka (Dharmas 102; for the Pali see 
Childers, cited s.v. gaik§a): Mv i.120.9 (prose) astamake 
dhutavedanagrddha bhavanan (so with all mss.; or read 
°nam; Senart em. °na) uttrasanti, said of backsliding 
Bodhisattvas, being eager for the sensations which are (or 
should be) destroyed (even) in a person in the lowest stage 
of religious development, they shrink from self-cultivation 
(bhavana); Senart fails to understand; Mv i. 159.8 astama- 
kadika pudgala yavad arhatpudgala (mss. pumgala both 
times), from the srotapanna to the arhat; astamaka-bhumi, 
here the third of the (seven) bhumi of a gravaka, Mvy 
1143; SsP 1473.12 et alibi, see bhumi 4; astamaka- 
dharma, the conditions (or religious principles) of a person 
in this stage, SsP 1555.11; (2) m., n. of the king otherwise 
called Astaka, q.v.: Mv iii.364.7; 365.18; 366.7; 373.23; 
(3) n. of a naga king: May 246.22; (4) n. of a maharsi: 
May 256.13. 

Astamahabhaya-tara, Sadh 208.6, or -tarinl, 207.1, 
n. of a goddess, a form of Tara. 

astamika, nt. (also asta°, q.v.), food given away on 
the feast of the eighth lunar day: Mvy 5758. 

asta^vat-, jn cpd., seems = asta, eight (§22.50): 
prasada uccaistvenastavat-talah SP 341.10 (vs), palaces 
eight floors in height; so Tib. brgyad brtseg. 

Astasahasrika-prajnaparamita, n. of a work ( — 
AsP): Mvy 1328; referred to Siks 37.13 as Prajnaparamita 

astamsa, adj. (= Pali atthamsa; for Skt. astaSri, 
perhaps by confusion with Skt. am£a), eight-edged, of the 
jewel (mani-ratna) of a cakravartin: MSV i.36.5. 

astanga (Pali atthanga), (1) having 8 members or 
parts; so often of the 8-fold way, e. g. Mv iii.332.10 arya- 
stahgo margo; Gv 521.5 astanga-posadhe (see posadha; 





Pali atthanguposatha ; = observance of the sabbath main- 
taining the 8 [first of the 10] precepts , sila, see CPD s.v.); 
prob. this is meant by °ga-samanvagatam vratam Av 
i.l70.13and °ga-samanvagata upavasa 339.7 ft.; (2) either 
alone, as Bhvr., or astangopeta, having 8 (unspecified 
good) qualities , substantially = excellent , fine, supreme, 
so Pali atthanga (-samannagata, etc.), said of food, fields, 
men, a voice; in BHS I have recorded it only of water 
(! with never any indication of any specific 8 qualities): 
Mv ii.365.7 astanga-jala (mss., confirmed by quotation 
Siks 299.13); 386.20 (vs) astangupetam (but prob. read 
with v.l. °tam, and jala as separate word) jala (text cpds. 
with next) sobhamanam . . . puskirinyo; Av ii.84.15 
astangopetam paniyam; Siks 350.8 astangopetapaniya-; 
astangopeta-, also of water, Kv 8.1; 60.11; Mmk 105.20; 
Gv 100.25 (misprinted °pata); 163.10; 193.20; 202.20; 
AsP 363.5; Sukh 93.16; astanga-variparipurna Kv 12.20; 
astanga-saliladharabhih Mmk 444.3; astanga sad-vari Gv 
336.7 (vs); °ga-sammitam (mss. °matam, read so?) Mv 
iii.94.5 (vs), ep. of sopanlya(m), q.v. 

astangika, adj. (— Pali atthangika), of 8 members, 
said of the way (marga) to the release from misery (more 
commonly a§tdnga): LY 183.7; 414.13; Mv iii.456.21; 
Ud xii.4 (these all vss); Dharmas 50 (here the 8 stages 
are listed). 

A$tada6avakra, m., n. of a mountain: Divy 103.2; 
106.26, *28. 

Astddagavakrika, n. of a river: Divy 106.28; 107.1. 
[astudcaka, nt., var. for akancuka, q.v.] 
a-samvara (m. ; Pali id.; neg. of samvara, q.v.), 
instr. °rena KP 130.1-2, 3, 4, 8, or abl. °rato 130.6, not 
according to prescription or rule: 130.1-2 bhesajyam ( — 
bhai°) upayujyasamvarena kalam kuryat, using medicine 
not in the way prescribed, he would die. Tib. renders cho ga, 
usually = vidhi or acara, but later sdom pa (= samvara, 
Mvy 1608 etc.); (in the more usual sense of samvara) 
KP 103.3 tatra na samvaro ( restraint ) nasamvarah. 

a-samvarana, adj. (neg. of Skt. samvarana), free 
from obstruction: Mv i.204.5 = ii.7.20 sarvadiSa (or °£am) 
kurutha asamvarana (or °nam), make all directions free 
from obstruction (for him). 

a-aamvasika, m., and f. °ka (cf. next, and Pali 
id. and asamv&sa, same mg.), (a monk or nun) that is 
denied the right of living with the order; one expelled from 
the monastic community: °kah Mvy 8758; MSY ii.204.11; 
°ka Bhik 16b.2. 

a-tamv&sya, and f. °ya (cf. Pali asamvasiya; see 
PTSD s.v. samvasiya), = prec. : °yah, °yo Prat 477.2; 
Bbh 46.19; °yk Bhik 28b.l. 

asamvidita, perhaps unperceived, not consciously 
grasped: in Mv i.41.5 and iii.334.8 (both somewhat 
corrupt, prob. intending) asamvidita asamviditapurva 
(lokantarika, sc. niraya or naraka); in Mv ii. 162.10 Senart 
also reads asamviditapurva, mss. (agha)-samvidhipurva. 
The three other Mv versions of this formulaic passage 
have (agha) aghasambhutapurva, or (agha) asambhuta 
asambhdtapdrva. All these are corruptions of an original 
prob. to be reconstructed as agha aghasamvrta; the Pali 
has agha asamvuta (brilliantly corrected by Senart, Mv 
i n. 405-6, to agha aghasamvuta) ; LY and SsP agha 
aghasphu^a ( full of misery, substantially — aghasamvrta 
enwrapped in misery). See discussion of the passage s.v. 

[asamviv&da-, not breaking one's word, in °da- 
paramata: Gv 89.3; apparently error for Skt. a-visamvada; 
curiously the same error is recorded once in Skt. a-sam- 
vivadi-ta, see BR 7.473, for a-visamvadi-ta, 6.1270.] 
asamvpta, (1) adj. (— Pali asamvuta; apparently 
not in this sense in Skt., tho samvrta restrained occurs), 
uncontrolled, unrestrained (cf. samvara, samvrti): LY 
87.13; 138.13; vaca asam° MSV ii*.210.14; (2)‘ subst. nt.: 

LV 372.7 (vs) sodaSa asamvrtanl the 16 uncontrolled things 
. . chinnani mayeha samsthena; said by the Buddha at 
the Bodhimanda). I have no clue to what is meant and have 
found no parallel. The passage is omitted in Foucaux's 
Tib.; his transl. of Skt. says omissions. Cf. asamvara, 
‘ indiscipline ’, AbhidhK. LaV-P. iv. 57 (?). 

asamskrta, adj. and subst. nt. (= Pali asamkhata, 
ep. of nibbana, perh. as uncreated by a combination of 
factors, but see CPD), unconditioned; as nt., one of three 
unconditioned things. The adj. occurs e. g. Lank 189.14. 
The three asamskrtani are akasa, pratisamkhya-nirodha 
(which = nirvana), aprati° (see pratisamkhya and 
aprati 0 ), Dharmas 32; in Mvy 2184 °tam, but 2185-6 
name only the 2d and 3d, not akaSa; without mention 
of the term asamskrta, and with substitution of nirvana- 
(-dhatu) for pratisamkhyanirodha, the three are named 
Lank 177.3; 197.12;' see also AbhidhK. La V-P. i.7.8. 

a-samkathya, adj. (neg. gdve. of Skt. samkathayati), 
not fit to be talked with; to be avoided in social relations: 
Lank 61.13; 331.10 °yah. 

Asamklrna, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i. 139.1. 
asamkranti-ta, condition of not passing (into another 
state): Dbh 36.25 sa sarvadharmanam asamkrantitam 
cavinasitam . . . vyavalokayati. 

a-samklista (= Pali asamkilittha), not impure, see 

asamkhya, nt., a high number: Mvy 8040. 

? asamkhyaya, adj., innumerable , occurs repeatedly 
(instead of regular asamkhyeya) in mss. of LY, and is 
sometimes adopted by Lefm. in the text: 86.15 (vv. 11. 
asamkhya, asamkhyeya); 112.4 (with most mss., v.l. 
°khyeya). Weller 23 would read asamkhyeya always, 
perhaps rightly; but the frequent occurrence of °khyaya 
in the mss. is strange. Like Weller I am unable to under- 
stand the long a in asamkhyaya-kalpakoti- 86.15; pro- 
bably read °ya- as in 112.4. Instr. of a-samkhya unlikely. 

asamkhyeya, (1) adj. (= Skt. id., Paii asamkheyya), 
innumerable. In Pali (see Childers s.v. kappo) as an adj. 
applied to kappa (see BHS kalpa), denotes a world-age* 
of a certain extent; in some definitions at least, of a 
length intermediate between a maha- and an antara-k°. 
Acc. to La Vall6e Poussin, AbhidhK iii.188, asamkhyeya 
kalpa means here le temps que durent un nombre asamkhyeya 
(10 a la 59me puissance) de mahakalpas. I have not noted 
the Pali usage in the texts excerpted by me (but see 
Przyluski, A^oka, 408). Typical of their use of this 
adjective with kalpa is SP 17.8 asamkhyeyai^i kalpair 
asamkhyeyatarair vipulair aprameyair acintyair etc., in 
which asamkhyeya has its normal Skt. mg. of innumerable; 
(2) nt., a very high number: Mvy 7802; 7932 (cited from 
Gv); Gv 106.20; 134.5; SP 316.7; Sukh 31.2; Divy 245.11 
tribhir asamkhyeyair; 246.2; 254.3. 

asamkiiyeya-parivarta, m. (Mvy) or nt. (Gv 134.6), 
square of prec, (2): Mvy 7803; 7933 (cited from Gv): Gv 
106.20 (gen.); 134.6 °tam, n. sg. 

Asanga, (1) n. of an author: Sadh 325.4 (~ 3?); 
(2) n. of a yaksa: May 43; (3) see Ary&sahga. 

AsangakayaraSmitejomati, n. of a Bodhisattva: 
Gv 81.20. 

Asangacitta, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 81.6. 
Asahgajhdnaketudhvaja, n. of a Tathagata: Gv 

Asahgadhdram, n. of a samadhi: Mvy 811. 
Asangadhvaja, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 2.18. 
Asanganetra, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 3.1. 
asanga-pratibhana, nt. and adj. (see pratibh&na), 
unobstructed confidence or readiness (in speaking): SP 
330.4 (vs) °bhani (so read with WT, for °bhane; KN 
°bhani) sthita (read with WT °ta£ ca) kecit; as adj., 
possessing this faculty, Mv i.119.16; asanga-pratibhana-ta- 
(one ms. omits -ta, perhaps correctly, °bhana being then 




a subst. as in SP 330.4) -pratilambho SP 327.6 (prose), 
attainment of the state of possessing this faculty. 

Asangabaladharin, n. of a Buddha: Gv 257.20. 
Asangabalavlryamati, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 81.26. 
Asangabuddhi, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 4.13. 
Asangamati, n. of a Buddha: Gv 285.21. 
Asangamaticandra, n. of a Buddha: Gv 256.8. 
Asangamukha, n. of a method of ‘Bodhisattva- 
salvation’ (Bodhisattva- vimoksa) : Gv 69.22 ff. 

Asangamukhaprave£a, n. of a Bodhisattva- 
dharani: Mvy 754. 

Asangavyuha (m.?), n. of a method of ‘Tathagata- 
salvation’ (T°- vimoksa) : Gv 80.23; 83.12. 

Asangasrigarbharaja : Gv 27.1, or (corruption) 
Asanga^riraja: Gv 11.5 (corrected 2d ed.), n. of a 

Asangasvara, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 4.8. 
Asangottarajnanin, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 2.14. 
asamgraha, see samgraha. 

asamjna- samapatti, f., a kind of samapatti, q.v. : 
Mvy 1502 =* asamjni- samapatti, q.v. 

[asamjnika, read asamjnika, q.v.] 
asamjnin (= Pali asanni-n), unconscious, only noted 
in the cpds. which follow; cf. also asamjnika. 

asamjni- sattva (= Pali asanna-satta), having a 
nature that is free from consciousness, or acc. to CPD 
Unconscious Beings, n. of a class of gods (see s.v. deva), 
one (in Dharmas and LV the 4th) of the classes of rupa- 
vacara gods of the 4th dhyana-bhumi (missing in the 
other standard lists of gods, but required to make up the 
standard count of 18 classes of gods in BHS or 16 in Pali): 
Dharmas 128; LV 150.9; Divy 505.23 (see s.v. asamjfiika); 
in Mvy 2297 mentioned as an example of dwellers in the 
9th and highest sattva vasa, but this is certainly an error; 
they belong in the 5th sattvavasa, see this word. This is 
confirmed AbhidhK. LaV-P. ii.199. f., where the name is 
discussed, and it is said that they dwell in (a specially 
high part of) the brhatphala heaven. 

asamjfii- samapatti, f., also asamjfla 0 , q.v., attain- 
ment of the state of those who are without consciousness 
(asamjziin, q.v.), or unconscious state of attainment : Mvy 
1987; AbhidhK. LaV-P. ii.200 f., with notes (it is lower 
than nirodha-sama°). See also asamjfiika. 

Asadf&agunakirtidhvaja, n. of a Tathagata: Gv 

a-saddadhana, pres. m. pple. (MIndic for a-£radda°, 
which is a v.l. here), not believing: °no Mv ii.338.10. 

asadha, read asadha? (see s.v. £adha), not tricky : 
in Mv ii.63.15 (vs) read prob. asadh’ (mss. cited as asadlT) 

Asani (read ASani, devouring one?), n. of a piSaci: 
May 239.6; n. of a raksasi: May 243.19. 

asantaka, adj. (a-santa-ka, cf. santaka ; ka-extension 
of a-extension of Skt. asa(n)t), unreal : SP 281.9 (vs) 
asantaka dharma ime. 

a-samdhi, in Lank 160.11 ff. non-attachment = 
parimocana, release; neg. of samdhi, q.v., in the unusual 
sense of attachment , binding, which it has in this passage, 
a-samdhuksana-ta, see sam°. 
asamanta, m. (Mvy) or nt. (Gv 134.9), a high number: 
Mvy 7808; 7940 (here cited from Gv); Gv 106.22 (gen.); 
134.9 °tam (n. sg.). 

asamanta- pari varta, m. (Mvy) or nt. (Gv 134.10), 
square of prec. : Mvy 7809; 7941 (here cited from Gv); 
Gv 106.22 (gen.); 134.10 °tam (n. sg.). 

a-samanvaharitva (neg. ger. of samanvaharati; 
cf. °vahrtya), without giving thought to the matter; negli- 
gently: Mv ii.97.10. 

a-samanvahara, m. (cf. Pali asamannahara ; neg. of 
samanvahara, q.v.), lack of concentration (with additional 
connotation of heedlessness, negligence): Divy 190.28 f. 

a-samanvahrtya (neg. ger. of samanvaharati, q.v.; 
cf. °vaharitva), without having concentrated the mind (by 
a special effort); in the phrase asamanvahrtya 'rhatam 
(or, 'rhacchravakapratyekabuddhanam ; or, sravakapra- 
tyekabuddhanam) jnanadarSanam na pravartate, without 
having concentrated the mind (by a special effort), the 
insight-into-truth of arhats (etc.) does not operate: Divy 
84.6; 190.8; 313.10 etc.; Av i.244.16; 255.5. 

asamaya-vimukta, adj. (= Pali °vimutta; opp. of 
samaya-vi°, q.v., with references), released finally, with- 
out term, absolutely: Mvy 1026. 

asama-sama, adj. (= Pali id.), without a peer , 
unequalled, supreme (lit. having no equal like him? Miiller, 
in Transl. of Sukh 9.16, equal to the unequalled): Mvy 
6379; usually ep. of Buddhas or Bodhisattvas, LV 100.2; 
RP4.12; Siks 139.5; Sukh 9.16; of the five groups (skandha, 
3) of factors in the development of dharma, Mvy 103; 
as n. of a former Buddha, Mv iii.231.3 f. ; as n. of a samadhi, 
Mvy 587 (text asamasama, but Index °mo, and so Mironov) 
= SsP 1422.13 (°mo). 

asamprakampin, adj. (= Pali asampak 0 ; to sam- 
pra-kamp-; cf. samprakampana), not subject to shaking : 
Mv i. 292.15 caturbhi vatehi asamprakampi. 

a-samprakhyana, nt. (neg. ot^ sam°, q.v.), lack of 
clarity , obscurity, confusion: Mvy 2672 (follows sam°); 
2478 = Tib. mi gsal ba (in a list of vices and fauits). 
Note that samprakhyana, q.v., is equated with a- 
sammosa, non-confusion, implying synonymity of sam- 
mosa and asamprakhyana. 

a-samprajanya, (1) nt. (neg. of sam°, q.v.; = 
Pali asampajanna), lack of intelligence or mindfulness 
(CPD, want of consideration or self-control): Dharmas 69 
(one of the upaklesa); Mvy 1978; Siks 82.21 °nyacarin, 
behaving with . . .; 123.14 °nya-par at antra, subject to . . .; 
(2) adj. (Bahuvrlhi), lacking in samprajanya: Siks 108.8 
musitaSrutis capi asamprajanyo; °-ta, state of being . . .: 
KP 95.10 (cittaviksepa-)asamprajanyata-dusprajnata-. 

asamprajftdna, nt. (neg. to an unrecorded sam- 
prajnana, from Skt. sam-pra-jna-), lack of perfect know- 
ledge: Mvy 6893 = Tib. Ses bzhin ma yin pa. 

a-samprabhita, adv. °tam (neg. of ppp. of *sam- 
pra-bhi-, unrecorded), in an unterrified manner: Mv ii.281.3 
°tam ca viloketi (mss. °kesi). 

a-sampramusita (neg. of ppp. of sampramusyate) 
(1) not deprived (of what is expressed by preceding member 
of cpd.): Mvy 803 -cittasampramusitah ; LV 275.6 sarva- 
dharma-dharany-asampramusitah; (2) not taken away or 
not lost: Gv 521.17 asampramusitena smrtibaladhanena. 

Asampramo$a, m., n. of a samSdhi: Mvy 526; 6sP 
1416.22 (misprinted °modho); 1417.2. Cf. Bodhicittasam- 
pramo$a. As common noun (neg. of Skt. sampramo§a, 
disappearance, loss , see s.v. sampramusyate) the word 
hardly needs recording; it means non-disappearance, non- 
deprivation, non-loss, e. g. Mvy 785 ; 961 ; etc. 

a-sampramo$ana (nt.; cf. prec. two), the non-loss: 
Suv 103.6 smrty-asampramosanaya, unto non-loss of 
memory or mindfulness. 

a-sampravana-tS (? neg. of sam plus pravana, 
Pali pona), (state of being) not devoted do, bent upon (in 
comp.): Gv 525.12 kayacittasampravanataya (see s.v. 

a-sampravedhana (nt. ; to sampravedhati, q.v.), 
non-shaking, non-perturbation: Gv 463.22, cited Siks 35.7 
sarvaduhkhasampravedhana-taya, because of the state of 
not being subject to perturbation by any sorrow. 

a-sampravedhin, adj. (= Pali asampa 0 ; as prec.), 
not subject to shaking or perturbation: Mv ii.300.5 (vs) 
acalo asampravedhi (n. sg. m.); 383.22 °vedhi (n. sg. m.). 
a-sambhinna, a-sambhedana, see sam°. 
Asambhrantavacana, n. of a former Buddha: Mv 
i. 141. 12. 

6 * 




asammosa (m. ; prob. Sktized from Pali asammosa, 
neg. of sammosa, to mussati, historically connected with 
Skt. mrsyati; but acc. to CPD to Skt. root mus), non- 
confusion (synonym of samprakhyana, clarity, q.v.): 
asammosa-dharmano Buddha Bhagavantah Divy 49.10; 
50.21; 154.15; 178.6; 190.11; -jnana-pravehasammosa- 
smrti-vyuha-gato (2d ed. °garbho) nama esa vimoksah 
Gv 524.12. Cf. next. 

a-sammosana-ta (cf. prec. and Pali asammosana- 
rasa, CPD), state of having no (mental) confusion : LV 
440.17 (smrti-nidhanam, sc. pratilapsyate) asammosana- 

a-sahita, adj. (= Pali id.), not sensible, see sahita (1). 

a-sahya, (1) adj. (in Skt. unendurable , insupportable ; 
irresistible), that cannot be supported , and so in hopeless 
state, lost, of a ship doomed to destruction: Divy 229.17 
asahyam vahanam; 502.14; (2) subst. (nt.), (what is in- 
supportable,) ill-health or bad luck (cf. sahya): Divy 258.16 
sahyasahyam prstva, having asked about good or bad health 
(fortune); (3) m., n. of a former Buddha ( irresistible ): 
Mv iii.237.8. 

asahya-sahin, adj. (only in. as epithet of a Buddha; 
= Pali asayha-sahin, also so used), prob. enduring (or 
sustaining, accomplishing ) what cannot be endured ( accom- 
plished , sc. by others); so the Pali comms. (e. g. on Pv 
ii.9.22) seem to take it; cf. Senart i n. 571, suggesting also 
the possibility conquering the unconquerable (but prefer- 
ring the other): Mv i. 255. 16; 256.1 °sahi (n. sg,), of Buddha; 
in Mv iii.109.19 read buddliasya asahyasShino (for text 
°tayino), with same verse in Pali Therag. 536 (asayhasa 0 ). 

as5ta = asata, q.v. 

asadi^a, see sadrsa. 

a-sjimpreya, adj. (neg. of sam°, q.v.; = Pali asap- 
paya), unfit , improper : Prat 526.15, as quasi-subst., an 
improper thing : (garhaniyam . . . sthanam apanno 'smy) 
asampreyam pratidesamyam (in a formula of confession). 

asaraka, adj. (= Pali id., Skt. asara), unsubstantial , 
empty , worthless (see synonyms below): LV 242.15 and 
Suv 57.14, of the body (kaya); SP 282.1, read with WT 
asaraka for KN na saraka, of conditions of existence 
(dharmah); Mv ii.145.19 (sarvadharmam) riktakam tuc- 
chakam asarakam, empty, vein, unsubstantial ; AsP 346. 
(9-)10 (punyabhisamskaro bodhisattvasya . . . hunyaka . . . 
riktaka) . . . tucchaka . . . asaraka ity evakhyayate; sas- 
trani . . . °kani (so, with n) Mv i.79.5 (vs), worthless (false) 
sciences (of the world). In some or all of these pejorative 
force may reside in the suffix -ka. 

Asiccheda, n. of a hell (cf. Asipattra): Kv 50.3 °de 

asita, (1) adj. (black, and hence) inauspicious , offen- 
sive; so AMg. asiya = asubha, Sheth, Ratnach. ; not in 
Skt. or Pali: LV 327.8 (vs) na ca jara asita, and (while) 
there is no offensive old age (so Tib, mi Sis, normally — - 
aSubha); (2) adj. ( — Pali id.; a-sita), unfettered , free: of 
Buddha, MPS 12.9; MSV i.12.14; (3) m. (= Pali id.), 
n. of a well-known sage, ‘the Buddhist Simeon': LV 
101.1 if. (his story told); 253.1, 15; Mv ii.30.13 ff. (his 
story; in 37.13’ called Kala (5), q.v., if Senart is right); 
144.8; 151.12; he was the maternal uncle of Naiaka, 
q.v., Mv iii.382.16; Divy 391.6; (4) n. of a Bodhisattva: 
Gv 442.18; (5) m. or nt., n. of a plant, as var. in mss. for 
d&itaki, q.v. 

Asitabhanu, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.139.5. 

Asidhara, n. of a raksasl: May 241.33. 

(asipattra, occurs as n. of a hell in Skt., see Schmidt’s 
Nachtrage, and in Mink 115.1 °ttre; presumably = the 
commoner asipattravana = Skt. id., Pali °patta°, sword- 
leaf-wood, e. g. Mmk 635.23; in this the trees have swords 
as leaves, which the wind blows down on those who live 
in it, Mv i.7.8.) 

Asimusaladhara, n. of a raksasl: May 243.32. 

Asuraka, n. of a pool near Nirati, the city of the 
Kimnaras: Mv ii.111.5. 

Asuradeva, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.141.2. 

Asuranemin, n. of a maharsi: May 256.29. Cf. 

Asuraprambhara (1 read °pragbhara?), n. of a 
mountain: May 253.34. 

Asura-lipi, n. of a kind of script: LV 126.3 (con- 
firmed by Tib. lha ma yin = asura). 

Asurendra, n. of a kimnara-maid: Kv 6.21. 

asecana, adj. (Pali id., CPD; = next; partly m.c.? 
§ 22.24), delightful , blissful: (of salvation) Mv iii.421.19 
adhigacchati (mss. °anti) padam bantam asecanam ca 
mocanam (°nakam would be unmetrical); manapasecana- 
Mv iii.66.4-5 (prose). 

asecanaka* adj. (= Pali id.; in BHS also asecaniya, 
asecana, and asec 0 , qq.v. ; etym. uncertain, cf. Tib. 
below), charming, pleasing, almost always, as in Pali, o oi 
sights (particularly of the appearance of persons, notably 
a Buddha) or sounds: Mvy 392 asecanako rupena (of 
Tathagatas) = Tib. sku by ad blta bas chog mi hes pa 
(chog ses pa — content), having beauty of form which one 
cannot be satiated with looking at, perhaps analyzing a- 
plus a form of secayati cause to drip, saturate, and so 
satiate; but I find no such meaning recorded for secayati 
or any relative. See CPD on Pali exegesis. Often associated 
with apratikula, not repulsive, of both sights and sounds: 
asecanaka-darSana, of lovely aspect, of Buddhas LV 427.20; 
Mv iii.259.17; Divy 226.27; 251.21; 547.12; of a stupa 
Divy 23.13; of the ocean, as compared to a park Gv 
194.21 (mahodyanam . . . mahasagaram iva . . .)asecanaka- 
darSanam (1st ed. asevanaka 0 ); foil, by apratikula, dar- 
sanaye (or °ya), fair and lovely to see, of Buddhas Mv 
iii.64.10; 379.9; 407.8; 425.8; °nako (both edd. °ka-) 
rupena, of an emperor Gv 333.19; panca ’secanaka dar- 
£anena, hastl nagai ca raja ca sagaras ca Siloccayo ’secanaka 
darSanena, Buddha^ ca bhagavatam vara iti Divy 334.15- 
16; of sounds, (ghoso . . .) manojiiah asecanakah aprati- 
kulah ^ravanaya Mv iii.226.17; 229.3; almost the same 
Sukh 36.1; 38.6; asecanakah ca . . . apratikulah ca, of 
Buddha’s voice Mv iii.343.1 ; (mahSprthivi . . . kampe, or 
kampayati . . .) ullokanlyam ca asecanakam (so, or ase- 
caniyam, q.v., mss.; Senart sometimes em. asec°) ca 
apratikulam ca (adverbs: in an admirable, charming, 
unrepellent way) Mv i.207.1 = ii.10.11; iii.341.8 (of the 
quaking of the earth). 

asecaniya, adj. (= asecanaka, q.v.), charming, 
pleasing, of sounds (habdah) LV 52.7; 411.10 (here several 
mss. asecanaka); and v.l. (one ms.) °yam for asecanakam, 
adv., Mv i.207.1 = ii.10.11. 

Askhalitapravaragra, n. of a former Buddha: Mv 

astamgama (m.; = Pali atthamgama, used as 
synonym of nirodha, as in LV; not in Skt., which has 
astamgamana, setting, of heavenly bodies), disappearance, 
cessation: LV 263.(12-)13 jatijaramaranasambhavanam 
astamgamaya (v.l. °gamanaya). 

astambhin, adj. (= BHS and Pali acchambhin, 
q.v.), not paralyzed with fear, not frightened: LV 84.14 
asamtrastah, astambhl; 318.12 anuttrasto ’stambhx adlno 

1 asti, (there, it) is: (1) alone or with nama, in strong 
asseverations: Mv ii.145.15 (also 18, etc.), in response to 
a question, I hope you don't see any bodily affliction, etc.: 
asti tata sarlre pratipidam pahyami, I do indeed (1 cer- 
tainly do) see affliction in the body ! etc.; iii.440.7 (without 
preceding question) asti nama tvam mohapuruso, you 
are most certainly a man of delusion !; (in response to a 
question, as in Mv ii.145.15) Jm 17.12 asti deva kimeid 
aham api . . . samanusmarami, 0 yes indeed, my lord, 1 
too have some remembrance .. .1; Mv i. 346. 20 and 347.8 




(and i.346.13 where text erroneously api for asti) asti 
nama tvam . . . adinnam anyatakam Salim adiyasi, you 
most certainly are taking .. A; (2) in Divy 424.27 asti 
khalu me (printed as a complete sentence): ? perhaps / 
have it\ — I know what I have to do l (followed by: purvam 
rajno 'sokasya grhadvaram anupraptah); (3) as prior 
member of noun cpds. (Pali also atthi-dhamma, -bhava, 
and natthi 0 ): asti-dharma, m., condition of being , and 
asti-nasti-bhava, condition of being and not being : LV 
393.7 (vs) na ca punar iha kaScid astidharmah, so ’pi na 
vidyati yasya nastibhavah, (8) ... tasya na bhot’ iha 

2 asti, noun (f. ?), property , goods , only in comp, 
with parityaga or °gin: Gv 332.21 sarvastiparityagataya, 
by the process of giving away all property (to beggars); 
333.24 sarvastiparityagi ; 540.6 sarvastiparityagena. 

?astopaka or astomaka, see ast°. 

asthana, nt. (= Pali atthana), opp. sthana (4, 5), 
q.v., (1) an impossibility , generally followed by a clause 
introduced by yat: LV 232.17 asthanam etad . , . yat 
kumaro aprapya bodhim punar iha agameya, it is im- 
possible that the prince should return here without having 
attained enlightenment ; Av ii.4.6; often followed by the 
synonym anavakaSo (yat . . .), as in Pali atthanam (etam) 
anavakaso: Gv 498.5; Divy 174.1 ; 207.9; 264.5; 270.13-14; 
Dbh 25.14; Lank 198.9 asthanam anavakasam coktam; 
in cpd. sthanasthana, possibilities and impossibilities , 
sound and unsound propositions or conclusions , Bbh 4.8; 
Mv i. 134. 12 sarvakarmesu nanasthanasthanakusalah clever 
in regard to various sound and unsound conclusions (or, 
possibilities and impossibilities) in dealing with all actions; 
sthanasthana-jnana (Pali thanatthana-nana), knowledge 
of . . ., the first of the 10 bala of a Tathagata, Mvy 120; 
Dharmas 76; LV 433.4; (2) impropriety (this is closer to 
Skt. usage, BR and pw): in Mv i.101.7 read asthanato 
for mss. asthananto (Senart em. asthanataye, unmetr.) 
from (because of) non-place, non-propriety, impropriety, see 
s.v. asthanata. 

asthana- ta, impropriety (cf. asthana 2): Mv i.101.2 
kevattakani karmani asthanataye na samupacaranti, 
what actions do they refrain from performing, because (such 
actions) are improper ? Senart omits na, which mss. read, 
and so misunderstands the sentence (pp. xxx and 455). 
Below in 1. 7 read asthanato, see asthana. 

asthi-bheda, m., acc. to pw 7 App., Knochenbruch; 
but rather pain in the bones , n. of a kind of disease-: in 
lists of diseases, Bhik 17a. 2; Mvy 9525 = Tib. rus pa la 
zug pa, or, rus pa zugs pa ; Chin, also bone-pain. 

asthi-yantra, skeleton, in phrase asthiyantravad uc- 
chrita-, of pretas: Divy 7.20; 8.19; MSV i.59.20; Av 

1.243.9 (Feer se dressant comme un squelelte). 

asthi-Sakala, °6ankala, °samkalika, °sakalikrta, 

°samkallbhuta (Pali atthi-samkhala, °lika, see CPD), 
{made, become) a skeleton : °sankala, thrice in Kalpanaman- 
ditika, see Liiders, Kl. Skt. Texte 2, 42; °sainkalika Mv 

1.21.9 (°kah, v.l. sakal°, parivarjyanti nirmansa snayu- 
samyuktah); 22.2 (°kayo, mss. °kaya, n. pi.); 24.9 (nir- 
mansa °ka); Siks 211.9 (°kam mamsasonitamraksitam 
snayuvinibaddham) ; °sakala Divy 239.29; 240.3, 11; Divy 
Index takes Sakala as skin, against which see Liiders, 
who does not cite the Pali equivalent, which conclusively 
proves his and my interpretation; °Sakalikrtah, made into 
a skeleton, Divy 476.20 (preceded by nirmamso); °sam- 
kallbhutani (mrtasarirani) Siks 211.11, turned to skeletons ; 
CPD cites ‘Skt.’ asthi-srnkhall, which is a Lex. word said 
to be n. of a plant, only; but whether Senart is right in 
separating this (and Pali atthi-samkhalika) from Skt, 
srhkhala (also °la), Pali sankhala, °lika, chain , is doubtful; 
Senart assumes secondary influence in Pali of the latter 
on an orig. (atthi-)samkala, °lika; but in AMg. the words 
for chain, samkala, °Ia, °liya (surely related to Skt. 

srhkhala) have k for kh, presumably by influence of AMg. 
samkalia = Skt. samkalita, united etc. (cf. also Pkt. sam- 
kalana, Skt. °na), and the BHS words here treated might 
have a like origin. It is significant that BHS, like AMg., 
seems clearly to have sankala and samkala, qq.v., chain. 

asthi-samghata, in. ( = Pali atthi-sam°), heap of 
bones , skeleton : Divy 61.21 yatra kasyapasya bhiksor 
asthisamghato ’vikopitas tisthati; 61.24; 76.27; 465.25. 

asthi-samjfia {= Pali atthika-sanna), (contemplation 
of) the notion of a skeleton; one of the asubha-bhavana 
or -samjna, q.v.: Mvy 1164; Bhik 27a. 3; SsP 59.15; 
1258.7 (here corruptly asmi-). 

Asthisena (= Pali Atthisena; the ‘correct’ Skt. form 
prob. Arstisena, cf. CPD), n. of a purohita’s son, previous 
incarnation of the Buddha: Mv iii.418.19 IT. (called a 

Asthisenasya jatakam (colophon), see prec., n. of 
a jataka (= Pali Jat. 403): Mv iii. 420.5. 

asthikrtya, ger. (= Pali atthikatva, °tvana), paying 
careful heed to: Mvy 1809. The Pali form is taken by comm, 
and modern exegetes as for arthikrtva. Our form might 
be a false Sktization of this. But Tib. rus sin ltar hdzin 
pa, taking hold in persevering (rus sin; but lit. bone-like'l 
rus pa, bone) fashion (alternatively, ched cher hdzin pa, 
taking hold more and more, with intensity). Is the resem- 
blance of rus sin to rus (pa) bone a mere coincidence? 
There is, however, a v.l. asthi°, which suggests derivation 
from a form of a-stha-; cf. asthiti. 

a-sparsa-vihara, m. (cf. sparSa- vihara- ta ; = 

Pali aphasu-vihara), discomfort: AsP 253.9 na casya 
asparsavihara amanaapah kaye utpadyeta. 

a-spharaniya, neg. gdve. (to spharati, q.v.), not 
to be pervaded or penetrated: Siks 249.5, 8 asphutam aspha- 
ranlyam (in 5, tvanmansasonitena; of the elements in the 
body constituting the adhyatmika akasadhatuh, line 3). 

asmakina, adj. (see s.v. asmakina), our: °nam 
karmaplotim Av i.242.9; 257.8 etc. 

asmimana, m. (= Pali id.), self-conceit, egotism: °nab 
Mvy 1949; Karmav 47.6; stem in comp. Mvy 1601 ; Divy 
210.5; 314,21; Dbh 28.26; 48.11. 

[asmi- samjna, SsP 1258.7, read asthi- samjna, q.v.] 
asya, also sya, apparently particle of emphasis; acc. 
to Senart on Mv i.45.1, = Skt. svid, Pali su (also assu). 
(Note that PTSD s.v. su 3 derives this not only from Skt. 
svid but also from Skt. sma, for which it there states 
that Pali also has sa and assa; but neither of these forms 
is cited in their proper places in PTSD; Andersen. Reader, 
Glossary s.v. sudam, also mentions sa and assa as occur- 
ring for Skt. sma but does not list them; PTSD s.v. assu 
cites once assa as v.l. for assu ; otherwise I have no record 
of Pali (as)sa as a particle.) In mss. of Mv anya or anyain 
is sometimes read for asya: evam asya syat Mv i.45.1, 5, 
9, 12; kim asya nama i.343.4; tasya sya dharma i. 292.1 ; 
kim sya nama, and kena sya nama, i. 346.8 and 9, 15 and 
16; 347.3. 

?aha, interj. of grief or objurgation (such a form 
may have existed in Pali, see PTSD s.v. ; cf. Skt. and Pali 
ahaha and aho), oh\ fie\: prob. read aha bhoh Mv i.8.1 
(Senart em. ahaha bhoh). 

ahamghata., m., in Kv 94.23 apparently self-slayer , 
suicide; text seems corrupt: ye matapitrghataka ahain- 
ghata stupabhedaka-s (so printed); ahamghata can hardly 
be part of the cpd. stupabhedakas; should we read aham- 
ghatakah, assuming accidental omission of the syllable kah? 

a-hasita-kesa, adj. Bhvr. (a-hasita, neg. of Pali 
hasita = Skt. hrsita, of hair), with hair not standing on 
end; so read with mss. Mv ii.44.10 (Senart em. sahita- 
kesa); one of the anuvyanjana of the Buddha. 

aharya-harinl, said of a river, acc. to Speyer car- 
rying away rocks or boulders: Av i. 235. 11 sa ca nadl ah° 
sighrasrotas te ca mrga durbalah. Perhaps rather, ( capa - 




ble of) carrying away a mountain ; in Skt. aharya (as adj. 
what cannot be carried away ) seems to be used as subst., 
mountain , not only in Lex. (BR) but in literature (Schmidt, 

ahitundika (also °aka?), m. (Skt. Lex. °ika, but in 
literature only ahitundika recorded; Pali ahi°, see GPD 
s.v. ahi-gunthika), (1) snake-charmer (the spelling °aka 
only Mv ii. 178.1, and with v.l. °ika 178.11; 179.12): Mv 
i.92.3; 131.5; ii.178.1, 2, 3, 11, 14; 179.3, 5, 9, 12, 13; 
183.14, 18; 188.20; Divy 436.28; 437.3, 9; 497.12; (2) n. 
of a brahman of SuSumaragiri : Divy 188.11. 

Ahibh&nur£ga, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i. 141.7. 

ahiri(ka), see ahrika. 

[ahirodaka, Divy 384.24, read hirodaka, q,v.] 

ahu, m.c., rarely for Skt. aho, interj.: ahu vancito 
’smi SP 62.4 (vs), alasl (so Tib., kye ma; and cf. aho 
61.12) I am deceived. But in 62.16 ahu = aham, as very 
commonly (§ 20.7). 

? ahrsvara, m. or nt., or adj., ( making ) a piteous 
sound , lamenting ); in Mv iii.43.3, 6; 45,17 the mss. almost 
unanimously read ahrsvaram (or °ra; once one ms. ahls- 
vara) krandamana(h), crying piteously, of hell-inhabitants. 
I cannot explain the form (it could be an adverb); but 

Senart’s violent em. bhlsmasvaram is unconvincing, even 
to himself (see his note). 

a-hethaka, adj. (neg. of hethaka, q.v.), not doing 
harm , or as subst. a non-injurious person: Mv i.364.6 
°ka . . . trnani bhaksayanti; 365.10 sattvaratnanam ahe- 
thakanam; ii.213.10 vayam ahethaka adusaka anapara- 
dhino; 215.11; 217.14; iii.363.9; ahethaka(h) Ud xxx.48. 

ahodima, read prob. uhodima or avaho°, see s.v. 

aho n5ma, interj. (the combination has not been 
found recorded), Oh, I say l : SP 102.12 (prose) aho nama- 
ham nirvrtiprapto bhaveyam yadi me sa putra imam 
dhanaskandham paribhunjlta, Oh, I say l I would be bliss- 
fully happy if this son of mine could enjoy this mass oj 
wealth ! 

[Aholukhalamekhala, see Maholu 0 .] 

(ahiri,) ahrika, ahirlka, adj. (= Pali ahirika; neg. 
to hri plus ^ka; in Skt. Lex. ahrika only = a Buddhistl), 
shameless: ahirlkaS (mss. ahirikaS) ca bhavanti Mv i.110.8 
(prose); ahrikena Jm 98.19 (prose); ahiriko anotrapo Mv 
iii.11.4 (vs; here used of a very ugly man, without other 
evident cause for the epithet); in Ud xx,5 oldest ms. 
ahiri (Bhvr.), later ms. ahriko (Sktizing). 


akahcuka, nt. (v.l. astuncaka, nt.; so Mironov), Mvy 
8996; context indicates reference to something worn at 
the waist; Tib. rgya can (or rgya lean), a kind of girdle, 
Ja., narrow, long money-bag made of net and securely 
joined to the sash. Das; Chin, belt or sash. The var. astun- 
caka seems probably a corruption. 

akattati (cf. akaddhana, and see s.v. kattati), 
pulls, draws: Mv ii.429.12 (prose), mss. (incorrectly) devi 
. . . brahmanena . . . akattati (passive is required ; read 
akattlyati or akattyati? v.l. akatti, cited with dental it!) 
kattamkriyati (q.v.); below, line 15, (rajagrhato) kattiya- 
mani, confirming the sense and approximate form I 
assume; draws hither, attracts, summons: Megh 306.17 (in 
a charm for rain invoking serpent deities, nagas) (sar- 
vanagahrdayani samcodayami) akattami, I incite, I draw 
hither the hearts of all nagas; there follow magic formulas 
(sara 2 hara 2, etc.), then, sarvaksetrani apurayatha 
sarvaSasyani varsatha, etc. Bendall renders ak° I murmur. 

akaddhana (cf. akattati, and see under kattati), acc. 
to KN Preface p. vii read in Kashgar rec. of SP for akarsana. 
Akampya Mvy 739, see Akampya. 

-akara, see -akara. 

akarsana, °na-ta, and °nl (cf. Skt. akarsana, nt., 
attraction), (a Buddha’s) power of attraction (of men, to 
himself and his doctrine): Mv i.314.2-3 (prose) akarsana 
esa buddhanam; bhagavata vaineyasattvanam akarsana- 
tayai (instr. ! for °ye; here perhaps rather by the exercize 
of that power) . . .; Mvy 4315 sarvatathagatakarsani. 

akalana (not in Pali, very rare in Skt., see pw 5 
and 6 App.), in Bbh 251.8 paravadibhir akalananuyogo, 
an activity of Bodhisattvas, perhaps regular practice (see 
anuyoga) of investigation (? careful consideration) by reason 
of {p. under the stimulus of) opposing teachers. 

akalusa, adj. somewhat turbid: Jm 145.14 °sa krsa ca 

akalpa (m.), probably = Pali akappa in sense of 
behavior, deportment (PTSD): Gv 22.20 (prose) vividhakal- 
peryapathanam . . . manusyanam, men of various deport- 
ment and behavior (see Iryapatha 4); and 22.24 nanerya- 
pathakalpaviharinam (janakayam). (The meaning adorn- 
ment attributed to this word in Skt surely does not fit.) 

gkahksati, °te (cf. kanksati, kariks£; in Skt. only 
desires, and so app. Pali akankhati), doubts: Mv i.165.3 
akdnksamana . . . vipandita sattva na jananti . . . sukham 
samadhim, creatures that are doubting and ignorant do not 
know bliss or concentration; perhaps Lank 14.19 (pracalita- 
maulin) yad-yad evakanksasi aham te tasya-tasyaiva 
prasnasya vyakaranena, (O chief of confused ones,) what- 
ever you are doubtful about, by explaining every such question 
to you I (etc.) (otherwise Suzuki); Sukh 99.6 is interpreted 
by the ed. as makanksayatha (i. e. ma ak°) mama ca 
tesam ca buddhanam . . . and have no doubt both of me and of 
these Buddhas; but it could as, well be ma kanksayatha 
(= kanksatha). (Also desires as in Skt., e. g. Mv i. 158. 14.) 

Akanksitamukha, m. pi., n. of a group of Bodhi- 
sattvas in Sukhavatl: Kv 13.23. 

-akara, disposition (as in Pali, much more clearly 
than in Skt.), in svakara, durak 0 , of good (bad) disposition: 
Mv iii.318.2-3 adraksit sattva durakara durvineya durvi- 
sodheya, adraksit sattva svakaram suvineyam suviso- 
dheyam; LV 393.16 (vs) santi vijanaka sattva svakaras 
(a m.c.) ca; 394.14 (prose) santi sattvah svakarah suvijna- 
pakah etc. ; 399.22 f. svakaran suvisodhakan durakaran 
durvi^odhakan (sattvan); 403.4, 9 (sattvah) suddhah sva- 
karah (suvineyah) suvijnapakah . . . 
akara- parivitarka, see pari°. 

akarayati (denom. from Skt. akara, external sign; 
so in Pali), makes known by a gesture or sign: Divy 403.10 
(tena ’ngulidvayam utksiptam na tu vag bhasita;) dvigu- 
nam tv aham pradasyami ’ty akarayati. 

akaranavakara (wrongly °pakara in Mvy), m., n. of 
a samadhi (cf. anavakara), complete or absolute in form: 
SsP 1423.11; Mvy 595, text °pakaro (so also Mironov, 
but one ms. °vak°). 

akarabhinirhara, m., n. of a samadhi, visible- 
accomplishment or effectuation in form: Mvy 593; SsP 

akalika, adj. (= BHS and Pali akalika; Skt. only 
adv. akalikam; so in Mbh.Cr. ed. 1.99.42 °kam for Calc. 
Bomb. °kah), immediate, not dependent on any . lapse of 
time , ep. of dharma: Mvy 1294; Siks 323.6. In a like ct n- 
text ak c occurs. 




[akaleyam, 1 sg. opt., Mv ii.253.17; so Senart; mss. 
akaleyam, akareyam; read akareyam, to Skt. akarayati, 
invites , causes to approach (here, birds into a net).] 

aka&a (m.), (1) region , place : Mv ii.49.3-4 kahim . . . 
aka$e pravrttajivo ti mrto ti, in what region (lit. under 
what sky?) is his life taking place , or is he dead ? ; (2) in 
SP 124.11 acc. to Kern voidness: (dharmam) akasagatikam, 
placed in voidness (as if synonym of Sunyata; but Burnouf 
qui a pour itendue Vespace ); cf. under dhatu 1 b, where it 
is made clear that akaSa, as the fifth of six elements (dhatu), 
means absolutely empty space ; (3) short for akasanantya, 
in cpd. aka£a-vijfiana° (etc.), Bbh 49.17-18, see s.v. 
naivasamjftanasamjftayatana; (4) emptiness , implying 
vanity (? cf. 2 above): KP 111.1 dvav imau . . . pravrajita- 
syakaSapaligodhau (see paligodha, and godha) ; katamau 
dvau? lokayatamantraparyestita ca, utsadapatracivara- 
dharanataya (read °ta?) ca. In vs, 1. 6: akaSabodhe (see 
2 bodha) imi dve pratisthite. 

Aka&agarbha, m. (1) n. of a Bodhisattva: Mvy 647; 
Siks 64.14 ff.; Kv 1.10; Mmk 312.4; 405.24; (2) n. of a 
work^ Mvy 1342; °sutra, Siks 10.14; 11.1; 59.10. 

Aka$ajflanarthapradlpa, n. of a Buddha: Gv 422.25. 
Aka&adhatuvipula, m., n. of a samadhi: Dbh 

Xka&aprati$thita, n. of a Buddha in a southern 
lokadhatu: SP 184.10. 

Xka&aplava, n. of a kimnara maid: Kv 5.24. 
£k£&amatar(a), pi., n. of a class of malevolent 
supernatural beings; also mahakasa 0 : Mmk 17.7 akasa- 
matara mahakasamatar&h. 

Aka6araksit5, n. of a kimnara maid: Kv 6.8. 
XkaSaspharana, m., n. of a samadhi: Mvy 528, 
= Aka&asphurana : SsP 1417.5. 

akasanantya, m. pi., the gods dwelling in akfiSanan- 
tyayatana: Mmk 19.11. 

akaSanantyayatana (= Pali akasanancay 0 ), (1) nt., 
stage of the infinity of space; as first of the stages of arupa- 
vacara gods (see deva), Mvy 3110; Dbh 34.11; as first 
of four arfipya samapatti -(q.v.), Mvy 1492; Karmav 
47.21; as condition of the 4th vimoksa, Mvy 1514; as 
condition of the 7th abhibhvayatana, Mvy 1526; as fifth 
sattvavasa, Mvy 2293; (2) m. pi., = next: Suv 86.11; 
cf. akasanantya. 

aka&anantyayatanopaga, m. pi., the gods dwelling in 
aka&anantyayatana : Dharmas 129. 

Aka&asangavimuktinirupalepa, m., n. of a sama- 
dhi: Mvy 623; SsP 1426.12. 

akimcanya, m. sg., one who is in the stage called 
akimcanyayatana: Buddhacarita xii.63 (wrongly queried 
by Johnston); pi., the gods who are in that stage , Mmk 
19.10. In Bbh 49.17-18 ayatana, at the end of the cpd. 
akaSavijnanakimcanya-naivasamjnanasamjnayatanam, is 
to be taken with each of the four members, including this. 

akimcanyanantyayatana, nt. = next: Karmav 47.22 
(as 3d of the four ariipya samapatti). Nonce-form, in 
which anantya is carried over from the preceding akasa- 
nantyayatana and vijnananantyay 0 . 

akimcanyayatana (= Pali akimcannay 0 ), nt., stage 
of nothingness ; as 3d stage of the arupavacara gods, 
Mvy 3112; Dbh 34.14; as 3d of the arupya samapatti, 
Mvy 1494; as condition of the 6th vimoksa, Mvy 1516; 
as 7th of the sattvavasa, Mvy 2295; Arada Kalama 
(Kalapa) taught the goal of association with this stage, 
LV 238.16 = Mv ii.118.3 °tana- (Mv corrupt, Senart 
a&ankitavya, q.v.) -sahavratayai dharmam de^ayati. 

akimcanyayatanopaga, m. pi., the gods who are in 
the stage of the prec. : Dharmas 129. 

akimcityayatana, m. pi., the gods who are in the stage 
(otherwise called) akimcanyayatana: Suv 86.12. Nonce- 
form, based on a-kimcit instead of a-kimcana. 

akirati (= Pali id.; in Skt. only Vedic, except ppp. 

akirna and cpds. with other preverbs), spreads out : prthi- 
vyam akirata MSV i.44.9. 

akirna- vihara, m., dwelling in crowds (opp. to 
solitary, monastic life): Mv i.89.17 °rena ca nartiyanti 
(a cause of backsliding with Bodhisattvas). Cf. Pali 
akinno viharami, DN ii.30.16. 

akirna- vihfirin, adj. (to prec.), dwelling ‘ in a crowd’, 
not alone: Divy 201.26; MPS 15.17. 

akutana (= Skt. akuta; §22.7), wish, purpose: Bbh 
125.22 yacanakam akutana-nimitta-matrakenaiva jnatva 
yathakamam deyadharmaih pratipadayati. 

akrstimant, adj., quick at learning: Mvy 2908. So 
Tib. (lobs skyen pa, or ldob rkyen pa), confirmed by 
surrounding words. 

akotana, nt. (cf. akotayati), beating (of clothes): 
Mvy 9257; cf. akotayet 9260. In Kyoto ed. there is a v.l. 
apakotana, but Mironov records no such reading and it 
is surely to be rejected. 

akotayati (= Pali akoteti; cf. kotayati), beats: a 
drum, LV 299.10 (ke cagata grahiya bheri yathaiva merur, 
so read) Skotyamanu (pres. pass, pple., n. sg. m., with 
merur) gagane sumanojnaghosam, . . . taking a drum, as 
if Mt. Meru (were) being beaten, (a drum) producing very 
pleasing sounds in the sky; Suv 22.2; a gong, gandir (gandy) 
akotita Divy 335.13; 336.11; 337.9; akotyatam gandl Av 
i.258.9, and similarly ii.87.2; Kv 13.8 (read dharmagandi- 
kam akotayanti); 36.17 dharmagandl-m-akotyamana sruta; 
hits, knocks on, a stick, Av i. 18.8 yastim akotaya; a door, 
Divy 117.26 dvaram trir akotayati ( knocks ; Index wrongly 
breaks ); MSV ii.80.9 kapalam akotya (cf. kapala-kotani); 
beats (clothes, in washing, cf. Pali akotita-paccakotita, 
of robes, misinterpreted PTSD), Prat 491.8 (puranaci- 
varam . . .) akotayed (text akoth°); suraktakotitam 
(. . . patam) Lank 363.9; Mvy 9260 akotayet would beat 
(clothes, in washing; follows ranjayet would dye); beats 
or presses (earth) down hard (cf. Pali Jat. i.264.20), Mmk 
37.21 (prthivlpradesam . . .) purayitva ca sv-akotitam 
samatalam .-. . karayet; caulks (a ship), AsP 288.10 navani 
anakotitam aparikarmakrtam cirabandhanabaddham, of 
an unseaworthy ship, that was not caulked or repaired, tied 
to its moorings a long time; 289.7 (navam subaddham 
bandhayitva) sv-akotitam akotayitva, having caulked it 
so as to be well caulked; in Siks 66.5 figuratively, of erring 
Bodhisattvas, te tatrakotitah svanamagrahanadarsanad 
bhayotpadanartham, they are then disciplined (perhaps 
originally physically beaten ? then, punished; Bendall and 
Rouse, struck at) by seeing their names mentioned (publicly, 
in accusation), in order to make (them) afraid. 

-akramanata = Skt. °na (§ 22.42), the walking upon 
or according to, moving in: LV 31.20 and 34.10 nyayakra- 
manatayai samvartate, conduces to observance of the rules 
(of conduct). 

akramati (in Skt. treads on, tramples, and so Pali 
akkamati; see akramayati), buries: Mv iii.365.1 so tarn 
rsiin pamsuna Skrametsuh (mss.; perh. MIndic a; Senart 
em. akrameti); 369.2 rsl (acc. sg. !) yam ca (mss. pamca) 
vatsa (acc. sg.) akrami . . . dandaki (n. sg.), and since he 
buried the rsi Vatsa (perhaps em. rsim, Vatsam); in 363.9 
tena (sc. dandakina) so vatso rsi drstva pamSuna akrama- 
yito (or *akramamapito, mss. ; prob. read akramapito with 
Senart, or akramapito, caus.), . . . was caused to be buried 
with dirt. 

fikramyati, °te = Skt. akramati, °te, or akramati, 
approaches: Divy 399.25 (prose) akramyate; LV 163.21 
(vs) akramya (2 sg. impv., rather than ger.). 

akramayati, Mvy 6914, app. caus. to akramati; 
causes to be buried (? or, trodden upon, oppressed ?) = Tib. 
gnon par (may mean press down, cover with earth, overcome, 
oppress) byed pa. 

(akroSana, abuse, scolding; rare in Skt., noted only 
JB, Whitney, JAOS ll.cxlv; Pali akkosana is less rare: 




Bbh 122.22 (na . . .) °naya . . . danam dadati, not in order 
to rebuke others.) 

[akhayita, at Mv iii.72.12 °ta, read khadita with 
v.l. or khayita, see s.v. khayati.] 
akhyata, see dur-a°. 

akhyayati (= Skt. akhyati; in Skt. only °yate, as 
pass., and so regularly Pali akkhayati, but once akkha- 
yantassa Jat. iii.106.6 (comm.), active, gen. sg. pres, jpple. 
In Pkt. Sheth cites gdve. akkhaiyavva = *akhyayitavya, 
implying pres, akhyayati), tells , relates : Mv ii.437.3 akhya- 
yatha relate !, 2 pi. impv. 

agacchati (cf. agama, agamayati), (1) is recorded , 
is handed down by tradition: LY 39.15 yatha brahmananam 
mantravedasastrapathesv agacchati, tadrsenaiva rupena 
etc.; 105.8 yatha hy asmakam . . . mantravedasastresv 
agacchati, narhati . . . kumaro ’garam adhyavasitum ; 
(2) seeks, hunts for : Av ii. 150.5 paScacchramanam (q.v.) 
agacchati na ca pratilabhate, seeks . . . and does not find. 

agataka, f. °ika, adj. (to Skt. and Pali agata), ( one 
that has ) arrived: -ka perhaps m.c., Divy 603.9 (vs) °kasya; 
endearing dim. (§ 22.34) LV 321.19 suvasantake . . . 
agatake; 322.6 °tika(h); 323.14 read with v.l. °tikam 
(acc. sg. f. ; ed. °tiko) na hi bhunjasi kaminikam; specifying 
-ka (§ 22.39), Mv i.232.7 yam nunaham agatako yena 
dipavati rajadhani cakravartipuram . . . pasyeyam ti, 
suppose I, as a returner (one characterized by having 
returned) to Dipavati, behold the Cakravartin’s city; Senart, 
note 557, assumes wrongly that the suffix has mg. of fut. 

-agatika (= Skt. agati, at end of Bahuvrihis), see 
an- agatika. 

agati- gati, nt. dvandva, coming and going (in succes- 
sive births): Mv i.4.7 (prose), read sattvanam agatigati 
(so one ms., the rest °gami; Senart em. °gatim) vividham 
(so, or °dha, all mss. ; Senart em. °dham) bhagavam 
abhijnasi. Cf. Mv i.9.2 (vs) sattvanam agatim gatim (here 
agatim, rather than °ti, is required by meter). The two 
words are often collocated in this sense in Pali; this use 
of each of them individually is, however, not foreign 
to Skt. 

agama, (1) m. (= Skt., as general term), traditional 
or canonical text; esp. applied to the four collections called 
in Pali nikaya, see Ekottarika, DIrghagama, Madhya- 
magama, Samyuktagama ; (2) in agama-vastu Mv 
i.318.7, mg. obscure; see vastu. 

agamana (nt. ; = Skt. and Pali agama), traditional 
or authoritative doctrine: Mv i. 218. 20 = ii.21.2 (vs) atra 
agamanam 6rnu, on this point hear what the doctrine is. 
Agamanagamana, n. of a ‘gandharva maid’: Kv 


agamayati = agacchati, comes: see §38.21. 
agamika, m., (a monk) that arrives at (or, returns to) 
a monastery; visitor, guest, arrival. Not in Pali, which uses 
agantuka (= Skt.) instead as pendant to gamika (q.v.): 
Mvy 8748, Tib. hons pa, arrival. Note that 8746 also has 
agantuka, defined Tib. bio bur du hons pa, sudden arrival. 

agamya (orig. ger. of a-gam; = Pali agamma, in 
both mgs.), with acc., with reference to, patriim a° Divy 
269.16; (much more commonly) owing to, because of, on 
account of, thanks to, (kalyanamitrany) a° Mv i. 243.13; 
kalyanamitram Av i.210.11; 211.14; Malinlm Mv i.313.5; 
Bhagavantam Divy 95.10; 97.18; 309.29; -bodhisattvam 
Siks 91.6; Devadattam SP 259.3, 6; tau sramanerav Divy 
404.25; tat sarvam imam markatam agamya Divy 350.17 
all that is owing to this ape (so mss., ed. wrongly em. 
agamyat); yam Divy 173.16; 175.25; -svagatam Divy 
188.6; tarn Divy 514.23; tvam Divy 129.25; 549.21; 
tava (as acc.!) Mv i.365.12; yusmakam (acc.) Divy 405.10; 
mamagamya owing to me (mama, acc.) Av ii.96.8 (ms.); 
1.321 . 13 (ms.); in Av i.239.6 ms. haplog. magamya, prob. 
intending mamag° (Speyer em. mam ag°, w T hich is of 
course possible); bhiksakavrttam a° Bbh 194.17; tarn 

.protsahanam ag° SP 350.3 owing to this instigation; MSV 
iii.22.14 (prose) corrupt, read perh., kim mamagamya? 
na tvaya-(as acc.)-m-agamya, for my sake ? not for your 
sake; ib. 24.5, read tvam (text tvam) agamya, owing to 

agadha-tara, adj. compv. (to Pali agalha; cf. next, 
and samagadha-tara), more serious (of evils): SP 227.6-7 
°taram papakam karma; very serious SP 483.2 (same 

agadhl-karoti, fut. °karisyami (cf. prec. and Pali 
agalha), I will make firm or strong: Mvy 6997 = Tib. dam 
por (or, sra bar) byed pa; the alternative Tib. renderings 
dan por (or, dra bar) byed pa seem to be corruptions. 

agamika, adj. (Skt. Lex.; no literary occurrence 
found, tho not marked * in pw; cf. Skt. agamin, future) 
of or pertaining to the future (opp. to samdrstika, q.v.): 
Mv ii.405.16 (vs) ma agamike vihanyahi hitva samdrsti- 
kam phalam, do not be subject to disappointment in regard 
to future (fruit), abandoning visible (actual, of the present 
life) fruit (reward). Senart’s note is wrong. 

agara, (1) m., a high number: °rah Mvy 7831 = Tib. 
yid yal; cited from Gv, but Gv 133.1 reads magara; 
see also agara; (2) see stry- agara. 

agarika (m., perh. also adj.; = Pali id., see CPI) 
s.v. agarika, a form not noted in BHS), householder, one 
living in worldly life: Divy 275.17 na bhiksuna agarikasya 
purastad rddhir vidarsayitavya; MSV i.248.19; in Bbh 
26.13, in comp., pravrajitasya agarika-vicitra-vyasanga- 
duhkha-nirmoksat, could be either n., householder, or adj., 
of the householder's life. 
agilayati, see agla 0 . 

Aguhyakadhipati, m. ~ (and prob. wrong reading 
for) Guhyakadhipati, q.v., ep. of Vajrapani and styled 
lord of yaksas (yaksendra): Mmk 25.12 evam ukta Aguh° 

agrhlta (— Pali aggahlta; cf. an-ag° and agraha), 
held back = niggardly; agrhitena cetasa (cf. Pali anagga- 
hita-citta) Divy 291.3; 298.11; Av i.173.12; 174.7; nagrhD 
tacittatayavasrjan ^iks 28.7, releasing (gifts) without 
niggardliness of heart; agrhita-pariskara, having utensils 
held back, stingy with objects , Divy 302.3; Av i. 250. 16; 
and repeatedly in a clichd with matsarin and kutukuncaka, 
see the latter for references. 

agneya, (1) nt., fiery (jewel), n. of a kind of gem: Mv 
ii.296.8 (vs) agneyamaninam (mss. agneya 0 ) ya abha 
gagane vidyutana va; Gv 499.23 (prose) agneyam nama 
mahamaniratnam sarvatamo’ndhakaram vidhamati; (2) 
m., with jatila (cf. Pali aggika), fire-worshiping, a kind 
of ascetic: MPS 40.51 (v.l. ag°). 

Agneyl, so doubtless read for text Agneyi, n. of a 
matar, the sakti of Agni: May 242.19. 

agrathita, perh. ppp. to Skt. a with gra(n)th, wrapped 
up (?): Mmk 145.(22-)23 khadirakasthair agnim prajvalya, 
patasyagratas caturhastapramanam agrathitah ahutini 
sahasrastam (read °tam?) juhuyat (etc.). 

agraha (presumably m. ; cf. agrhlta), niggardliness, 
holding back (from giving): SP 257.1 (after long description 
of how the Bodhisattva gave away everything, even his 
life) na ca me kadacid agrahacittam utpannam, and I 
never conceived a thought of holding back (wrongly Burnouf 
and Kern); Av i. 174.5 (vs; after 4 nadattva paribhunjlran 
na syur matsarinas tatha,) na caisam agrahe cittam utpa- 
dyeta kadacana, and there would never arise for them a 
thought of holding back (from giving). As Speyer points 
out in his Index to Av, KSS 90.22 probably contains the 
word agrahena with niggardliness, holding back from giving ; 
but this mg. has not been recognized; the ordinary Skt. 
usage is not quite the same. 

? agrivaniya, pi. °ya, represents some word for a 
tradesman or artisan; so Senart with mss. at Mv iii.113.10; 
corresponds to attiyanika or °vanika (q.v.) at 442.15. 




SglSyati, agilay 0 (= Pali agilayati), gets weary : Mv 

111.206.3 ma . . . agilayatu (mss. agira°; Senart em. cirayatu, 
clearly wrongly). See also avilayati. 

aghatana, equated by Tib. with nimitta, mark , 
sign, as boundary: tesam °nanam MSV iv.93.4 ft. 

aghattana (presumably nt. ; cf. Skt. aghattana), 
scraping, running aground upon (submarine rocks, of a 
ship), with gen.: Divy 229.24 antarjalagatanam parva- 
tanam aghattana-bhayam (said in reference to ships). 

aghatana, prob. m.c. for aghatana (= Pali aghatana, 
in same sense, Skt. id. slaughter-house, so also in Pali), 
place of execution (of criminals): SP 449.7 (vs) saci aghatane 
(2 mss. aghatane, unmetr.) upasthito. In LV 207.3 ed. 
aghatana, but see s.v. aghatin. 

agharate (Skt. Dhatup, only, gharati; Vedic jigharti, 
with a- in different mg.), drips: Siks 82.6 (vs) kaksasv 
agharate svedo. Tib. cited as hdzag, drip. 

aghata, m. (= Pali id.), malicious feeling, anger, 
hatred: Mvy 2104 (Tib. kun nas mnar sems pa, inaccurately, 
very tormented spirit ); Mv i.79.15 aghata-bahulas ca 
bhavanti (a cause of backsliding of Bodhisattvas) ; Av 

11.129.3 yo 'bhut sattvesv aghatah sa prativigatah (anger 
had characterized the person referred to); Bbh 161.12 
aghata-dttah pratigha-citto va; Karmav 27.17 ma te 
bhavisyati aghatah caksantis ca. 

aghatana, see aghatana; in this sense MSV iv.64.2. 
aghatayati (°teti; denom. from aghata, q.v. ; = 
Pali aghateti, with cittam and loc.), with cittam, hardens 
one’s heart against, cherishes hatred for, with loc.: Mv 

111.56.3 mahakasyape cittam aghatetva; &iks 188.9-10 
cittam naghatayitavyam (no loc.). 

aghatin, adj.-subst. (from aghata slaying with -in), 
murderous (person), murderer: LY 207.3 (vs) aghatina (so 
read with all mss. but one which omits the syllable ti; 
Lefm. em. °tana, wrongly) iva vadhyah, like murderers 
to be executed. In Ud ix.16 ms. aghatinah could possibly 
stand for aghatinah, but more likely read aghavinah with 

Angirasa (cf. Angirasa), ep. of Buddha: Mvy 77 
= Tib. hi mahi rgyud, (of the) family of the sun; MSV 


acariya, in. ( = Pali id.; MIndic for Skt. acarya), 
teacher; only in vss of most texts, but in prose Mv ii.87.12 
°riyo; in vss, m.c., acariya(h) LV 125.5; lokacariyana 
(gen. pi.) SP 59.5; °riyah 118.1; °riyehi 374.3 (note below 
in 374.7, vs, acarya-bhumau). 

acaryaka, f. °ika (as subst. = Pali acariyaka, 
teacher; Skt. acarya plus -ka), (1) adj. of a teacher: °ryakam 
padam avapa, attained the station of a teacher Jm 2.5-6 
(sakalasu kalasv); 142.16 (tesv, sc. dharmasastresu); (2) 
subst. teacher, esp. in Bhvr. cpds., as SP 81.1 (prose) 
svayambhujnanam anacaryakarn jnanam, . . . that needs 
no teacher; LV 377.14 svayam-acaryakam jnanam, that 
is self -instructing, acts itself as teacher; Av i.193.8 sacar- 
yakani tani kulani; but also as separate word Bhik 10b. 3 
acaryike (voc.) and 4 °yikam (acc.), both fern.; acaryaka- 
tvam Bbh 226.16 (prose) teacherhood, state of being a teacher 

acarya- musti, m. or f. (= Pali acariya-mutthi), close- 
fistedness of a teacher, keeping things (particularly instruc- 
tion) back from pupils: Mvy 6525 = Tib. slob dpon gyi 
dpe mkhyud (so also Tib. on KP) a teacher’s refusing to 
lend books; LV 179.12 °ti-vigato (preceded by: dharma- 
danenamatsarah); KP 1.4 dharmacaryamustim, cf. 1.11 
(vs) acarvamustim . . . dharme; Bbh 41.28 na ca paresam 
°tim karoti ; 106.18 nacaryamustim dharmesu karoti ; 363.14. 

aciksati (cf. also abhy-a°; hyper-Skt. based on Pali 
acikkhati, AMg aikkhai, under influence of Epic Skt. 
acaksati; the Pali forms are ignored in Geiger's Index; 
Pischel 492 considers the Pkt. forms redupl. from Skt. 
root khya, while Ratnach. derives aikkhai from a-caks, 

abbhaikkhai from both -khya and -caks. There is no 
doubt that BHS abhy-a-ciks- is associated with the noun 
abhyakhyana; Pali has equivalents of both; and I believe 
with Pischel that the whole group is based primarily on 
khya; but at least in BHS it is blended with caks; Skt. 
a-caks and a-khya are synonyms), tells, says , onlv in Mv: 
°ati i.243.6; 244.6 (em.); ii.408.7; 463.19; 464.17- 486.14: 
iii.74.16; 125.17; 132.16; 149.10; 164.15, etc.; °anti 

ii. 132.3; impv. °a ii.57.17; 58.15; °ahi iii.192.13; °atha 

iii. 72.16; fut. °isyami iii.74.3 (em.), 8; °isyam iii.258.13 ff. ; 
°isyati iff. 256. 12; °isyanti i.272.5; ppp. °ita i.355.2, 5; 
ii.73.14; 178.6; iii.40.4; gdve. °itavya ii.73.13; iii.256.12. 
Note aciksanti Mv ii.132.3, in a passage where all other 
texts incl. Mv i.228.7 have acaksate; but Pali acikkhanti. 

acinati (= Pali id.) = Skt. acinoti, accumulates: 
Ud xvii.5, puryati balo papena stokastokam pi acinam 
(= acinan; text unmetr. acinam; Pali Dhp. 121 correctly 
acinam; n. sg. m. pres. pple.). 

acirna-danda-ta (v.l. acirna 0 , so Mironov without 
v.l., but a- seems impossible), practise (or occupation) of 
wielding a club: Mvy 3812 ~ Tib. dbyug pa gcod pa, app. 
wielding a club; Chin, seems to mean use by a horseback- 
rider or messenger of a stick in driving his horse. The next 
word in Mvy is dutah, messenger. 

acusayati (cf. Skt. cusayati and acusana), sucks up 
or in: °yanti Sadh 125.12 (svaran); 149.14 (makarandam). 

achada, m. (cf. the following items), gift, present 
(not necessarily a garment I): Mv ii.98.3 lubdhakena vipulo 
achado (a rich reward ) labdho; iii.128.10 vipulo achado 
dinno; 162.16 tesam achadam dasyami (here gold minted 
and unminted, and garments, lines 14, 15); food, bhakta- 
chadena (Speyer em. °chadanena; not food and dress but 
a gift of food ) paripalanam karisyati Av ii.112.7; dharma- 
chada, a pious or religious gift , SP 445.12 (dasyamo . . . 
avalokitesvaraya . . .) dharmaprabhrtam dharmachadam 
(note achada as synonym of prabhrta! the gift given was 
a necklace, 1 muktahara, 446.1, again called dharmachada 
446.2); LV 352.5 f. dharmachadams ca sampresayanti sma 
(by which, yair dharmachadair, the universe became 
covered with many jewelled parasols). 

achadana, nt. = prec. (cf. next), gift, present (not 
necessarily clothes): LV 58.2 achadanani codgrhya; this 
vs deals with the same events described in prose 58.6 
sampra vary achadanani ca dattva (clothes might, but need 
not necessarily, be meiant); Mv iff. 177. 16 -pauruseya 
vestetavya (see ves.eti) bhojanachadanena sarvehi ca 
utsavehi samanvaharitavy a ; Bbh 115.7 kascit paresam 
bhaktachadanahetoh dasabhavam upagacchet; 269.24 
tasyaham ucitam va bhaktachadanam samucchetsyami . . ., 
7 will deprive him of his customary gift of food; bhakta- 
chadana MSV i.51.22. (Some take bhojanach 0 , bhaktach 0 
as dvandvas, food and clothing; while perhaps not impos- 
sible, this seems to me unlikely.) 

achadayati (Skt. id. and Pali acchadeti used of 
presenting with clothes, only, so far as appears ; in BHS 
also used of presents of clothes, but extended to other 
kinds of gifts; see achada, °dana), presents, with instr., 
rarely acc., of thing given, which may be garments, Divy 
29.6, 9 (vastrair achaditah); 89.18 (bhiksuh . . . vastrena- 
chaditah); 254.23 (navena patenachadita); Av i.32.5 
(vastrenachadya); 43.2 (vastrenachaditah) ; or the price 
of a garment, Prat 492.14 (civara-cetanakair . . .) bhiksum 
achadayisyami ; but also gold, Mv iff. 38. 12 prabhutam 
ca hiranyasuvarnam achadayanti (recipient not mentioned) ; 
life, Divy 136.18-19 ko ma . . . asaranam istena jlvitena- 
chadayed iti; 137.12, 13 jivitenachadaya, °dayitum; Av 
i.236.10 jlvitenacliadita(h); 300.17 °ditah; a gift of villages, 
Divy 445.9 (sa ca lubdhah) pancagramavarenachaditah. 

achaya, m. (Prakritic for achada, q.v.), gift, present: 
Mv iii.449.12 vipulo (mss. vipulena, but see the same 
phrase s.v. achada) achayo dinno. 




achindana(-ta), (cf. Pali acchindana), breaking , 
violation , in an-a°, non-violation: Siks 126.15 guruvaca- 
nanavamardanataya paravacananachindanataya cadeya- 
grahyavacano bhavati. 

achodita (?), ppp. (for achorita, cf. Skt. achurita, 
KSS, scratched , drawn ?), set , inlaid (with strings of jewels): 
SP 151.9 (prose) suvarnasutrachoditam (buddhaksetram). 
So both edd., but with only 1 ms. (KN); the others °achadi- 
tam covered. However, Tib. bris pa (acc. to WT), scratched , 
drawn , inscribed (if connected with hbri ba), would seem 
to support this reading. 

ajanya, also ajaniya, ajanya, ajaniya, ajaneya, 

adj. (= Pali ajanna, ajaniya, ajaniya, ajaneyya), of noble 
race , blooded , primarily of animals, esp. horses ; by extension 
used of men, esp. Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, and very 
rarely (meaning noble) of other, inanimate entities. Tib. 
(e.g. Mvy 1080, 4769, etc.) regularly renders can Ses (pa), 
omniscient , falsely interpreting the word as derived from 
jna know. In composition, the word in all its forms regu- 
larly (not always) follows the noun, e. g. asvajaneya, a 
blooded horse (orig. perhaps a thoroughbred of a horse ?), 
below. As separate word: of animals, yo asvavaram 
damayed ajaneyan (= °yam) vs. saindhavam Ud xix.7; 
ajaneya hayottamah Mv ii.487.20; iii.22.11; cf. yuktani 
aj§nyarathani Mv iii.441.10 chariots of (drawn by) blooded 
(horses), all hitched up; ajaneyau dvau balivardhav LV 
381.7; ajaniyo hastipoto Mv iii.130.7 (prose, no v.l.); of 
men, ajaneyanam sattvanam Gv 322.8; °neyah Mvy 1080, 
of sravakas; °neya ity ucyate LV 425.19, of the Tathagata; 
ajaneyo kahin ti nama (so Senart em., mss. kama) bhoti 
Mv iii.397.14, answered by . . . ajaneyo (v.l. °ya) tarn 
(Senart em. ti tarn) ahu bhuriprajha (mss. °jno) 398.12; 
voc. ajanya, addressed to Buddha, namas te mukta- 
yajanya Mmk 4.22; cf. Divy 617.16 ajaneya-mana, paying 
reverence to the Noble One (the Buddha); in KP 9.5 and 
10.5 dantajaneya-prapta; 9.14; 10.17 and 20 ajanya- 
prapta, all of Bodhisattvas (cf 10.1 ajaneya bodhisattvah), 
become noble (steeds), see s.v. prapta; the figure of a horse 
is surely intended here, since there is contrast with KP 
9.1 bodhisattva-khadunkah, the latter (q.v.) being a term 
pertaining in its literal sense to horses ; here may also 
belong Mv ii.264.14 ajaneya-vikrantam vikramantam, 
said of the Bodhisattva, striding with the stride of a blooded 
horse , or of a noble person (cf. the next following mahapuru- 
savikr itam vikr°), but possibly striding with a noble 
stride (cf. the preceding aparajitavikrantam vikr°), as in 
the next example; as prior member of karmadharaya 
cpds. or bahuvrihis based on them, occasionally noble , 
distinguished, in application to other than animate beings: 
catasra ima . . . ajaneya-gatayo bodhisattvenanugantavyah 
RP 14.13, noble procedures (listed as sugatipratilabha, 
gurususrusana, prantasayyasanabhirati, pratibh&napra- 
tilabha; is the literal meaning gaits of a blooded horse*!); 
ajaneya-svarah Mv iii.343.5 could, then, also be taken as 
having a noble sound (ep. of the Buddha’s voice), but in 
view of the preceding vrsabhasvarah and the following 
krauncasvarah it probably means having the sound of a 
blooded (horse) and belongs above; once, at least, this 
adj. precedes in composition the name of the animal to 
which it is applied, aj aneya-hasty-upetan Siks 26.14; 
but regularly this order is reversed (as in such cpds. as 
nara-sardula) and we find asvajaneya, m. (lit. thoroughbred 
of a horse) Mvy 4773 (misunderstood pw s.v. ajaneya); 
Divy 510.21, 22; 511.1 fi.; Mv ii.270.11 (mss.); Gv 400.13; 
Siks 28.3 (ms. aSvayaneyan) ; bhadrasvajaneya- Sukh 
60.8-9; hastyajaneya Mvy 4771; Gv 400.12; Siks 27.21; 
simhajaneya Mvy 4769; and (cf. above, and Pali puri- 
sajaneyya) by extension purusajaneya (the corruptions 
purusajaneya and °sajana occur in mss. and sometimes in 
edd.) LV 350.11, corresponds to Mv i.229.8; Mv ii.133.8; 
284.18; in Mv i.316.4 ed. em. purusajaniyam, mss. cor- 

rupt, reading doubtful; purusajanya Mv iii.109.5 (vs); 
Bbh 50.6 (voc., to the Buddha). 

ajavamjava (m. or nt.), coming and going, moving 
to and fro (jn the samsara): Mvy 5393 °va- (Mironov 
ajavam 0 , but v.l. text) samapannah == Tib. hon ba dan 
hgro bar ( coming and going) gyur ba; LV 205.12 (lokasya, 
people) . . . ajavamjavasamapannasyasmal lokat param 
lokam paralokad imam lokam samdhavatah samsaratah. 
See next two items. The word contains double forms of 
java or at least the root ju but its precise formation is 
not clear to me; is ajava moving swiftly hither, and java 
hastening away ? For the preceding part of this cliche 
see s.v. gunSvagunthitabhiita ; but the Pali correspon- 
dent does not contain ajavamjava 0 , at least in most of 
its occurrences. 

ajavamjava-t5 = prec. : Buddhacarita xii.41 °tam 
hitva prapnoti padam aksaram (Johnston’s rushing torrent 
of birth and death seems to me not quite accurate, but 
obviously the samsara is meant). 

5javamjavibhava, m. (see prec. two), state of moving 
restlessly to and fro (in the samsara): MadhK 218.4 °bhavena 
janmamaranaparamparaya samsaranam syat; 529.1 ya 
ajavamjavlbhava upadaya pratitya va. 

ajaniya, ajaneya, ajanya, see ajanya. 
ajavamjava-, see ajavamjava-. 
ajlva, m., = next: MSV ii.50.1 (prose), 
ajlvaka, m. (= Pali id.), a member of a heretical 
ascetic sect: SP 276.3 (to be avoided by Bodhisattvas); 
LV 405.4, and repeatedly in the sequel; MSV ii.49.4 ff. 
See next (1). 

ajlvika, (1) m. (= Pali id.) = prec.: MSV ii.83.19; 
LV 380.12 (v.l. °aka) ; Divy 393.20; 427.7, 8 (here identified 
with nirgrantha, 9); ajlvika, with a- m.c., Siks 332.1 
(vs); (2) nt. (= Pali id., Skt. ajlva), (means of) livelihood, 
profession: °bhayam (= Pali id.), danger due to profession 
or means of livelihood, Dharmas 71; (3) °ika, f. (= Pali 
id.) = (2): °bhaya- (as under prec.), Gv 264.9; Siks 296.5; 
Dbh.g. 2(338). 10 °ka-marana-’kirty (dvandva; -bhaya is 
understood from prec. line with all three items). 

-ajfiaka = Skt. ajna at end of adj. cpd. ; seeyathaj- 

ajiia (= Pali anna; in Skt. only command, which 
in Pali is always ana), perfect, esoteric knowledge, identified 
with arhatship: as object of aradhayati, gets perfect 
knowledge , LV 238.22, or of aragayati, id., Mvy 7602; 
aragaye, aor., Mv iii;53.9; aragayisyasi Divy 302.20; 
ajna-citta (in Pali nt. subst., a mind disposed to perfect 
knowledge ), in Bbh 105.7 Sjnacitta ekagracitt ah, Bhvr., hav- 
ing (such) a mind; in Mvy 7259 °cittena, not clear whether 
Bhvr. or Karmadh. ; samyag-ajna-vimukta (= Pali samma- 
d-anna-vimutta), freed thru perfect knowledge, Mv i.59.7, 9, 
12 (arhantanam) . . . °muktanam; Ud vi.19; xx.17,20; 
°suvimukta-cittaih Sukh 1.14. See also ajnendriya. 

ajfiakrta, adj. (ppp.), made subject to, with gen.: 
Mv i.311.4 brahmananam -ajnakrta (mss. °to, but f. ; 
Senart queries whether ajnlkrta is intended). 

Xjriata-kaundinya (= Pali Annata-kondanna, also 
Anna-k°; see Kaundinya), n. of the first of the bnadra- 
varglya monks; corruptly Ajiiana 0 LV 408.5, or Jnana° 
LV 1.6, v.l. both times (A)jnata°; Mv iii.328.20; .333.19; 
337.4; 338.20; 345.3; 347.14; 348.8; 349.6, 7; SP 1.9; 
33.5; 212.3; Mvy 1030; Divy 182.21; 268.5; Av ii.134.12; 
Sukh 2.2; °nyasya jatakam, colophon, Mv iii.349.3, and 
again (a different story) 353.13. 

ajfiatar (= Pali annatar), knower: LV 397.11 de4aya 
tvam mune dharmam ajnataro bhavisyanti. 

ajfiatavin, adj. (= Pali annatavi-n; §22.51), posses- 
sed of perfect knowledge: Ud vi.12, read °tavi for text 
°tapi ; °tavindriya ( = Pali annatavindriya), nt., the faculty of 
an djhdtdvin, °yam Mvy 2080; SsP 64.3 f. ; Bhvr. possessing 
that faculty, Sukh 56.12 °y^ft)* 

a j iiana 



ajnana (nt. ; neither Skt. id. nor Pali anhana is 
recorded in this sense), authority , substantially = Skt. 
ajna, Pali ana: Gv 493.2 kalyanamitrajnanam na vilo- 
mayanti. In LV 3.13 -asangajnana-, read -asanga-jnana- 
with best ms. A; so also LV 4.6; see Purvabuddhanu- 

ajnapana, f. °ni, adj., giving orders or instructions , 
authoritative: LV 286.9 yasau (sc. bodhisattvasya) vag 
ajnapanl vijnapanl . . . (long series of adjectives). 

ajflendriya, nt. (= Pali annindriya), the faculty of 
perfect knowledge (ajiia, q.v.): Mvy 2079. (Tib. renders 
ma ses pahi dban po, as if a-jne°, with neg. a-!) 

ajfieya, f. °ya, adj. (= Pali anneya, of dhamma), 
understandable , comprehensible : Mv i.172.14 °ya vijneya..., 
of Buddha’s voice (vaca); iii.342.16 °ya£ ca hrdayam- 
gamas ca..., of Buddha’s voice (svarah). The opposite 
is dur-ajneya (-vihara-viharinam) Gv 471.6, incompre- 

atakkara, m., = at°, q.v.: Bhik 17a. 2, in list of 

Atavaka (cf. At°; = Pali Alavaka), n. of a yaksa: 
Mvy 3377; May 15; Suv 161.13 (here samdhi permits 
interpretation as At 0 ); doubtless read so_(or At°) for 
Athavaka, Samadh p. 43 line 19; and for Artavaka May 

Atavika ( = Pali A|avl, cf. AgrStavika), n. of a 
city in Magadha, and of a river near it: MSV ii.51.8, 9. 

Atanati, acc. to Hoernle n. of a yaksa, but rather 
(with Hoffmann, Kl. Skt. Texte 5.8-10)_n. of a magic 
charm, contained or dealt with in the Atanatika sutra 
(see next): °ti, n. sg., and °tisya, gen. sg., Hoernle MR 
26. 15^ and 19. 

Atanatika (sutra), (= Pali Atanatiya-suttanta ; cf. 
prec.), n. of a work: Mahasamaj. Waldschmidt Kl. Skt. 
Texte 4, p. 175.2; fragments, containing the name as 
above, publ. by Hoffmann, Kl. Skt. Texte 5; on the name 
see pp. 8-10. Hoernle, MR 26 f., publishes a fragment 
from what he calls by its Pali name the Atanatiya (Sutra). 

?athya; if not an error, can only represent adhva, 
rich: SP 72.3 athyo; WT print adhyo* with their ms. K'. 

anatta, ppp. (== Pali, AMg. id., Skt. ajnapta; cf. the 
following items), commanded (very common in Mv, not 
noted elsewhere): Mv i.258.7, 16; 272.9; 273.5; 356.1; 
362.7; 364.12; ii.26.3; 32.2; 72.17; 101.6; 103.7; 111.4; 
112.6; 150.2; 156.5; 167.9, 11; 174.9; 180.4; iii.126.17; 
127.16, etc. 

anatti, f. (= Pali, AMg. id., Skt. ajnapti; cf. prec. 
and foil, items), command (not noted outside of Mv): 
anatti (ii.95.8 °tti, mss. °nti) dinna a command was given Mv 

i.360.10; ii.95.8; 153.13; anatti-karah doers of the bidding 
(of, gen.) ii.112.6; rajanattlye, instr., by the king's command , 

i. 274.2; 350.2; ii.48.6; 101.7; 167.11 (mss. raja-an°, Se- 
nart em. raja-an°); iii.132.2 (v.l. raja-an°). All prose. 

anattika (= °tti; AMg. °ttiya), command (only noted 
in Mv): n. sg. °ka Mv ii.436.18; 451.7; 453.13; 479.11; 
iii.266.3; acc. sg. °ka Srutva (so with v.l.; text °kaye) 

ii. 453.16; °kam deti ii.455.1; °kam kartum (so both mss., 
with MIndic shortening of a) iii.126.8; instr. raja-anattikaye 
(mss. raja-an°) ii.470.6. All prose. 

anapaka, m. (to anapeti, with suffix aka), one who 
orders or gives instructions: Mv i.361.21; 362.4, 6; 363.2, 
3, 5, 12. Senart reads anapaka in each case; the mss. are 
corrupt but invariably show short -a- in the second syllable 
(altho Pali has only anapaka). 

anapeti (for Skt. ajnapayati, rarely ajnap°(?); 
§2.15; Pali only anapeti, q.v. in BHS; Pkt. anavei and 
ana°^ commands (only noted in Mv; cf. prec. and foil, 
items); commoner than anapeti, but sometimes wrongly 
replaced by the latter in Senart’s text: pres. °peti Mv 

iii. 125.21 (mss.); 264.2; °pesi, 2 sg. ii. 490.8, 16; impv. 
°pehi ii. 1 08.15 ; 247.6 (mss. °yehi); in i.223.4 = ii.25.15 

mss. anayasi (sic) or anayati (v.l. °tti), 3 sg. orders , Senart 
em. anapesi or °ti, read prob. anapati or at best anapeti; 
in i.362.2, 5 read with mss. anapehi (v.l. °yehi) for Senart 
anapehi (impv.); in i.362.17 Senart anapiyanti, and in 
364.20, 365.4 and 5, Senart anapyati, all passives, and 
all to be read with short a, as the mss. clearly indicate 
tho with more or less corruption; read respectively ana- 
piyanti and anapyati (passives to anapeti). 

ana (= Pali id., Skt. ajna), command: Mv iii.7.16 
ya me (so Senart em. ; mss. corrupt, one mam, perhaps 
read mam-) ana (so one ms., acc. sg. ; v.l. [prjana; Senart 
em. anam, unnecessarily) pratikrose . . . 

[anapaka, see anapaka.] 

anapeti (= Pali id., Pkt. anavei; see anapeti, which 
must be read for Senart’s ana 0 in several cases), commands 
(only noted in Mv): impv. °pehi Mv iii.125.19; 3 sg. impv. 
pass, anaplyatu or °piyatu, be it commanded , L310.J.4. 
Aninetra, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 442.4 (text Ani°). 
Aninema, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 442.3-4 (text 

ani-pratyani-nirhara-yoga, instr. °yogena, by 

homosexual procedure: Mvy 6865 = Tib. khye hus khye 
hu hbyun bahi tshul du, by way of the manner (lit. hap- 
pening , procedure ) of boy with boy ; similarly Chin. (The 
Index reads ani°.) From an! or (Skt.) ani, axle-pin , and 
pratyanl, otherwise unrecorded, that in which the axle-pin 
fits (both in obscene sense). For such practices and their 
punishments cf. £iks 75.13 f. 

ataksati (recorded only RV and not in this sense), 
carves , chops in pieces: ger. ataksya (. . . gatrani) Jm 196.3. 

iitapa, m. or nt., in sasteh karsapananam arthayatape 
dharitah Divy 33.13, and atape vidharitah 16, apparently 
was assessed a fine (in the amount of 60 karsapanas). Per- 
haps corrupt; I find it hard to understand connexion 
with atapa heat (kept on a hot spot?). The Index omits 
the word. 

atapta-karin, adj., acting zealously: °ri Mvy 1806 = 
Tib. brtun cih byed pa; °rina(s), n. pi., Mahasamaj. 195.1; 
Waldschmidt, Kl. Skt. Texte 4 p. 5, regards atapta as 
hyper-Skt. for Pali atappa, nt., zeal , which PTSD derives 
from Skt. *atapya, to (Pali, not Skt. !) atapa, a much 
rarer form than atappa in Pali; but cf. atapin, which is 
common also in Pali. 

? Ataptarastra, perh. to be read as n. of a former 
Buddha, Mv i. 139. 13-14; closer to mss. (Attapta 0 or 
Attapta 0 ) than Senart’s em. Uttapta 0 , q.v. 

(atasya, adj. [Skt. id., rare, see Schmidt, Nachtr.], 
made of the atasi plant , flaxen: Mmk 131.22 [pate...] 
atasye valkalai [read °le] caiva suddhe . . .) 

atana, nt., warp: Mvy 7519 = Tib. rgyu. In Vedic 
used in a closely related way, e. g. Ait. Br. 8.12, lengthwise 
ropes (Keith) used in constructing the seat of a throne. 
Contrasted with vitana, q.v. 

atapana-, noted only in cpd. °na-parit3pana, which 
occurs in Pali too, (self -)castigation and (self -)torture (in 
ascetic practice): LV 211.12 anekavidhani kayasyata- 
panaparitapanani samutsahante ; 248.15 nanavidhaiS cata- 
panaparitapanaih kayaSuddhim paryesante; Gv 229.23 

atapayati (denom. to Pali atapa, cf. atapin), is 
zealous , shows energy: (asucimraksitani) sayanasanani 

socayanty atapayanti pravisajanti MSV ii.88.2 (and ff.). 

atapin, adj. (= Pali id., from Pali atapa, oftener 
atappa, zeal , with suffix -in; neither occurs in Skt.), 
zealous : °pl, n. sg. Mvy 1805; LV 239.4 (apramatta atapl); 
same passage Mv ii.118.11 and 120.3; similar phrase 
ii.285.1, also Divy 37.10, MSV i. 50.14 etc., and fern, 
(apramatta) °pinl Divy 618.3; Ud xix.l (asvah . . .) ata- 
pinah, n. sg. ( ardent , spirited ); Siks 31.3 aharaprajnatapino, 
n. pi., diligent in making proper distinction in food (Ben- 
dall and Rouse). 




ataia (m. or nt.), prob. watchtower : LV 193.18 (vs) 
prasadesu gavaksatoranavaresv atala-mancesu ca (all 
parts of a building). Apparently = Skt. attala (also atta); 
Tib. LV yan thog, which Das defines by the highest storey 
of a house, also ... a dome , and which in Mvy 5522 renders 
atta = attala. 

atiyantrika? prob. corrupt; &iks 361.7 (vs) vajrapany- 
atiyantrikaih, adj. with buddhakimkaraih ( servants' of 
Buddha ); acc. to Bendall’s note, Tib. choice charms (sel 
mchog; sc., of) Vajrapani; but'Bendall and Rouse Transl. 
with Vajrapani as their supreme chief (p. 317, without 

atireka (m.c. for Skt. ati°), excess : anga manorama 
divya-atirekah LV 49.15 (vs), his members are charming 
beyond divine ones. 

atlksnendriya, adj. (a-tiksna-indriya; cf. tiksnen- 
driya), of rather keen senses or faculties: AsP 387.2 sacet 
praksyaty, atiksnendriyo bhavisyati, tatas tam evam 
vaksyati, purvam api tvam tlksnendriyo ’bhuh. 

[atlri, acc. to Tib. (phyugs rdzi bud med) cowherdess : 
°rva(h) MSV iv.198.10. Read abhi°.j 

attamana(s), adj. (= Pali attamana(s), which is also, 
but less often, represented by aptamana(s), q.v., on which 
cf. CPD s.v. attamanas, which fails to note occurrence 
of apta° in BHS), glad at heart , delighted; esp. in certain 
formulas ; applied to the audience at the end of a discourse 
by Buddlia, e. g. Mv i.61.8 idam avocad bhagavan, atta- 
mano (n. sg. m.) ayusman Mahamaudgalvayano bhagavato 
bhasitam abhyanandat; Divy 197.26 idam avocad bha- 
gavan, attamanasas te bhiksavo ’bhyanandan; often in 
a series of synonyms, as tusta udagra attamanah pra- 
muditah prltisaumanasyajatah Gv 99.15; Suv 9.7-8; 
plurals of the same words SP 209.9-10; and variations, 
as hrsta tusta attamana (n. pi. m.) pramudita-pritisau- 
manasyajata Mv i.230.20; more briefly, tusto attamano 
abhut Mv ii.195.10; tusto attamana (n. sg. m.) imam 
udanam udanaye (aor.) i.351.13; dataram ca drstva atta- 
mana bhavati sumanaskah Bbh 4.24-; sattva attama- 
naso ’bhuvan RP 37.8-9; Indra attamana (n. sg. m.) 
tasyam velayam . . . Divy 195.24; drstva ca bhavati (bhoti) 
attamana (n. sg. f.) Mv i.213.13 = ii.16.16; doubled 
(intensive amredita), sa ’ttamanattamana(h) she, greatly 
delighted, Divy 2.8; Av i.14.11 ; so 'py attamanattamana(h) 
Divy 2.11; Av i.14.13; similarly Divy 440.24; neg. an- 
ttamana(h) Karmav 22.10 (follows atiSayitarosas candi- 
bhuto). Once printed attamanas, q.v. This word is to 
be analyzed as a cpd. of Skt. atta, ppp. of a-da, with 
manas. The alternant aptamanas is analyzable as apta, 
ppp. of ap (cf. manaapa, manapa) plus manas. Pali 
attamana(s) could represent both ; both may be Sktizations 
of that M Indie form. 

attamanaska, adj. = attamanas: °kah SP 103.13; 
fern., (pramodami) °ka bhavami Gv 290.3; comp. °kataro 
'bhun Gv 331,6; abstr. n. °ka-ta state of being delighted 
Karmav 37.16. 

-attamlya (or -attarrriya), semi-M Indie for -atmlya, 
in attattamlya, q.v. 

-atmaka, false Sktization of a M Indie form (§ 2.33), 
if not merely error, for Skt. atmaja, son, in nrpatmakaih 
KP 115.7; Tib. rgyal sras rnams kyis, by kings’ sons. 

atma-graha (m. : = Pali atta-gaha), belief in the 
(existence of a) self; see -graha. 

atmadlya, adj. (analog, to yusmadlya etc.), (one’s) 
own: MSV i.27.1 (so mss.; ed. em. atmly-). 
atma-dharani, see dharani. 

Atmana (! n. sg. °no), n. of a naga king: May 247.34. 
atmaniya, adj., also subst. nt. (= Pali attaniya), 
own, one’s own (= sva, adj., or atmanah, gen.): LV 301.21 
(prose) °yas ca duhitrlr (acc. pi.; § 13.15), his own daughters; 
usually quasi-subst., what pertains to the self, what is of 
the nature of the self (the existence of which is denied): 

LV 205.8 (see under -graha); 340.1 (vs) caksur na istri 
puruso na pi catmanlyam; RP 14.6 (vs) stri neha nasti 
ca puman na ca atmanlyam; KP 137.3 (vs) yasyeha atma 
(read natma? Tib. and Chin, render the neg. twice) na 
ca atmanlyam (so read, text °yam); Mv iii.66.8 and 14-15 
naivatma naivatmanlya sunya atmena va atinanlyena va 
(so Senart, prob. rightly; mss. corrupt, esp. in 8); iii.447.12- 
13 sunya an-atmanlya (Bhvr., having nothing that pertains 
to the self ) atmena va atmanlyena va. 

atmapurusa, m., attendant, servant: Divy 223.2 °sa 
anayantu bhavanto dhanuh. 

atmapurvapara, adj., perhaps having continuity 
with itself: Mv ii. 1.1 3-14 °ram ca tam kulam bhavati, of 
the family in which the Bodhisattva is born. Corresponds 
to labdha-purvapara Mv i.198.3; not in corresponding 
passage LV p. 24. Senart keeps the form with mss., but 
in his note suggests that it is false Sktization of M Indie 
atta- = atta- (synonym of labdha-). 

atmabhava, m. (rarely nt.), (= Pali attabhava, 
listed by Pali Lex. among words denoting body, CPD), 
body, synonym of sarlra: SP 11.7 siramsi kecin nayanani 
kecid dadanti kecit pravaratmabhavan ; 55.12 darsinsu 
te mahya tadatmabhavam ; 76.10 atmabhavapratilam- 
bhenaiva bhagavan sarvakridanakani labdhani bhavanti, 
only by rescuing their own bodies . . . ; 95.2 dirghatma- 
bhava hi bhavanti, of long bodies; 95.5 purusatmabhavam 
ca yada labhante, and when they get a human body; 236.13; 
237.9; 240.11 -stupe tathagatasyatmabhavas tisthaty 
ekaghanas . . .; 303.6 mahatmabhava rupena, great-bodied 
in form; 324.1; 406.13 atmabhavaparityagena, by sacrifice 
of one’s body; LV 48.20-21 divyamanomayatmabhava- 
pratilabdhah; 66.16 matuh-kuksigatasyatmabhavo "bhinir- 
vrtto ’bhut; 219.19; 306.9 -kakagrdhro- (mss. grddho-; 
Lefm. grdho-, misprint?) -lukagarudadisadrsatmabhavah, 
having bodies like . . .; Mv i.245.2-3 ayamato bahuyojana- 
satikena atmabhavena; ii.297.5-6 abhedyo simhardhapurvo 
bhagavato atmabhavo; 326.3 (puyam yakrdvrkkaphus- 
phasehi) gutham ca anyam anugatam atmabhave; 326.14 
asihi chinna bahuvidham atmabhava; 343.9 te nirminitva 
vikrtatmabhavam, distorted bodies; 369.7, 8, 10; Divy 
62.1; 70.3 °va-pratilambhe, attainment of a body, rein- 
carnation; same 140.20; 230.23 ff. yojanasatika atma- 
bhava, and the like ; °va-pratilambhe (as above) Av i. 162.5 ; 
same cpd. Suv 81.14; as nt., perhaps by attraction to 
associated form of sarlra, Suv 75.13 yusmakam etany 
atmabhavani samtarpayed mahataujasa yusmakam etani 
divyani sarlrani vivardhayet; Suv 225.7 (vs) tyakta 
maya atmabhavah; Dbh 19.4 (cpd. with list of bodily 
members, ending) -hrdaya-sarvatmabhava-parityago ; 
others, Av i. 171. 15: Samadh 22.44; Suv 83.4; Siks 21.21; 
44.19; Gv 8.9; 218.21; 220.7; 537.4; Dbh 31.10; 91.6; 
Bbh 42.21; Vaj 29.20; Sukh 27,15; Sadh 64.6-7; could 
be indefinitely extended (very common in most texts). 
The fact has not been recognized sufficiently clearly that 
this is a quite plain and simple synonym of Sarlra, body. 
The same is in general true of Pali, tho I am not prepared 
to say that it always has that mg. there. The Pali dic- 
tionaries (even CPD) do not bring this out clearly. 

[atmabhavata, Senart’s em. Mv ii.301.11 (prose) 
sarvatra bodhisattvasya °tam anupraptam samjananti; 
should mean embodiment, from atmabhava plus -ta. But 
the occasion is the approach to his enlightenment (not 
his conception or birth), which is signalized by miracles 
and cosmic portents. The mss. read °bhavanam, which is 
doubtless right: they recognize on all sides that the Bodhi- 
sattva’ s self-realization (atma-bhavana) is at hand.] 

atma-vrsabhita (see vrsa°), lordliness of person: 
°tam, acc. sg., Mv ii.261.5 ; 262.6 (in the latter v.l. °bhatam ; 
in the former mss. are corrupt but read °bhi°). This is 
one of the qualities attained by Bodhisattvas when they 
have acquired perfection of powers. 




atmatmlya, the self and what pertains to the self: 
Dbh 43.13; 50.29 (see attattamiya). Gf. Bbh 276.17-18 
asad atma va atmiyam va (contrasted with: samskrtam 
asamskrtam ca sat). 

atmlya (hardly in this sense in Skt. ; cf. anatmlya), 
characterized by a self; (what is) possessed of a self : Mv 
i. 173.4-5 napi ye dharma atmlyas te anatmato desayami; 
KP 94.8 °ya-samjna, false notion of something as being 
concerned with the self. 

atmopanayika, see upanayika. 
atmya (nt.), self-ness , the having a self or doctrine 
that there is a self, opp. nairatmya: LV 436.21 (vs) asti- 
nasti-vinirmuktam atmyanairatmya-varjitam (. . . dhar- 

atyayika, adj. (from atyaya; in Divy quantity of 
initial -a- ambiguous in samdhi, taken as aty° by Burnouf 
and Divy Index; on mg. see Burnouf, Introduction 628), 
transcending, exceptional, irregular, overstepping normal 
procedure: -pindapata, Divy 50.25, 26 tathagatasyatyayika- 
pindapatam . . . panca me Maudgalyayanatyayikapinda- 
patah . . . agantukasya, gamikasva, glanasya, glanopas- 
thayakasyo, ’padhivarikasya ca; Siks 17.19 sarvasattvanam 
atyayikam parigrhyaitad api me varjayan nisldami (so a 
Bodhisattva should ponder); perh. transcendent, very im- 
portant (matter); cf. ASoka, Rock Ed. 6, line 7 (Girnar); 
Kaut. Arth. Sham. 1 29.12. Bendall and Rouse troubles. 

Atreya, (1) name assumed by Kusa (2) as physician: 
MSY i.104.3; ( 2 ) n. of a distinguished physician of Taxila: 
MSV ii.26.7 fT. ; note that this is the name of a great 
physician in Skt. 

adapana, acc. to Kern SP Preface p. vii, in Kashgar 
rec. of SP for Nep. adapana. 

£dar&a-jriana, nt., mirror-like knowledge (one of the 
5 jnana of a Tathagata; = adarsana-j°, q.v.): Mvy 111. 
(See jMna.) Tib. me Ion lta buhi (like a mirror) ye Ses. 

adar&ana (nt.), mirror (— Skt. adarSa): Suv 106.5 
(vs) °na-padadyaS ca . . . niyojayet (see Nobel’s note). 
Cf. next. 

&dar£ana-jfi£na, nt., ?= adar6a-j°, q.v.: Dharmas 
94. Cf. prec. 

Adar£amandalanirbhas£, n. of a lokadhatu: Gv 

Adar£amukha, (1) n. of a prince (= Pali Adasamu- 
kha): MSV i.114.9 ff. ; ( 2 ) n. of a naga king: Mvy 3297. 

Cf. Adar£amukha. 

adana (= Pali id.; from Skt. a-da, suffix -ana), 
grasping, clinging (to existence or to worldly things): 
Mvy 2018 adana- vijnanam (follows aiaya-vij°, q.v.): 
an-ad°, neg. Bhvr., Ud iii.18 (== Pali Sn 741) vitatrsno 
hy anadanah . . . parivrajet. 

[adaye, in Mv i.10.2 (vs) ekaiko yojanaSatam adaye 
samprabhasati: read abhaye with same line Mv iii.454.18: 
each one shines with radiance (abha) for 100 yojanas.] 
?adarifa, adj. (ppp.) perh. to be read in Mv i.187.8 
(vs) where all mss. murdhna (one ms. adds ca) darito 
bhumau (one syllable short, without ca) ; if we read adarito 
(or adarito; ppp. denom. from adara?) meter would be 
correct; it should mean prostrated in respectful salutation 
with the head on the ground. (Senart em. violently: mur- 
dhina patito.) Uncertain. 

adi, beginning (= Skt.): adim, acc. (= Pali adim 
katva, with acc. object) and adau, loc., with following 
krtva, and preceding acc. (once gen.), lit. putting . . . first; 
so beginning with, starting with, from ... on (the loc. adau 
used precisely like the acc. adim; putting at the beginning = 
making the beginning; loc. only in Mv): tusitabhavanavasam 
adim krtva, beginning with (the Bodhisattva’s) dwelling 
in the Tusita-heaven (= from then on) Siks 292.5 == Dbh 
14.21, cf. tusitabhavanam adau krtva sarvesam bodhi- 
sattvanam . . . Mv i.147.15; avlcim adim krtva sarvanai- 
rayikanam sattvanam . . . LV 86.11, of all hell-inhabitants 

from Avici on; matuh kuksim adau krtva bodhisattvanam 
yavat parinirvrta Mv i. 145.2, beginning with the mother’s 
womb, of Bodhisattvas, until they have entered complete 
nirvana; bhartaram adau krtva Mv i. 147.8 (no man has 
any carnal desire for the destined mothers of Buddhas) 
from their husbands on; bodhisattvasya garbhavakrantim 
adau krtva Mv i.157.15; Sakyamunim samyaksambuddham 
adau krtva dasa bhumayo desita Mv i.161.7, beginning 
from (the time of) Sakyamuni the Buddha, the Ten Stages 
have been taught (not before! so, I think, the parallels 
require us to interpret, contrary to Senart n. 506); with 
gen. of the dependent noun (rather than acc.), evidently 
construed as modifier of adim: trsnayah paunarbhavikya 
adim krtva Lank 180.10, beginning with (starting from ; 
lit. making a beginning of) desire for rebirth. Cf. Mbh. Crit. 
ed. 2.52. 17d saha stribhir draupadlm adi-krtva, along 
with the women, beginning with Draupadi (i. e. D. and the 
others). This seems to be unparalleled in Skt. See also s.v. 

adika, adj. (— Pali id., see Childers; Mahavamsa 
12.21 phalam . . . adikam), first, initial: Siks 356.6. 

adikarmika, adj. and subst. (= Pali adikammika; 
cf. next; wrongly defined in pw 7.317 following Divy 
Index), beginner , (one who is) inexperienced: Mvy 387 
(tathagatah) sarthavaha adikarmikanam ; Divy 544.19-20 
anapattir adikarmikasya, for a beginner, (the actions 
described are) not a sin; RP 5.1 navakair adikarmikair 
acirapravrajitair (sc. bhiksubhih); Siks 11.6 °ka-bodhisat- 
tvena (misprinted °tvane); 20.5-6 °ko mahayane, a be- 
ginner in the M.; 60.11 °ka mahayanasamprasthitah ; Bbh 
205.2 iha bodhisattvo na adikarmika-tat-prathamakarmika- 
viryena samanvagato bhavati; 205.7-8 °ka eva (while 
still a beginner) sa bodhisattvah . . . ; 394.24 (bodhisattvam) 
°kam tatprathamakarmikam (see this); 395.2; Gv 503.9 
sarvadikarmika-bodhisattvasimhapotah pusyanti buddha- 
dharmaih . . . ; an-adi°, not inexperienced, SP 66.7 °kaS 
ca te bodhisattva bhavisyanti, ciracaritaku^alamula . . . 

adikarmin, adj. and subst., = prec. (which replaces 
this two lines below): &ik§ 60.9 °minam mahayanasam- 
prasthitanam kulaputranam . . . 

Xdity;a, m. (1) the gotra name of Sakyamuni’s family 
(= Pali Adicca): Mv ii.199.16 = Pali Sn 423; ( 2 ) n. of 
a former Buddha: Mv iii.237.3, 4. 

Xdityagarbha, n. of a Bodhisattva: Mvy 708; 
Dbh 2.6. 

Adityagarbhaprabhameghar£ja, nt., n. of the 
'gem-jewel* of a cakravartin: Gv 418.9. 

Adityateja(s), n. of a former Buddha: Gv 258.17 (vs). 

Adityadatta, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.138.5. 

Adityasambhava, n. of a Buddha in the south: 
Sukh 98.1. 

adiyati, or adlyati (formally looks like passive to 
a-da; = Pali adiyati, only with short i; cf. upad°, paryad 0 , 
sam5d°; all these regularly used with active mg., except 
paryadlyante KP 5.2 [and this is uncertain; Siks 148.9 
cites it as parihlyante] ; in Pali also active mg., except 
sometimes pariyadiyati, pass., PTSD; Geiger 175.1 calls 
these forms 'passive with middle meaning’; I prefer the 
term ‘active’), takes; takes on, assumes: Mv i.346.10 (yam 
nunaham) adinnam anyatakam (q.v.) Salim adiyeyam 
(v.l. adi°), opt., and (11) adiyeya (v.l. °yam, adi°) 3 sg. 
pret., also (12) adiyantam (v.l. adi°), acc. sg. pres, pple.; 
iii.93.16 (vs) puspam tyajitva phalam adiyante (mss. °nta, 
to be kept as imperf.?); 217.17 (bhavan . . .) dhanam 
adiyatu (v.l. adl°); 218.12 (bhavan . . .) striyah adiyatu; 
447.12 (yo imam samskaram) adiyati (no v.l.) va niksi- 
pati va. 

adisati, (1) (cf. Hindi ades salutation, late Skt. adeSa 
id., Edgerton, JAOS 38.206 f.), salutes, greets : °Sitavya, 
gdve., Mv iii.420.11 (na bhiksavo) yusmabhir adiSitavyam 
bhiksayam labdhayam, monks , you must not salute (the 




donor) when you have received alms; (2) (= Pali adisati, 
obj. dakkhinam, danam), assigns (the profit from a mer- 
itorious act, ordinarily a gift of alms to the Buddha and 
his monks; object daksinam, once daksinadesanam ; this 
profit is, at the desire of the donor, often assigned by the 
recipient, ordinarily the Buddha, to the credit of someone 
else, e. g. a tormented preta, or the deceased father of the 
donor): Divy 85.28-30 bhagavatabhihitah: maharaja, 
kasya namna daksinam adisami, kim tavaho svid yena 
tavantikat prabhutataram punyam prasutam iti (similarly 
86.3, 4, 7, etc.), the Lord said : O King , in whose name 
shall I assign the profit of your gift ? yours, or that of one 
who has produced more merit than you?; Av i.258.13 tato 
bhagavan . . . daksinam adisati (in a verse, 259.1-2, 
assigning it to the benefit of pretas); 264.12 bhagavamS 
ca ... daksinadesanam adisati (as prec.); 272.13 tato 
bhagavata pretasya namna daksina adista; but the same 
adiSati may be used when the subject is the donor, as in 
a frequent cliche in which a man hopes to have a son who 
will assign to him after death the profit of gifts and works 
of merit: Divy 99.6-8 asmakam ca (see atyatlta) . . . 
danani dattva punyani krtva namna daksinam adised, 
. . . he would assign the profit (of the gifts and virtuous 
acts) in my name; virtually the same Divy 440.30 adek- 
syati; Av i.15.1 and 197.3 etc. adeksyate; but elsewhere, 
(3) when the donor (not the Buddha) is the subject, the 
caus. adeSayati is used; so in the same cliche just men- 
tioned, Divy 2.(15-)16 . . . daksinam adesayisyati, (my 
son . . .) will cause the profit to be assigned (to me) ; Av 
i. 264.2-3 putraka . . . mama namna buddhapramukham 
bhiksusamgham bhojaya daksinam adesaya...; Divy 
10.28 (asmakam) ca namna daksinam adeSaya (also 
addressed by a father to his son). See s.v. daksinade£ana. 

adlkaroti (see s.v. adi), starts from (acc.), makes the 
starting point : ger. °kariyana, SP 192.1 (vs) avidya (acc.) 
adikariyana eaksuman, prabhasate maranam anantaduh- 
kham (so apparently mss., combining the note to KN 
ed. with that to Kern’s Transl. SBE 21.185), starting with 
ignorance , the Enlightened One expounded death and infinite 
misery. This reading is perfect in meter and sense. Pos- 
sibly adi is to be taken as a separate word, = adim; 
certainly it means the same as adim kr-. 

adinava, m. or (rarely) nt., once perh. adj., (= Pali 
id.; clearly Buddhist word, despite rare occurrences in 
late Skt., and despite adinava-darsa in Vedic, see Schmidt 
Nachtr., s.v. adinava, and Renou, JA 1939 p. 391), 
misery , evil, danger, mishap, wretchedness : nt. noted only 
Mv iii.297.12 taye atra mahadlnavam utpaditam; m. 
(unambiguously) Mvy 7309 °vah; Divy 9.21 and 335.12 
°vo ( mishap ) ’tra bhavisyati; Divy 190.25-26 ime canye 
adinava madyapane; 224.24-25 krta kamesv adinava- 
katha, grhaSramapadasyadinavo bhasitas; 329.21 yah 
kaScid adinavo, any disaster whatever (may occur); same, 
MSV i.44.19; Karmav 33.14 tatha daSadinava Nandika- 
sutra uktah pranatipatasya; 42.6 pancatrimSad adlnavah 
suramaireyamadyapramadasthane ; often with loc. of that 
in, or in connection with, which the evil is manifested, as, 
kamesu adinavam drstva Mv i.283.19; iii.193.1; 418.20; 
450.8; mitresu adinavam (read °va, m.c.) sammrSanto 
Mv i.359.2 (vs); tarn tiryagyonisu mahantam adinavam 
drstva Mv i.27.11, similarly 29.13; 30.11; drstva adinavam 
loke Mv ii.166.6; other Iocs, above and below; but occasion- 
ally gen. instead, kayasyadinavam sampaSyan LV 208.9; 
pranatipatasya Karmav 33.14 (above); or prior member in 
comp., samsara-dosadina^a-nih£arana-(== nihsa°)-ku£alah 
LY 180.15; lokadinavam lokanihsaranam api deSayami 
Gv 191.25; in contrast with asvada, asvadadlnavesu Mv 
i.134.1 in enjoyments and miseries; kamana asvadam . . . 
adinavam ca kamanam bhasate purusottamah Mv i.l 84.13- 
14 (vs); others, miscellaneous, aham ca adinava (acc.) 
tatra darSayim (WT °yi) SP 90.3 (vs); tarn kampille 

mahantam adinavam drstva Mv i.284.8; etam adinavam 
aciksisyami Mv iii.74.8; adinavadarsavi ( = Pali °dassavi-n) 
perceiving the misery or danger, n. sg. of °vin, kamesu 
Mv i. 283. 18-19; ii.144.16 (here text °darsi, v.l. °darsavi); 
without dependent noun, °£avi, followed by nihsarana- 
(or nihsa°; delete final -h in the first passage) -prajnah 
(or -prajfio) Mv iii.52.5; 201.5; °va-dar^in = °va-darsavin, 
tatradinavadarsinah Bbh 29.20 (tatra — strisu); in Bhvr. 
cpds., (kamah) sabhayah saranah sadinavah sadosa iti 
LV 213.1; anantadinava marsa kamah Jm 114.15; bahva- 
dinavas ca grhavaso RP 48.2-3; once apparently adinava 
alone, uncompounded, used as adj., wretched, evil, miserable, 
Mv i.33.11 (vs) sarvam adinavam lokam (parallel with 
adipitam, prajvalitam, prakampitam, in same vs applied 
to lokam). 

adiptaka, adj. (= Skt. adipta plus -ka), ablaze, on 
fire: SP 88.5 (vs) °ke jvalasahasrapurne (sc. grhe); perhaps 
ka m.c. 

adipta&irascailopama (in Mvy °celop°), adj., and 
°ma-ta, subst., (state of being) like one whose head or 
clothes are on fire (i. e. who is in extreme danger and needs 
nirvapana, the putting out of the flames; applied to one 
leading a worldly life; in Pali adittasisa and adittacela 
occur as separate cpds., AN iv.320.26, cf. also SN v. 440.7): 
°mah Mvy 1802; Siks 54.3-4 kusido ’ham bodhis cadipta- 
siraScailopamena bahun kalpan . . . samudanetavya; 
191.8-9 parakramasampannata adiptasirascailopamata 
jnanaparyestya (here state of realizing , being aware, that 
one’s head and clothes are on fire, and so in next); Gv 493.2 
idr£yadlpta° °pamataya (text separates idrgya dipta°) 
kalyanamitrajnanam na vilomayanti. Bendall and Rouse 
in £iks Transl. misunderstand the word. 

adiyaka, m. (to adiyati, adi°, with -aka), one who 
takes (up, or on), assumes (the samskaras): Mv iii.447.16 
aham so atra karako va karapako va utthapako va 
adiyako va niksepako va (sc. of the samskaras; such things 
are not to be said); similarly 448.5. 
adiyati == adiyati, q.v. 

Aduma (Pali Atuma), n. of a (Malla?) village: MPS 
28.24 (Tib. a-du-ma). 

[adrSya, Gv 498.1, see adr^ya.] 
adeya-vacana, adj. Bhvr. (= Pali adeyya-vacana, 
also -vaca Vin. ii.158.17; in PTSD defined as Karmadh., 
but actually Bhvr. in all citations traced [Jat. vi.243 seems 
to be an error]); also °na-ta, abstr. state of being ... 
(this); of welcome, acceptable, i. e. pleasing, agreeable 
speech : Bbh 29.(16~)17 satyavacano ’pKunaparusasam- 
bhinnapralapabhyasah adeyavacanataya hetuh; 31.15-17 
°cano bodhisattvah priyavaditaya arthacaryaya samanar- 
thataya ca sattvam samgrhnati paripacayati, idam 
adeyavacanataya ... phalam...; Mv i.270.6 °cana ca 
bhavanti kirtanlya ca bahujanasya (of devotees of Bud- 
dha); Suv 80.11; Siks 351.7. Gf. next. 

adeya-vakya, adj. Bhvr., = prec.: Mv i.103.5 °ya£ 
(of Boddhisattvas) ; Karmav 29.27 an-adeyavakya api 
adeyavakya api (L6vi qui ont la parole antipathique ou 

3de£ana, (1) (== Pali adesana-, cpd. with patihariya), 
reading of the mind: Bbh 264.21 sa rddhya cittade^anaya 
. . . (sattvan vinayati) ; usually in cpd. adesana-pratiharya, 
trick or marvelous ability of mind-reading, reading other 
people’s thoughts , see s.v. pratiharya; (2) in daksinade- 
£ana (once °na), assignment of profit of good deeds, see 
that cpd. 

Sde^ayati, causes (daksina, the profit from gifts or 
works of merit) to be assigned (to someone else); see s.v. 
£idi£ati (3), of which this is the caus. 

-adharsaka, see sv-a°. 

-3dh£ra, see 6rutadhara. 

-adharaka, see ^astradharaka. 

adharana-ta (= Pali id., wrongly defined in PTSD; 




adharana only doubtfully in Nirukta 7.11, where Sarup 
reads rasa-dharanam), holding firm, maintenance: LV 35.18 
dharanipratilambho . . . sarvabuddhabhasitadharanatayai 

Adharanamudra, n. of a samadhi: Mvy 525; = 
SdharamudrS, q.v. 

Adharani, n. of a goddess: Mvy 4288. 

Xdharamudra = prec. but one: SsP 1416.20. 

adharayati, with object Sastram (cf. Sastradharaka, 
which makes the mg. unmistakable), wields, plies (a 
knife): Divy 39.(6-)7 (santi . . . sraVlaka ye 'nena putika- 
yenardiyamana . . . Sastram) apy adharayanti visam api 
bhaksayanti . . . there are disciples who, afflicted by this 
stinking body, even wield a knife (here, against themselves!), 
even eat poison ... (or kill themselves in other ways). 

adhavana (nt. ; Pali id.), in comp, with following 
paridhavana, running around, to and fro, this way and 
that : &iks 268.(12-)13 labhahetor labhanidanam adhavana- 
paridhavanam dauhSilyasamudacaranafn ca. (In Pali the 
verbs adhavati and paridhavati are frequently used to- 
gether in this sense.) 

adhikaranika, adj. (not in this sense elsewhere; 
from adhikarana, q.v., with suffix ika), given to disputes : 
JBbh 171.5 sacet prakrtya kalahakarah syad adhikaranikah ; 
MSY ii.188.2; iii.5.9.’ 

adhipateya, nt. (anomalously m. Mvy 7192 °yah = 
Tib. bdan du hgyur ba (or bya ba), so also Mironov; 
= Pali adhipateyya, see below; from adhipati, roughly 
= Skt. adhipatya, which is used in AbhidhK., see Index, 
in ways not closely parallel to the Pali usage), control, 
influence, mastery , prime motivation (lit. overlordship). In 
Pali esp. used of one of three influences leading to virtue, 
attadhi® (q.v. CPD), lokadhi®, dhammadhi 0 , see Childers 
s.v. adhipateyya and Vism. 1:14.1 fT. ( the influence of 
oneself, i. e. conscience or self-respect; the influence of the 
world or public opinion; the influence of dhamma or regard 
for moral principles as authoritatively laid down). In 
BHS little evidence is found for the existence of these, 
tho Speyer (Transl. 114) renders Jm 80.14 (hrivarna- 
pratisamyuktesu) lokadhipateyesu ca (sc. upaneyam) by 
. . . the regard of public opinion, perhaps rightly. On the 
other hand, lokadhipateya-prapta LV 425.5 can only 
mean arrived at the overlordship 6f the world; it is one of 
a long list of epithets of the Buddha as the one that has 
‘turned the wheel of the Law’; it is preceded by lokagurur 
. . . lokarthakara . . . lokanuvartaka . . . lokavid ity ucyate, 
and it would be absurd to interpret it as under the control 
of public opinion. (See also LV 179.20-21 s.v. fidhipate- 
yata.) Mv i.16.12 = 18.5, 15 = 19.5 = 20.10 (evam 
khalu) punah adhipateya-matram etam tatropatteh, but 
this, of course , is only the principal cause (controlling 
influence) of rebirth there (viz. in one of various hells); 
Gv 19.8 na tad balam na tad adhipateyam * . . (samvidyate), 
that (sort of) power or controlling influence (is not found); 
oftener at the end of Bhvr. cpds., Sik§ 117.3 mahakarun- 
adhipateyam, (any action of Bodhisattvas is . . .) controlled 
(influenced) by supreme compassion; Siks 250.5 caksurin- 
driyadhipateya rtiparambanaprativijnaptih, recognition of 
the sense-object form , which (recognition) is controlled by 
(— dependent on) the sense of sight; Dbh 11.20 (tac cittam 
utpadyate bodhisattvanam) mahakarun&purvamgamam 
prajnajnanadhipateyam . . .; Siks 322.15 dharmadhipateya, 
of Buddhas. See next. 

&dhipateya-ta (from prec.), (1) state of overlordship 
or control; (2) at the end of Bhvr. cpds. ending in °teya-, 
state of being under the control of . . . (lit. state of having 
... as controlling influence ); (1) LV 204.(17-)18 (purvam 
maya svayambhuvam) adhipateyatam abhilasatS, of old 
by me (Buddha) desiring supremacy over (first place among) 
Self-existent Ones; LV 179.20-21 -punyasambharabala- 
visesanasadrgl- (better would seem to be 0 sadr$im, which 

is read by Calc, but none of Lefm.’s mss.) -lokadhipate- 
yatam samdarsya, (said of the Bodhisattva) manifesting 
an unexampled state of mastery over the world thru . . . ; 
(2) Gv 17.25 buddhadhipateyatam, state of being under 
the control of the Buddhas; 68.18 supratisthitasya bhiksor 
maitryadhipateyataya, . . . because he is under the influence 
of love; KP 99.6-7 cittam . . . rajasadrSam sarvadharma- 
dhipateyataya (so read for text °pateya, uninterpretable), 
(in a passage decrying the vanity of cittam,) citta is like 
a king, because it is controlled by all the states of (conditioned, 
transitory) existence; at least, this mg. seems more con- 
sistent with the context than because it is the ruler of all 
states . . ., but this latter is what Tib. means (chos thams 
cad la dban byed pahi phyir); in that case to 1. 

? adhimanika, adj. (adhimSna plus -ika), proud: 
so v.l. for text abhimanika in SP 38.12; 39.4. 

adhimoksika, adj. (to adhimoksa plus -ika), of 
zealous application: °kam samadhim MSV iv.237.7. 

adhisthanika, m. (to Skt. adhisthana, capital, seat 
of government, plus -ika), pi. people of the capital, or perhaps 
government men: °ka£ ca chattram pattam mukutam 
cadaya . . . agatah MSV i.68.14. 

adhyatmika (= Pali ajjhattika), internal: adhy° 
ayatana, q.v., the sense organs or powers, in contrast 
with bahira ayatana, the objects of sense , Mv iii.66.3. 
See also abhasa. 

ana, breath (so Skt. Lex.) ; in Pali and BHS apparently 
replaces Skt. prana in cpd. anapana, q.v. Pali seems not 
to have the cpd. *panapana. 

-ananaka, f. °nika, = Skt. anana, face, at the end 
of Bhvr. cpds., with endearing dim. connotation (§ 22.34) : 
LV 322.10 pattra-vibodhita-ananika(h) ; 11 sulepana-ana- 
nika(h); 13 paripurita-candra-nibhananika(h); all in vss, 
all applied to the daughters of Mara. 

[ananta-pattika, given by Das for Tib. mthah skor 
which in Mvy 9191 = dnanda-pattika, q.v.] 

[anantariya, nt., °yani, Mvy 2323; but prob. read 
with Mironov anantarya, q.v. Cf. however next.] 

^nantarlyaka, adj. (cf. prec. and anantarya), in 
prayatnanantarlyakah (so correctly Index, and Mironov), 
immediately occurring (as a result of effort): Mvy 4493. 

anantarya, adj. and subst. nt. (in Skt. as subst. nt., 
unmittelbare Folge , BR, or unmittelbares Darauf, . . . 
Nachher, pw; cf. °rlya, anantariya, and next, also 
upanantarlya) ; as subst. nt., not limited to evil con- 
notation and much as in Skt., Gv 250.25 bodhicitto- 
(lst ed. °catto-; corr. 2d ed.)-tpadapra£amsaparampara- 
nantaryani, enlightenment-thought-production-laudation-se- 
ries-immediacies, and a long series of terms ending likewise 
in °paramparanantaryani, actions or events succeeding one 
another immediately, ending in 251.18-20 bodhisattva- 
susuksmajnanapraveSaparamparanantaryani, tany asyah 
sarvaromavivarebhyo nirmanakayameghan ni£caritva 
sattvebhyo dharmam deSayamanan (read °manany7) 
apaSyat; Gv 522.13 upapatty-anantarya-citte (but here 
perhaps as adj.) the mental state which immediately precedes 
rebirth (see upapatti); perhaps in same sense Mvy 1206 
anantarya-margah, of the 8-fold noble path as characterized 
by immediate succession (of its stages, one after another) 
or causing immediate results, as below; the latter surely 
in £ik$ 17.20 pancemani . . . anantaryani yair anantaryaih 
samanvagata bodhisattvah ksipram anuttara (read °ram) 
samyaksambodhim abhisambudhyate (read °yante?); here 
Bendall and Rouse 19 translate continuities, but better 
procedures bringing immediate, speedy (desirable) results 
(note ksipram; the five are listed in what follows); see 
also anantaryasamadhi ; otherwise the word has been 
noted only as adj. with karman, or subst. nt. without 
karman; (evil) action bringing immediate retribution, deadly 
sin (= Pali anantariya or °rika, with or sc. kamma, see 
Childers s.v. pancanantariyakammam) ; there are five 




such, viz. killing of mother, father, or an arhant, causing 
dissension in the order of monks, and deliberately causing 
a Tathagata’s blood to flow (same list in Pali): pancan- 
antary ani Mvy 2323 (Kyoto ed. °tariyani but Mironov 
°taryani ; list of 5 given 2324-28) ; Dharmas 60 (with list) ; 
Mv i. 243. 18 °ryani krtani (listed and described in the 
following, down to) 244.17 etani pancanantaryani karmani 
krtva mahanarakesupapanno ; Siks 257.11, 12 and Lank 
138.2, 3, 8 (without karmani); Mmk 57.2 pancanantarya- 
karinasyapi, even of a doer of . . . ; Siks 60.5 (after a list 
of the five crimes) ebhih pancabhir anantaryaih karmabhir 
. . . ; two or three of the list mentioned, Divy 260.5-8 yada 
tasya triny anantaryani paripurnani . , . papa esa pitrgha- 
tako ’rhadghatako matrghatakas ca, triny anenanantar- 
yani narakakarmasamvartaniyani karmani krtany upaci- 
tani; Divy 567.27 dve tvaya anantarye karmani krte (killing 
of father and of an arhant bhiksu); others, Gv 228.21-22 
°rya-karma-karinam . . . sattvanam; Bbh 166.8 °ryam 
karma krtva; Sukh 15.4 °rya~karinah . . . sattvan. 

Anantaryasamadhi, the fifth of the adhimukti- 
carya-bhumi, Mvy 901. (Printed Anant°; correct in 
Index and in Mironov.) See anantarya. in Sutral. xiv.26, 
comm., identified with laukikagra-dharma, q.v., 4th 
and highest of nirvedha(-bhaga), q.v.; ib. 27 explains 
that it is called this, yato grahakaviksepo hiyate tadanan- 
taram, because the ‘ dispersion ’ (confusion) of the Subject 
(grahaka) is abandoned immediately after (attainment of) 
it. Lit., then, immediate concentration or concentration of 
immediacy. In Dharmas 101 occurs as the 4th of four 
samadhi (q.v.). Mv i.291.11 (vs) yam ahu anantariyam 
(mss. ahuh an°, meter demands Senart’s em.) samadhim, 
samadhino tasya samo na vidyate. 

Ananda (= Pali id.), (1) n. of a well-known disciple 
of the Buddha, a Sakyan: son of Suklodana Mv iii.176.14, 
and of Mrgi Mv ii.157.9; iii. 176.15; called servant (upastha- 
yaka) of Buddha Divy 90.7-8 ; 396.15-18 ; 612.1-2; called 
Ananda-sthavira Mv ii.114.9, Ananda-bhadra SP 217.8; 
218.12; in Mv iii.47.10 ff. story of how his followers among 
the monks proved imperfect, and how he was rebuked 
and instructed by Mahakahyapa; called a haiksa SP 2.8; 
a few (out of many) other occurrences are Mv i.77.16; 
iii.225.10ff.; SP 215.1; 216.3; 221.3; Divv 20.6; 56.2; 
69.9; 72.17; 76.10 (= 465.11); 91.21; LV 2.4; 60.12; 
73.2; 87.3; 443.7; Suv 202.5, 6; Sukh 2.11; 92.7; Karmav 
155.2; Bhik 3b. 2; (2) n. of a Sakyan youth (perhaps = 
prec.?): LY 152.12; 153.21; (3) n. of a cakravarti-raj an 
(listed among other names ordinarily applied to disciples 
of Buddha): Mvy 3609; (4) n. of a devaputra: LV 6.12 
(but omitted in some mss. and prob. not original); (5) n. 
of a yaksa: May 18; ( 6 ) n. of a king (prob. not = 3): 

Anandacandra, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.139.9. 
Snanda-pattika, m. (nom. °kah), Mvy 9191 (so also 
Mironov) = mthah skor, defined in Das by Skt. ananta- 
pattika, Eng. all round; ... the whole circumference , the 
perimeter. So also Chin, circumference ( edge going all around ). 
Context seems to indicate circumference (of a robe); per- 
haps hem? Cf. ananda. ^ 

Ananda-bhadra, see Ananda (1). 

Anandamala, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.139.9. 
ananda, app. hem (or fringed), around a cushioned 
seat, cf. ananda- pattika: MSV iv.75.10. 

?anandika, a kind of ascetic: Mv iii.412.7, see s.v. 

Anandita, n. of Mara's doorkeeper: LY 302.11. 
anandi, joy: Divy 37.24 °dya nandisaumanasyam 
bhavati. Acc. to PTSD, this stem occurs in Pali, Jat. 
vi.589.11, where anandi-citta should be read for °di vitta. 
an-abhiramya, adj., m.c. for an°, q.v. 
anapana (= Pali id.), breath (see below): °na-bha- 
vana-vidhih Mvy 1165; °na-smrti (=- Pali °na-sati), mind- 

fulness of breathing , Mvy 1166; Bbh 110.24; 204.26; 396.22; 
Ud xv.l; °nanusmrti, id., SsP 60.8; on this and SsP 
1443.8 (where text anapa-nusmrtir) see s.v. anusmrti. 
The word is an old dvandva; ana (= prana) plus apana 
(cf. Skt. pranapana, on which see G. W. Brown, JAOS 
39.104 ff.). In Pali commentarial diction replaced by 
assasa-passasa (= a£vasa-pra£vasa, q.v.). Tib. on 
Mvy 1166 anapana (-smrtih) renders dbugs rnub pa dan 
hbyun ba, breathing in and out; the same or related terms 
are used for a&vasa and prasvasa. It is clear that Tib. 
understands ana = asvasa as inbreathing , apana — pra- 
svasa as outbreathing. There is BHS evidence supporting 
this interpretation of asvasa- prasvasa, q.v. 

anapeti (= Pali id.), caus. to a-nl, see § 38.55. 
anaha (m. ; Skt. Lex. id., not in Pali or Pkt.), height 
(of a man): Divy 546.12 kldrSas tasya rajno anaha- 
parinahah. Usually aroha (which read?). 

anijya = aninjya, q.v.: adj., Av ii.199.5 anijyam 
^antim; in Mv ii.132.15 there is a v.l. anijya- or an- for 
°ninjya- of text. 

aninja = aninjya, q.v. (Mv i.34.11; ii. 419.11). 
aninjya = aninjya, q.v. 

Aninetra, Aninema, see Ani°. 
animitta, adj. and subst. nt. (from Skt. animitta 
plus suffix -a), causeless(ness); usually parallel with 
£unyata and apranihita, qq.v.; as in the case of apra- 
nihita, it is often hard to be sure whether adj. or subst. 
is intended, but sometimes certainly the latter; sometimes 
preceded by £unyata in comp, so that an- or an- would 
be equally possible, see Sunyata; clearly subst. nt. Dbh.g. 
29(55). 6 bhavate idam animittam; AsP 204.12 (napi) 
animittam pravartate; 256.13 na ca . . . animittam va 
apranihitam va anabhisamskaro va (and other noms. 
masc.) . . . iujyate; Bbh 317.3 dve animitte (the only 
noun which could be understood is vihara, masc.); more 
or less clearly adj. Bbh 276.10 animittah samadhih (in 2 
SQnyata-samadhih, 5 apranihitah sa°); KP 125.3 Sunyata 
animitta apranihitah (all seemingly acc. pi. 1) ca dharmam 
hrutva; other cases, LV 428.9 animitta-vihari ; KP 94.4 
(prose) °tta (read °ttam? prob. subst.) cikitsa; Lank 
274.4 yogi animitta-pratisthitah ; AsP 298.6 °tta-gatika(h) 
. . . sarvadharmas (cf. parallel 5 hunyata-gatika) ; Dbh.g. 
29(55). 14 °tta-varadam ; hunyatam . . . animittam (corr. 
°ttam, which would make the form adj.) RP 16.13 (see 
s.v. adhimukta). 

? t anisada (= Pali anisada, nt.), sit-down , rump, 
buttocks : Mv ii.125.13 (prose), mss. evam eva (me) anuhi- 
dana (Senart em., ‘desperately’ as he says, parsuka) 
abhunsuh. True approximate reading proved by Pali 
parallel, MN i.80.14 = 245.29, anisadam hoti. In Mv pi. 
verb seems to indicate that the noun was pi. (for dual); 
the stem may have been anisldana, or the like. 

anucchavika, adj. (= Pali anu°), suitable , conformable , 
appropriate: Mvy 7175; 7019; Bbh 145.22 °kair aupayikaih 
pratirupaih . . . °sambharaih. 

5nuttarya(?) see anuttarya. 

Snudharma, f. °I, adj., conformable to religion: Bbh 
61.23 anudharmya (v.l. anudharmyaya, see anudharmya) 
kathaya, instr. 

anupathika, adj. or subst. m. (to Skt. anupatham with 
-ika), (person) along the road: °kair drstas MSV i.52.8. 

5nupurva (= Skt. °va, nt., and °vi, f. ; perhaps read 
°vl here?), regular order: Mv ii.224.(ll-)12 (jatena jivaloke 
sarvena avahyam, for which read °ya m.c., martavyam) 
esa kilanupurva. 

anubhava, m. (= Pali id., Skt. anu°) dignity , power , 
greatness: SP 175.8 (vs) upapannu tasyo ayam anubhavo. 
Here a could be m.c., but it is regular in Pali in prose as 
well as vs (see CPD s.v. anubhava); the explanations in 
PTSD s.v. and Geiger 24 do not satisfy me. 

anulomika, adj., f. °ka or (oftener) °kl (== Skt. Gr. 




id.; rarely anu°, q.v., the only form recorded in Pali), 
conformable , suitable : m. and nt. °kaih (padavyanjanaih) 
Mvy 7018; (-bhaisajyany) °kani Divy 109.26; °kair bhai- 
sajyair Bbh 283.1; srnoti dharma nayakana bantam °kam 
RP 12.8 (vs); °kair . . . ahgasambharaih Bbh 145.22; °kena 
ca kayavakkarmana Bbh 255.1 ; °ko . . . upayah Bbh 
264.8, and bodhisattvasyanulomika upayah 10; f. °ka, 
abhijna panca . . . labdha °ka (n. pi.) LY 172.20 (vs); °kam 
api ksantim RP 34.13 (prose); f. °ki, with ksanti (q.v.; 
cf. prec.) Mvy 6571; Dbh 53.24; °ki (so mss., Lefm. em. 
°ka-) dharmaksanti (read °tir) dharmalokamukham LY 
35.20 (prose); °kim dharmadeSanam Kv 49.10; °kim 
sraddham Gv 239.12 ; °ki (no noun) Mvy 2678; with carya, 
q.v. (also anuloma- carya), caryarn caritva tada anu- 
lomikim SP 27.2 (vs), carrying along the true religious course , 
that which leads to continued religious progress ; clrna ca 
carya vara anulomikl SP 27.13 (vs); carisyate carya tada- 
nulomikim SP 149.8 (vs). 

anu&amsa, m., and °sa, f., = anu°, q.v.; anusam- 
saka, see -anu°. 

anusasti, f. (= anu°; acc. to GPD, Pali also -anu- 
satthi, ifc.), instruction : Mv ii.323.21 (vs) anusastim; the 
a could be m.c. 

anrsarnsa = anu°, anu°, see s.v. anusamsa. 

anenja, see anenja. 

anenjya = anihjya, q.v.: Sal 82.4, 7 °jyopaga (of 
samskaras; cited Siks 223.1 as aninjy 0 , 3 and 4 as aninjy 0 
in ms.); see under anenjya for cases where samdhi makes 
initial quantity obscure. 

anta, adj. (cited in MW without reference; not in 
BR or pw or Schmidt; Skt. back-formation, or error, 
based on Pali anta = Skt. antya; cf. antaka), ultimate , 
final, extreme, supreme: Kv 89.6 antas tvam kulaputra 
krtas te sattvaparlpakah, you are a supreme one ... (it 
would seem more natural, if only tvam were omitted, to 
make antas agree with sattvaparlpakah; perhaps the 
passage is corrupt). 

antahpura, f. °ri, adj. or subst. (cf. Skt. antahpurika), 
(women) of the harem: LV 211.7 (vs) vijahya-m-antahpuri 
(acc. pi. ; most mss. °ram, unmetr.), abandoning the women 
of the harem. 

antarabhavika, adj. (= antara 0 , q.v.), of or be- 
longing to (or existing in) the intermediate state (antara- 
bhava, q.v.) : °kah Bbh 295.24 one who is living in . . . ; 
in a list, following divyamanusyakah ; of vipaka, AbhidhK. 
LaY-P. iv.129; °ka-skandha-sambhavat MadhK 286.9, so 
text by em., but read antar° with mss. 

antarayika (= ant°, q.v.), causing obstacles; ob- 
structive: like ant° and Pali ant°, regularly of dharmas, 
Bhik 9a. 2 °kan dharman prstva, after inquiring (whether 
there are) obstruptive conditions; LY 434.2 (in samdhi, 
could be ant°) °ka-dharma-; Bbh 402.11 °ka dharmah; 
MSV iii.30.6; also with hetu, Bbh 98.6 utpattav antarayiko 
hetur virodhahetuh. 

antarika ( = ant°, q.v.; some cases there cited 
may belong here), space between, interval, interstice: LV 
254.11 gopanasy-antarikas (n. pi.), interstices of the roof- 
frame; Gv 268.18 ekaikasyam ca nady-antarikayam, and 
in each interval between the rivers. 

an tariksa- vasin (so Mironov; Kyoto ed. indicates 
both this and antari 0 as var. readings), m. pi. °nah, dwelling 
in the atmosphere, n. of a class of gods: Mvy 3077; = 
antariksa, °rlksa, °riksecara, qq.v. ; see also deva. 

antra- guna, m. (pi.), = antra- guna, q.v.: SsP 
1430.21; 1431.11; read in both (antram) antraguna(h). (In 
Gv 328.19 could be intended as well as antra 0 .) 

apa (= Pali id., thematization of Skt. ap, ap), water; 
clear cases noted only in cpd. apa-skandha mass of water, 
SP 126.7 (vs) sa caiva sama munceta apaskandham anal- 
pakam; with adhah or hesta, hesti, of subterranean mass 
of water, LV 64.12 adha-apaskandham; 298.20 (vs) 

hestapaskandha (acc. sg. ; so divide) caranaih pratigra- 
hyamanah, being caused to receive with their feet the mass 
of water underneath (the earth); 368.19 (vs) hesti Satasa- 
hasram yavatas capaskandho (contrasted with dharani- 
talu, next line). In Mv ii.92.5 (vs) apam, acc. sg., could 
be referred to this stem, or regarded as belonging to the 
Skt. stem ap, ap, transferred to the sing. (cf. Wackernagel- 
Debrunner 3.240 f.). 

Apajjura, n. of a grove at Samkasya: Av ii.94.8, 14. 
-apanika, in comp. (= Pali id.; rare in Skt., see 
Schmidt, Nachtrage), dealer, shopkeeper: Av i.198.12 pita 
te gandhikapanika asld, perfume-shopkeeper. 

apatti, f. (= Pali and Skt. Lex. id.), sin (see also 
anapatti, mulapatti): °tih Mvy 9222; naihsargikapattih 
(so correctly Index and Mironov; see naihsargika) Mvy 
9309; °tya codayati, see this; dusthulam (q.v.) apattim 
Prat 504.1; abhiksnapatti-apadyana-ta KP 119.2 state of 
constantly committing sins (cf. abhiksnapattika) ; (bo- 
dhisattvasy)apattir api veditavya Bbh 160.11; °ty-ana- 
dhyacara-vyutthane Bbh 289.22; (see s.v. anadhyapatti) 
^sP 56.5; five groups of sins to which monks may be 
subject, Sutral. xi.4 comm., see Levi Transl. p. 100 n.l. 

-apatti- ka = apatti in Bhvr. cpd.; see an-a°, 
abhiksnapattika, sapattika. 

apada (Pali and Skt. Lex. id., Skt. apad; cf. § 15.9), 
disaster: apadasu MSV iv.115.14; 116.1, 7. 

apadyana, also °na-ta (from apadyate, °ti, with 
suffix ana, n. act.), the getting into, or commission (of a 
sin): KP 119.2 (prose) abhiksnapatti-apadyana-ta, see 
s.v. apatti; Mmk 202.24 (vs) na te bheje devamukhyanam 
(bad meter!) tarjanyapadyanalaye (? obscure; app. tar- 
jani, or a case-form of it, compounded with or followed 
by cpd. of apadyana and alaya). 

apanna, ppp.-adj. (to apatti), guilty - of a sin (is 
Pali apanna so used without complement?): yad uta, 
apanna iti va anapanna iti va MSV ii.176.6. 

Apannaka, n. of a yaksa: MSV i.xvii.10. 
aparantika, f. °kl, adj. (from aparanta, q.v., plus 
ika), future, of the future: Gv 160.2 (prose) aparantikavl- 
cikaduhkhena (2d ed. °khe); Dbh 51.3 (cited ^iks 228.2) 
esaparantiky apeksa. 

apasyati (recorded once in AV.), beholds: LV 344.18 
(prose) sattvan apasyati sma (so Lefm. with best mss.); 
doubtful; in parallel 344.10 all mss. and both edd. paSyati, 
with v.l. here. 

?apas-kara, m., action of water: Mv ii.366.13 (na 
tasya caura rajano dhanaskandha [so one ms., Senart 
with v.l. °dham] paramrse) agnir va apaskaro (read 
°karo?) va (one ms. om. va; Senart em. apaskaro ti, very 
implausibly) pujam krtva tathagate. 

?apaya, adj. = apayika (apaya with suffix -a), in 
Siks 46.6 pa^cainam^ codayisyamo bhutam apaya-gocaran, 
and afterwards we will incite them who are veritably in a 
sphere-of -existence characterized by evil fate. So if text be 
kept; note states that Tib. (sdig med) points to apapa-, 
and Bendall and Rouse p. 47 translate with this, so that 
they may . . . be beyond the sphere of sin . 

apayaka (cf. apayita, apyayaka), giving to drink, 
nourishing: °kam posakam samvardhakam Bbh 118.28. 

apayika, f. °kl, adj. and subst. (= Pali id.; from 
apaya with suffix ika), pertaining or leading to an evil 
fate (such as existence in hell); subst., one doomed to, or 
suffering, such an existence : Gv 407.14 °ke karmani ca 
pravrtta; Jm 192.21-22 tena drstivyasanopanipatenapayi- 
kena lokanarthakarabhutena ; Bbh 10.14 tivram apayikim 
duhkham vedanam; 245.10 ayatyam apayikam duhkham 
pratyanubhavati ; 356.17 °ka-kle£a-paksyasya,' 368.1 °kam 
karma; subst., Mv iii.214.6, 13 (vs) apayika nirvrta brahma- 
lokam (cf. Pali DN ii.242.18); Divy 165.19 (vs) apayiko 

apayita, ppp. (cf. apayaka; to a-pa-, caus.), given 




to drink , nourished : °ta posita samvardhita MSV ii.17.5. 
This and apayaka together forbid em. to apyay-. The 
same three ppp. stems MSV ii.25.3; 80.6. 

apldaka (= Skt. aplda, chaplet , wreath ), only in 
°ka-jata hung with wreaths, noted only as ep. of trees: 
°ka-jatam Mvy 6061 (context suggests that it was prob. 
epithet of a tree, or at least referred to trees); °ka-jatan 
(vrksan) Divy 215.25, 27; 216.1; °ka-jatah (phalavrksah) 
Divy 221.14 (so certainly read as suggested in note; text 
with mss. aplnaka-). 

?apira, in (-hun)apira (sc. lipi), n. of some kind of 
writing: Mv i.135.7 (v.l. °apira or °ro). Senart would 
understand abhira (preferably the regular Skt. abhlra). 

aptamanas (also °nas-ka, MPS 32.29) = attamanas, 
q.v. : Hoernle MR 26, Obv. 3 idam avocat bhagavan, 
aptamanas (read °manasas) te bhiksavo . . . ; 39 Rev. 5, 
same phrase, reading °manasas; cf. 26 n. 2 and 198 (er- 
roneously rendered with receptive mind); Stonner, SBBA 
1904 p. 1283, line 30; Ud xiv.13 aptamana, n. sg. m. ; 
neg. anaptamana(h), n. sg. m., Prat 500.8 abhisaktah 
kupitah candikrto *napta°; 505.7 abhisakta-kupitaS can- 
dikrto ’napta 0 . 

apya, nt. (gdve. of ap-), what can be received (of food), 
one’s fill : (ghrtasya madhunaS) capyam purayitva MSV 
ii.24.10, having given (the infant) all he could eat of ghee 
and honey ; so app. Tib. de hdrans par bsnod nas. 

apyayaka, adj. or subst. (m.), nourishing , nourisher: 
Divy 51.20 putrasya matapitarav apyayakau posakau . . . 
Gf. apayaka (which perh. read?). 

apranya, adj. (possibly read apr°? corresp. to Pali 
apanna ka, q.v. in CPD; cf. apannakanga, CPD unique 
or universal factor ; etymology unknown), perfect, in 
apranyanga, of perfect qualities: Mmk 57.(15-)16 (see Lalou, 
Iconographie, p. 22) (nihitam tu tato krtva dhupayet 
karpuradhupanaih ; read with Lalou) apranyanga-samut- 
tham va (Lalou, oil avec un produit sans parcelles vivantes , 
etymologizing as from a-prana) kunkumacandanadibhih. 
The evident correspondence between our word and Pali 
apanna(ka) makes Lalou’s interpretation hardly possible. 
Our word is a secondary liyper-Sktism, but the history 
of it remains quite unknown. 

abaddhaka, adj. or subst. (Skt. abaddha, with suffix 
ka, perhaps specifying, § 22.39), (something that is) tied on 
(as an ornament): Mv ii.68.5 (prose) tasyapi rajno Sata- 
sahasramulyo haro abaddhako, tasya ca harasya . . .; 72.19 
(prose) yo kumarasya haro abaddhako maharaho £ata- 
sahasramulyo, so haro...; ii.352.9 = iii.276.11 (vs) 
abaddhaka manusyanam (apparently agreeing with words 
in prec. line which Senart reads by em. hara and niskani 
[sic, °ni] ; the mss. -are very corrupt). 

abaddha-parikara, adj., lit. having tied one’s girdle, 
i. e. girded one’s loins, or freely, vigorously setting out upon 
action: °rah Mvy 6428; Tib. renders approximately going 
out without being touched at all ; Chin. ( walking ) without 
leaning on others (or, without help of others). 

abandhya, adj. (from Skt. abandha with suffix ya), 
serving or intended for binding, capturing (animals): Divy 
583.1 mamami kutah pa£alepa£ cabandhyaL (said by a 

abadhika, adj. (= Pali id.; from Skt. abadha with 
suffix ika), sick, ailing: Mv iii.348.9 tasya pratyekabuddha- 
sya pittabadhikasya (v.l. °dhitasya); Bbh_268.6 abadhi- 
kanam sattvanam vyadhitanam; Sarny Ag 13 verse 1 
bhiksur abadhiko duhkhito; Samadh p. 52 line 21, read 
abadhiko for text abodhiko. See also vayv- abadhika. 
abudha, see abrdha. 

abrmhana (cf. Pali abbahana, abbuhana, nom. act.), 
instrument for extraction (of thorns, splinters, etc.): Gv 
495.13 (prose) abrmhanabhutam satkayaSalyasamabrmha- 
nataya. Said of bodhicitta. 
abrmhita, see avrmhita. 

abrdha-, ppp. of abrhati, in abrdha-^alya (= Pali 
abbulha-salla), having the sting (of craving) pulled out: 
Mvy 7216 (v.l. abrldha 0 , so Mironov, with v.l. avrta 0 ) 
= Tib. (zug-rnu) byun ba; cf. avrldha, to avarhati, MSV 
iii.74.6 fL This word, in some form, is certainly intended 
by the corrupt apratta-salya of Samadh p. 28 line 14; 
and by text (vicikitsa-kathamkatha-^alyah samula) arudho 
Divy 84.10, where presumably read abudho, see Pali 
above; MSV i.83.9 (same passage) avrdho. 

abrhati (and avrhati; see also avrmhati) both occur 
in Skt. in mg. extracts, draws out , and in Pali as abbahati, 
abbuhati, abbu°, abbaheti, id. (as, thorns); both are so used 
also in BHS; but in BHS they both (oftener, it seems, 
spelled with v) have also the meaning exclusively noted 
for avarhati, restores (a monk to good standing), which in 
Pali is abbheti (noun, abbhana), apparently from Skt. 
ahvayati. I shall record such mgs., even where texts read 
ab°, under avarhati; in BHS the two groups are not clearly 
distinguishable. They may even be identical in origin, as 
N. Dutt holds, MSV iii.74 n. 3 ( withdrawal of offences 
committed by the monk implies restoration to good stand- 
ing); so also in essence, tho doubtfully, Finot, Prat 488 n. 1. 
But on this theory it is hard to explain Pali abbheti 
(abbhana), and I incline to believe that BHS has a second- 
ary and confused blend, in which a form close to the Pali, 
meaning recall, was adapted to the word meaning extract, 

abrahitavya, see avarhati. 
abrldha, see abrdha-. 

abha, m. pi. (= Pali id., misprinted once Abha, see 
CPD s.v. Abha), n. of a class of rupavacara gods of the 2d 
dhyana-bhumi, see deva (only in a few lists): Mv ii.314.7 
abha deva(h); 348.19 abha (v.l. abhas) ca (sc. devah); 
360.15 abham (acc. pi.; v.l. abha) paSyati devatam (v.l. 

abhaksana, only in comp, with sambhaksana, q.v., 
and associated with other social activities; perhaps feasting 
(in groups); distinction from sambhaksana is not clear: 
Bbh 7.7 avaha-vivahabhaksana-sambhaksanesv evarri- 
bhaglyesu (sc. parakrtyesu, 7.2) sahayibhavam gacchati; 
267.13 (after avaha-vivaharthikanam) abhaksana-sam- 
bhaksanarthikanam krtyasahayarthikanam ca sattvanam 
. . . Neither word is known in this use outside BHS. 

abharana, ornament , as m. (recorded only as nt. in 
Skt., Pali, and Pkt.): SP 362.12 (vs) ye (so, or ye hy, all 
mss. ; ed. em. ya) abharana bhavanti . . . vicitrarupah (so 
all Nep. mss.; ed. °pa); LV 194.17 (vs) sarve abharana 
vikirna patita muhyanti te varina, and 18 (with mss.) 
bhartus cabharana (acc. pi.; with adr£i 15) savastramuku- 
tam Sayyagatam vyakulam (Lefm. omits the three anus- 

Abharanachattranirghosa, n. of a Tathagata: Gv 

Abharana- puskarinl, n. of the pool into which the 
Bodhisattva's ornaments were cast: LV 229.19. 
[AbhaSiri, see SamantabhaSrI.] 
abhasvara = abhasvara, a class of gods: Ud xxx.49. 
abhasati, addresses insultingly: (kulastri . . .) akrusta 
bhavaty abhasta(h) paramrsta va MSV iv.119.10; Tib. 
kha nan smras, bad-mouth-speak. 

abhasa, m. (in Pali only in the Skt. meaning of light, 
radiance; so also in BHS, e. g. Mv i.83.5), appearance and 
hence range , scope, of sense organs: Mv iii.66.4 ff., where 
each of the external (bahirani) ayatanani (i. e. the objects 
of sense) comes into the range of the corresponding internal 
(adhyatmikani) ayatanani (i. e. the sense organs or powers), 
e. g. rupo ca bahiram ayatanam caksusah abhasam agatam 
bhavati. In a similar Pali passage, MN i.190.21 ff., apatha 
takes the place of our abhasa. Similarly Mv i.6.3 manus- 
yanam Srotabhasam agacchati, comes within the range of 
men’s hearing; Siks 128.13 caksusa abhasam agacchanti; 




129.3 santy anabhasagatah (see anabhasa) sattva ye 
mama caksusa abhasam nagacchanti; 151.10 srotendriya- 
syabhasam agacchanti; Sukh 55.2 caksusa abhasam 
agacchati. In same mg. avabhasa, q.v. 2. 

abhaslbhavati (see abhasa), comes into range , into 
play; becomes perceptible : Dbh 64.27 . . . nimitta-samu- 
dacaro va nabhasibhavati. 

abhasvara, m., generally pi. (— Pali abhassara; cf. 
abhasvara), one (usually the 3d) of the classes of rupavacara 
gods in the 2d dhyana-bhumi (see deva): sing, of one of the 
class, LV 44.12 (see Prabhavyuha) ; Mmk 19.9 maha- 
brahma °rah prabhasvarah suddhabhah etc.; in Mmk 69.7 
also sg. in a list of sg. deities ; abhasvare devanikaye Divy 
327.21-22, as a place of happy rebirth, in this class of 
gods (or in their dwelling-place); several times in Mv this 
place or state of existence is mentioned as the abode of 
creatures in general, or of a Buddha and his disciples, in 
interim periods between world aeons, after destruction 
and before re-creation of the world, so Mv i.52.4 abhasvare 
devanikaye upapadyanti, and 6-7 °rad devanikayato 
cyavitva; similarly 63.7; 338.15 ff. ; pi. of the class as a 
whole, Mvy 3092; Dharmas 128; SP 359.1; 365.3; LV 
150.7; 315.5; 359.3; 396.15; Mv ii.314.7; 319.4; 348.19; 
Divy 68.15; 367.12; Av i.5.2, etc.; in Mvy 2291 named 
as an example of creatures in the third sattvavasa (q.v.), 
characterized as ekatvakaya nanatvasamjninas. 

abhicaruka, adj. and subst., repeatedly in Mmk = 
Skt. abhicarika, pertaining to (hostile, black) magic or as 
subst. (perh. by ellipsis of karman) a performance or 
practice of (hostile, black) magic : Mmk 25.19; 33.24 °kesu 
sarvesu (subst.); 124.18 °ka-kasthani; . 174.7 ardharatre 
sthite candre kuryat karmabhicarukam; 174.11, 17; 178.9; 
189.10 °ka-karmani; 320.10 (aSesam karma) karoti, var- 
jayitva kamopasamhitam, abhicarukam ca; in 465.8-9 
contrasted with santika, pacifying (performance), as 
antonym, abhicaruke mahamamsena, Santike mrgaromani 
. . . Many other occurrences, but not noted outside of Mmk. 
One might be tempted to emend to °rika, were the cases 
not so numerous. 

[abhipraya£ in evam-a° LV 160.11, uncorrected mis- 
print for (evam-)abhiprayaS, with Calc.] 

abhiprayika, adj. (from Skt. abhipraya with suffix 
ika; once in Skt. in Samav. Br., BR 7 App., nach Belieben 
geschehend , beliebig, with karman), ( specially , esoterically ) 
intentional, intended: Bbh 265.5 (gambhiranam tathagata- 
bhasitanam . . . sutrantanam) °kam tathagatanam artham 
avijnaya; 303.26-304.1 °ka-nigudha-dharma-samjnartha- 
vibhavanata. See s.v. samdha. 

abhimanika, adj. (= abhi° 1 ; once in Skt. in different 
mg., pw 7.318), proud: SP 38.12 and 39.4 (prose; both 
times v.l. adhi° or adhi°); 43.13 (prose, no v.l.); Siks 126.8 
(prose) °ka-vyakarana-vacana ; KP 1.6 (prose) °ka£ ca 
bhavaty atmotkarsl. 

abhirupya (nt. ; from Skt. abhirupa, beautiful, with 
suffix ya; once Lex. in Skt., BR 5 App.), beauty: Bbh 245.21 
°pya-kamasya cakamam vairupyatah. 

abhisamskarika, f. °kl(cf. an-abhisamskarika, and 
Pali abhisamkharika ; Suzuki Index records abhi°, but 
211.15 has a- while 361.17 could intend either a- or a-), 
characterized by accumulation (of karman ; abhisamskara) : 
Lank 211.15 abhisamskariki . . . nirodhasamapattih ; Lank 
361.17 nabhisamskarikair buddha laksanair laksananvitah. 

abhisamksepika (adj.), °kam, adv. (to abhisam- 
ksepa, q.v.), app. in a manner produced by compression # 
condensation: Mvy 7476 (so also Mironov; pw 7.306 abhi°) 
= Tib. bsdus pa las gyur pa; but the real meaning of this 
seemingly technical term escapes me. The next word is 
abhyavakasikam (abhy°), q.v. 

abhlksnaka, adj. (from Skt. abhiksnam; cf. Skt. Lex. 
abhlksna, nt.), recurring, repeated, constant: Bbh 142.1 yam 
abhxksnakam vipratisaram adlnavadarSanam agamya. . . 

? abhira, see apira. 

abhujati, or also abhunjati, recorded only in ger. 
forms with object paryaiikam (= Pali pallankam abhuj-; 
Skt. seems to have used badhnati instead, but BR, pw 
record only noun cpds. such as paryanka-bandha; BHS also 
uses forms of bandhati, as paryanka bandhitva SP 23.11 
(vs); a theory of the orig. mg. in BR which is not repeated 
in pw; for other theories see PTSD s.vv. abhujati, pallanka), 
having assumed a sitting posture with the legs doubled under 
the buttocks ; in prose of all texts except Mv, only paryankam 
abhujya: Mvy 6283; SP 5.9 (here Kashgar rec. baddhva, 
cf. above); 19.13; 409.9; LV 59.22; 244.18; 251.4; 289.16; 
410.8; Divy 20.17; 162.12; 294.3, etc.; in vss, °kam 
abhujiya LV 133.20; °kam abhujitva 259.5; in prose of 
Mv °kam abhuhjitva i.144.11; ii.131.15, also v.l. ii.268.4 
where Senart abhujitva; the latter is a v.l. for text abhumj 0 

ii. 16.12 (= i.213.8, mss. corrupt); abhumjitvana mss. at 

iii. 245.2 (vs, bad meter). 

abhoga, m. (derived by Leumann, Das nordarische 
Lehrgedicht des Buddhismus, AKM 20.1, p. 68, from bhuj 
bend, as Anbiegung — Anlehnung; an-a°, ohne Anlehnung 
d.h. ohne Riickhalt Oder Stiitzpunkt. Some Pali interpreters 
also derive from this root, see PTSD. Whatever the ety- 
mology, the primary mg. in BHS is clearly effort; so some 
Skt. lexx., = yatna. This also fits at least many Pali 
occurrences of abhoga, but in Pali the word needs more 
study; diet, definitions are all unsatisfactory; it is often 
bracketed or equated with manasikara, esp. with cetaso 
or cittassa, DN comm, i.122.6-7, perhaps as (mental) 
effort , e. g. Miln. 97.10), effort, earnest application (directed 
towards, loc.): Mvy 2092 = Tib. sgrim pa, hjug pa, bzo 
(gzo) ba, endeavor; setting about; work; slle abhogam 
krtvana, having made effort for (in regard to) morality Mv 
ii.358.7; 360.9; ekantasuklesv eva karmasv abhogah kara- 
niyah, one must strive for . . . Divy 23.30-24.1 ; 55.12 ; i93.15 ; 
289.23 ; sarvabhogavigato ’nabhogadharmatapraptah kaya- 
vakeittautsukyapagatah Dbh 64.15-16, rid of all (inter- 
ested) effort, arrived at a state of effortless ( impassive , see 
anabhoga) condition, free of bodily, vocal, mental desires 
(said of the Bodhisattva); in Dharmas 118, list of six 
‘hindrances’ (avarana) to samadhi: kausidya, mana, 
Sathya, auddhatya, anabhoga, satyabhoga; here anabhoga 
lack of effort has a bad sense, not a good one as in Dbh 
64.16; satyabhoga is obscure (saty-abhoga, effort directed 
towards something concretely existing as distinguished from 
abstract goals? if satya-abhoga, as cpd., I do not understand 
what it could mean as a hindrance to samadhi). See ana- 
bhoga, sabhoga, both clearly supporting mg. effort. 

abhyantarostha, see abhy°. 

abhyavakasika, adj. and subst. m. or nt. (as m. 
= abhy°, q.v.), (an ascetic) living in the open air (one of 
the 12 dhuta- guna) : Mvy 1136 = Tib. bla gab med pa 
(see Das); Dharmas 63; nt. °kam, the practice of living as 
such an ascetic, Mvy 7477 (Kyoto ed. abhy°, but Index 
also abhy°, and Mironov abhy°) = Tib. mnon par skabs 
yod pa (see Das). 

1 ama, interj. (= Pali, Pkt. id., once in Jain Skt., 
pw 2 App.; cf. Skt. am), yes (giving consent or approval): 
Mv ii.107.8; 154.16; Av i.36.11 sa kathayaty ameti. 

2 ama, m., defined in SsP as = religious longings 
(lit. thirsts; could the word be connected with Skt. Lex. 
ama, m., diseased i. e. pathological stated): &sP 486.4-5 
. . . mahasattvasyamah; 7 amah, dharmatrsnah ; 14-15, 
22, etc., dharmatrsna amah. See s.v. miidhama. 

amagandha, m. (see also nir-ama°; = Pali id.; 
defined DN comm, ii.665.10 by vissa-gandha, and cf. 
665.35-666.1 samagandha [so read with v.l.] glossed by 
sa-kunapagandha putigandha), the odor of carrion; (more 
loosely) stench , evil odor: literally, SP 96.16 (vs) (kaye . . .) 
kustham kilasam tatha amagandhah; Mv i.75.14 (after 13 
vividhagandhapuspaS ca upavayantu sarvatah) manusa- 

7 * 




nam amagandhas (Senart em. °dha) ca SIghram antara- 
hapaya (5 mss. °hapana or °na); fig. of the stench of im- 
morality, opp. of the odor of sanctity, Mv iii.214.3 ke 
amagandha manujesu brahma, and 11 (after a list of vices) 
te amagandha manujesu brahma (corresp. to Pali DN 
ii.242.15 and 243.5). This is the basis of the usually fig. 
meaning of nirdmagandha. 

[amateya? &sP 80.4, see s.v. adhipati.] 

amatha (m. or nt. ; from Skt. a-math-), agitation, 
violent stirring, or perhaps concretely eddy, whirlpool : Dbh 
28.22 mahaughormy-amathair nimagna vateme sattvah. . . 

-amantranaka, in an-ama°, adj. (neg. Bhvr. to 
Skt. amantrana, Pali amantana or °na; in Pali amantanika 
is recorded in a concrete, personal application), having no 
conversation, characterized by not talking with people : of 
ascetic practices, (atapana-paritapanaih . . .) anamantrana- 
kair LV 248.17 (prose). 

? amanyate (only Yedic and very rare; not recorded 
in MIndic), desires, intends, longs : Mv ii.194.13 (vs) eso 
caham api amamsye (1 sg. fut. ; v.l. amamsa) vanditum 
purusottamam. But I suspect a corruption. 

amarjayati (formally caus. to Skt. amarsti, amrjati), 
purifies (a mandalaka, 3, q.v.): Divy 333.18 bhagavato 
mandalakam amarjaya; 345.22-23 tayor (gen.) dve te 
asanaprajnapti krtau (sic I) dvau mandalakav amarjitau. 

amila, m. (= amila, q.v., for which var. amila 
occurs), presumably the same kind of cloth called amila: 
Bhik 22b. 4 °la(h), n. pi. 

amilata, ppp. (MIndic for Skt. amlana; cf. Pali 
milata = Vedic mlata), withered; amilatam (bhavati) 
sammilatam samputa(ka)jatam Mv ii.126.4, 5; 127.8, 9; 
128. ^3, 14; 129.15, 16, all prose, in modulations of the 
same phrase; the corresponding passage LY 254.14 has the 
regular Skt. amlana. 

amisa, nt. (except for the strange amisa Mvy 6753; 
the BHS word also has its Skt. meanings, as well as those 
listed her^, in which it = Pali amisa; even in Skt. a few 
occurrences approach this sphere of use, cf. BR s.v., Alles 
woruber man mit Gier herfallt ), lit. or orig. (the) flesh (con- 
trasting with dharma, as in Pali with dhamma, the spirit ); 
worldly things, possessions, or enjoyments, as contrasted with 
religious or spiritual ones (dharma): Mvy 6753 amisa (! so 
also Mironov) = Tib. zan zin, matter, object, goods; external 
goods, earthly possessions (contrasted with internal, spiritual 
gifts); also sa, meat, and zas, food; samisah, q.v., Mvy 
6751, and niramisah, q.v., Mvy 6752 (here amisa = Tib. 
zan zin, only); dual dvandva dharmamisa, spiritual and 
worldly things, °sabhyam yathaSaktya samgrahaka§ ca Bbh 
254.21 ; °sabhyam dane ’matsarino Sukh 61.5; atha dharma- 
misam iti bhagavan kah padarthah Lank 179.17; amisam 
Lank 180.6, defined at length in 6-13 as including what 
leads to longing (trsna, 10) and rebirth, away from the 
religious goal; cf. amisasamgraho bhavati na dharmasam- 
graha iti 179.16; lokamisasamgraho bhavati na dharma- 
samgraha iti 173.5; lokamisa-phalabhilasino (gen. sg.) va 
punah lokamisanimittam tathagatacaityapuja Bbh 22.25- 
26; dharmasambhoga amisasambhogo Divy 93.1 spiritual 
and worldly enjoyment; in Mv iii.55.1, 3 MahakaSyapa is 
described as the Lord’s dharmajo dharmanirmito dharma- 
dayado na amisadayado, spiritually born, spiritually fash- 
ioned spiritual heir, not physical (or worldly ) heir (Pali also 
uses dhamma- and amisa-dayada) ; amisalolupah pungalo 
. . . bodhisattvena na sevitavyah RP 19.1; apy osita 
amisapatraclvare (so prob. divide, see osita) RP 19.10; 
amisa-priyaS RP 34.2 fond of worldly things ; amisa-guruka- 
sya RP 35.2 devoted to . . . ; namisapraksiptaya samtatya 
Siks 128.7, with mental disposition (see samtati) not intent 
on worldly (or material ) things; amisa-kimcitka, see kim- 
citka; na labhyam bhiksavas tenamisenamisakrtyam 
kartum MSV i.249.12, it is not allowable to pursue enjoyment 
with this worldly enjoyment (sugar added to food). 

[? amukta, ppp., f. °ta, acc. to Divy Index jewel, in 
Divy 2.28 (ratnapratyuptikaya) karnikaya amuktayalam- 
krtah; 3.7 kotimulyaya ratnapratyuptikaya amuktaya 
jatah; and see amuktaka, °ika. I doubt this mg.; in 2.28 
it seems a normal ppp. = Skt. amukta, °a: adorned will 
a jewel-set earring fastened on him (cf. also Divy 614.17 
amuktamalyabharana, with garlands and Grnaments fastened 
on); this is a regular mg. of amuncati. In 3.7, to be sure, 
no noun is expressed ; the same karnika of 2.28 is however 
clearly meant; possibly here ratna-pratyuptikaya may be 
understood as a subst., with specifying ka (§ 22.39): with 
a jewel-studded thing fastened on.] 

amuktaka, f. °ika (= Skt. amukta, ppp.), fastened on: 
Divy 23.7 tasya ratnakarnika karne amuktika. (Taken by 
Index as noun, jewel; see s.v. amukta.) I see no meaning 
in the suffix ka (§ 22.29). 

amukha, adj., (presenting itself) before one's face; 
present, at hand: Jm 92.24 mrtyor mukham ivamukham 
(. . . vadabamukham) ; Bhad 58 amukhi (m.c. for °khe; 
*me ms. °kha) sarvi bhaveyu samagrah, may they all be 
present (to me; amukhi prob. loc. sg., adverbial, rather 
than n. pi. with pronominal ending); Gv 54.20 (vs) mara- 
mandalaranasmi amukhe (loc. abs.), when the battle ... is 
at hand; Bbh 14.13 -saddharmantardhanim amukham 
upagatam paSyati; Bbh 251.1 (bhayabhairavair) amukhaih. 
Cf. the following items, and s.v. posadha. 

amukhayati (denom. from prec.), presents, puts before 
one: Sadh 548.14 £unyam jagad akhilam amukhayet. 

amukhi- karana (n. act. to next), the making present, 
realization, manifestation: LV 432.22 -bodhicittamukhi- 
karana-; 441.6 -samapatty-amukhlkarana-taya (instr. of 
-ta); &iks 33.15 (cf. note p. 399); 276.6 punar-amukhikara- 

amukhi- karoti (see amukha, and cf. prec.), makes 
present (regularly in oneself), realizes, manifests: -karoti 
LY 180.5 (buddhadharman); 182.5 (dharmamukhani ; cf. 
also id. 7, 9, etc.); Bbh 126.10 (Silpakarmasthanam) ; -krtya, 
ger. LV 137.18 (-upayakauSalyam) ; Divy 350.14 (bodhi- 
paksan dharman); §iks 355.11; Gv 179.10 (Acalam upasi- 
kam; keeping present in his mind); Sadh 24.4 (Sunyatam); 
58.12 (pariSuddhatam). 

amukhi- pravrtta (= -bhuta, see next), (which have; 
come to be present to one’s mind, realized : Divy 491.18 
(tasya . . . tisro) gatha a° °tta jatah, three verses occurred 
to him, were presented to his mind. 

amukhi- bhavati (see amukha, and cf. prec. and 
foil, items), becomes present (to oneself, to one’s mind), 
is realized, is manifest: °vati KP 4.2 (bodhicittam) ; Dbh 
52.24 (prajnaparamitavihara); °vanti SP 159.2 na ca tavat 
tasya te dharma a° (so both edd., but most mss. abhi- 
mukhi-bha°); LV 204.17 (purvapranidhanapadany) ; 244. 
21-22 (samapattisatany); ppp..-bhuto Mv i.245.17 (dipam- 
karabuddhasabdo . . .); -bhutam Divy 180.19 (nilakrtsnam) ; 
411.16 (sthaviranam vacanam). 

amukhi- sthita, ppp. (cf. prec. items and especially 
amukha), situated facing or in the presence of (with acc.): 
Gv 241.11 (vs) tathagatah sattva sarvi (acc. pi.) samam 
amukhlsthitah, facing (or in the presence of) all creatures 
at once. (Perhaps in the minds of, but in the sense that he 
knows their minds.) 

amutrika, adj. (Skt. amutra with suffix ika), of a future 
life or other world: aihikah amutrikah Bbh 22.16; 24.13. 

amrduka, adj. (a plus mrduka, q.v.), rather mild: 
AsP 387.1 °ko bhavisyati. 

amrSa, nt., touching, enjoyment; only as etymologizing 
substitute for, and interpretation of, amisa, q.v.: Lank 
180.7 (in definition of amisa) amisam amrSam . . . 

amodanlya, adj., gdve. to next, subject of rejoicing, 
to be rejoiced over: Mv ii.259.10 (and ff.) 6uddhavasa ca deva 
astadaSa amodanlyam dharman pratilabhanti (listed in 




amodayati (= Pali °deti; prob. denom. to amoda), 
gratifies: °dayitva (so read, text amohayitva) MSV iv. 130.1, 

? ambasanaka, see amb°. 

? ambhirya, (m. or nt.) °rye LY 156.21 (prose), one 
of the arts (kala); from the context (after barhaspatye and 
before asurye) perhaps a philosophic system; v.l. ambhlrye 
(also aclrye, asvirye, but Tib. chuhi lugs, way , or system , 
of water indicates that the orig. began ambh- or ambh-, 
tho it does not give much further help). 

Amratirtha, = next: °tho nagaraja Mvy 3272. 

Amrattrthika (= Pali Ambatitthaka), p. of a naga: 

Amrapalika = next: Mv i.261.15. 

Amrapali (also °lika; == Pali Ambapall, °lika; in 
Pali and in MSV she was a courtesan), n. of a Licchavi 
woman, who donated her mango grove to the Buddha : Mv 

i. 300.16; in Mv ii.293.16 Buddha is dwelling at Vaisali in 
this grove, Amrapali- vane; her miraculous origin, MSV 

ii. 16.15 ff. ; in mss. of MPS, e. g. 11.1, regularly written 
Amra° (semi-M Indie). 

amredayati, perh. gears up, makes work (a machine): 
MSV iv.247.18, 20 (Tib. sbyar, put together, prepare ). 

amlavetasa, in. (= Skt. amla°, and lex. amla°), 
n. of a plant, a kind of sorrel, Rumex vesicarius: Mvy 5780 
= Tib. star bu, acc. to Jaschke Iiippophae rhamnoides, but 
‘acc. to a Lex. also a kind of sorrel in India.’ 

(amlata, see amilata). 

amlayati, caus. to a-mla (in Skt. only in amlana; 
caus. of mla in Skt. is mlapayati), causes to wither : fut. 
medio-passive (pass, force) LV 335.5 amlayisyase . . . 
bodhisattvena, you shall be made to wither by the B. (said 
to Mara). 

aya, m. (in Skt., and usually in Pali, only income , 
opp. to vyaya expense; rarely in Vedic and Up. something 
like arrival; see BR, and so in Pali e. g. MN i.277.1 udakass’ 
aya-mukham, acc. to comm, ii.322.14 » agamana-maggo; 
see also aya-dvara), coming, arrival, esp. coming into 
existence, origination, source: KP 46.6, 7, 8 (vs), replacing 
ayadvaram, q.v., of prose above, karsapanayo . . . bhoti, 
sambodhicittasya ca yatra ayo, ayo bahu tatra ca srava- 
kanam; same comparison KP 92.7, 9 (vs), ayu and ayo 
again replacing ayadvaram of prose; ayah Mvy 2654 = Tib. 
hbun ba (meaning?), or, hdu ba, coming together; associated 
or cpd. with vyaya, (in Skt. income and outlay , but) here 
origination, coming into being, and passing away (belief 
in which is a false opinion), Lank 174.12 aya-vyaya- 
drstabhinivesena ; 175.14-176.1 naham mahamate lokaya- 
tam desayami, na cayavyayam, kim tu mahamate an- 
ayavyayam desayami. tatrayo nama mahamate utpada- 
rasih samuhagama, utpadyante (read °gamad utpadyate 
with Tib. acc. to note), tatra vyayo nama . . . vinasah. 
an-ayavyaya ity an-utpadasyaitad adhivacanam; Lank 
182.3 ayam karyarthanirvrttim (accs. sg., obj. of pasyate, 
prec. line), and 4 ayavyaya-parijhanad; Gv 470.3 sarvaya- 
srayaniSrita-vihara-viharinam (does aya here mean cause , 
basis, origin*!). 

ayatana, nt. (in Skt. seat, abiding-place , home; the 
following senses seem hardly, if at all, to occur in Skt., 
but most of them apparently in Pali), (1) department , field 
(of art): in silpayatana (= Pali sippay 0 ), Mv ii. 434.16 
sarvasilpayatanehi . . . kuso kumaro visisyati, Prince Kusa 
excelled in all department a of art; but the same word *s also 
used (2) personally, applying to practitioners of the arts 
(perhaps vessels , patra, of the arts, cf. 3 below): Mv 

iii. lL3.12 sarve ca kapilavastavya Silpayatana (as masc. ? 
one ms. °nah!), tad yatha lohakaraka etc. (list of artisans), 
all the artisans of Kapilavastu, such as ... ; similarly 
iii.442.17 Silpayatana (no v.l.), tad yatha lohakaraka etc.; 
in tbe same way tlrthyayatana ( vessel of heresy ?) is used 
of heretical teachers Av i.231.3 yammani . . . prthag loke 

tirthyayatanani, tad yatha, Puranah KaSyapo Maskari etc. 
(all persons); Pali has titthayatana, nt., only as heretical 
school or doctrine (acc. to Ledi Sadaw JPTS 1913.117 
harbours of error), or at least, it seems, never clearly of 
persons (some passages are ambiguous and might be so 
interpreted); Pali sippayatana also does not seem to be 
applied to artisans, but only to crafts; (3) a worthy object 
(cf. an-ay°), = Skt. patra: Divy 419.(22-)23 (api tu 
Buddhadharmasamghe) prasadam utpadaya, esa ayatana- 
gatah prasada iti, . . . this is favor bestowed on a worthy 
object; (4) stage of ecstasy or trance (four such), see aka- 
sanantyayat 0 , vijnananantyayat 0 , akimeanyayat 0 , nai- 
vasamjfianasamjnayat 0 : listed Mvy 3110-3113; also 
1492-5 in list of samapatti, q.v.; Dharmas 129; see also 
s.v. deva; (5) sense; organ of sense (six in number), dis- 
tinguished as adhyatmika ay 0 (= Pali ajjhattika ay°) or 
as sparsay 0 (= Pali phassay 0 ); likewise object of sense (also 
six), distinguished as bahira (= Pali id.) or bahya ay 0 : 
Mvy 2027 dvadasayatanani, listed 2028-2039 in pairs, 
each cpd. with ayatanam (caksur-ay° etc.); the standard 
list contains six of each category, viz. caksus and rupa, 
srotra and sabda, ghrana and gandha, jihva and rasa, kaya 
and sprastavya (q.v.), manas and dharma (2); Dharmas 
24 lists each group of six as a (dvandva) cpd. concluded by 
-ayatanani (with sparsa in lieu of sprastavya); Siks 244.15 
sad imani . . . sparsayatanani, katamani sat, caksuh 
sparsayatanam rupanam darsanaya, etc., including kaya 
(read kayah) sparsay 0 sprastavyanam sparsanaya, manah 
sparsay 0 dharmanam vijiianaya; adhyatmikam ay° and 
bahiram ay° Mv iii.66.3 ff. (parallel passage in Pali, MN 
i. 190.20 ff.); sad-ayatanam, the six senses (sense-organs and 
their respective objects, each pair regarded as a unit), one 
of the steps in the pratltya-samutpada (== Pali sal- 
ayatana), Mvy 2246; Mv ii.285.9 f. ; LV 347.2, 4; etc., cf. 
Levi, Sutral. xi.30, Transl. n. 2; actions are rooted in them, 
LV 374.13 (vs) iha me karmavidhana . . . sadayatanamula, 
chinna drumendramiile (i. e. by attaining Buddhahood); 
compounded or associated with skandha, q.v., and dhatu 
(element, q.v.), the total being an expression for states of 
physical existence, LV 420.17 (vs) na skandha ayatana 
dhatu (better as dvandva cpd.?) vademi buddham, I do 
not call... the Buddha; LV 177.5 (cited Siks 240.5; vs) 
skandhadhatvayatanani (prob. read with Siks skandhaya- 
tanani, better meter; so also Tib.) dhatavah; Lank 18.6 
skandha-dhatv-ayatanopaganam sarvadharmanam ; (6) 

abhibhv- ayatana, see s.v.; (7) krtsnayatana, q.v., s.v. 

-ayatanika, ifc. adj. (ayatana 5 with suffix ika), in 
dharmayatanikam Mvy 7565, prob. having to do with or 
based on the ‘ sphere * of dharmas (as objects of manas, see 
ayatana 5), i. e. ‘objects of ideation’ (PTSD s.v. dhamma, 
cpd. dhammayatana). In Pali, -ayatanika is recorded 
PTSD only in phassayatanika nama niraya, and . . . sagga, 
SN iv.-126.4-5 and 17-18, hells or heavens based on the e con- 
tact fields’ or senses (cf. sparsayatana s.v. ayatana 5), 
with unpleasant or pleasant sensations respectively. 

ayatim, adv. (Pali id. ; acc. of Skt. ayati, the future, 
but not recorded there as adv.), in the future: °tim sam- 
bodhim abhisamprarthayamanena Mv i.57.15, or bodhim 
prarthayamanena 58.5. 

aya-dvara, nt. (see aya), (1) cause or means (lit. 
door) of arrival or origin: of rain, jewels, money, flowers, 
KP 43.1-3 tad yathapi . . . vyabhre deve vigatavalahake 
nasti varsasyayadvaram, evam eva . . . alpasrutasya bo- 
dhisattvasyantika (read °kan) nasti saddharmavrster 
ayadvaram: 46.1-4 tad yathapi ... yatra maniratnaya- 
dvaram bhavati, bahunam tatra kaisapanasatasahasranam 
ayadvaram bhavati ; evam eva . . . yatra bodhisattvasya- 
yadvaram bhavat/i, bahunam tatra sravakapratyeka- 
buddhasatasahasranam ayadvaram bhavati (in lines 6, 
7, vs, ayo replaces ayadvaram; same comparison KP 




92.2, 4, ayadvaram, replaced in vs by ayu 7, ayo 9); Gv 
501.17 bahunam puspasatasahasranam ayadvaram bha- 
visyatiti; of dharma, Bbh 19.4 (dve ime . . . bodhisat- 
tvasya) mahatl kusaladharmayadvare (dual); Gv 495.24 
sarvadharmayadvara-taya; others, Gv 466.5-6 kalyana- 
mitrayadvarah, having good friends as their origin or cause 
(agrees with series of nouns ending sarvabuddhadharma- 
pratilambhaparinispattayah, 1. 4); ayadvararthena sada- 
yatanam Sal 81.7 and MadhK 564.2 (cf. 552.9 with note: 
la porte d’arrivee, la porte de naissance ); (2) source of 
income (cf. Skt. aya, income), substantially = karmanta- 
Bbh 5.15-16 udaresu ca karmantesv adhimukto bhavati, 
na parittayadvaresu ; perhaps in this sense Mvy 2333 sam- 
ghayadvaraliaranam, depriving the assembly (of monks) of 
sources of income (?in a list of sins; Tib. is literal and not 

ayacana (nt., = Pali id., to Skt. and Pali ayacati), 
supplication (of a deity): Divy 1.10 ayacanahetoh putra 
jayante; 231.25 °nena. 

ayacna (to Skt. ayacati, cf. Skt. yacna), entreaty: 
Jm 120.6 (prose) -parisamapty-ayacnaya, with entreaty to 
complete . . . Crit. app. suggests em. to °pti-yachaya, but 
the formation seems quite possible (to ayacati as yacna 
to yacati). 

ayatrika, m., guard or attendant on a journey: kimar- 
tham vayam °kanam bhrtim anuprayacchamah MSY 

ayapita, ppp. (of Skt. ayapayati, not in this mg.), 
reared, brought up: (tvam maya . . .) svahastabalenaya- 
pitah positah samvardhitah Divy 499.9. 

[ayasa, m., °sah Divy 82.13, read acamah with Tib. 
(letter from Mr. D.R.S. Bailey) and same passage MSV 
i.80.18, cf. Divy 82.17 etc.] 

[ayika? LV 34.6, see samadhyayika-ta.] 
Ayudhisthira(?), n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.4. 
Uncertain reading; initial in samdhi with preceding -a, 
permitting analysis as Ayudhi 0 , which seems scarcely 
possible; perhaps the long a is an error or misprint, and 
we should understand Yudhisthira. 

Ayurdada (see -dada), n. of a kimnara-maid : Kv 

6 . 12 . 

-ayusika, adj. ifc. (from ayus with suffix ika), aged...: 
Kv 48.13 (prose) (jirno vrddho mahallakah . . .) aneka- 

ayusmam, i. e. Skt. ayusman, functions like Pali 
avuso (see avusa and ayusmamvada), and like it (see 
Childers s.v.) may be adressed to more than one person, 
sirs (usually to equals or inferiors): Mv i.328.16 (prose) 
(te bhiksu . . . kumbhakarasya matapitarau etad uvaca), 
yatra ayusmam bhiksu (n. pi., so read with mss., Senart 
wrongly em. bhiksunam) . . . trna na sambhunanti . . . 

ayusmamvada (m. ; = Paii avusovada, DN ii.154.9, 
12; cf. ayusmam), address using the term ayusmam (ayus- 
man): Mv iii.329.10 (ma bhiksavo . . .) tathagatam ayus- 
mamvadena samudacaratha (in corresponding passage LV 
409.6_ayusmadvadena, regular Skt.). 

Ayustejas, n. of a former Buddha: LV 5.14. 
ayuh-samskara, see s.v. samskara (2). 
ayuha (Pali id.), effort, striving, chiefly in neg. an- 
ayuha (also anavyuha), q.v. for discussion of mg.; cf. 
also ayuhati: ayuhaniryuha-vigata (= anayuhaniryuha) 
Lank 80.7 °tam (traidhatukam) ; 115.15 °tah (sarvadhar- 
mah); in Gv 40.11 ayuha-sarvadharma-vimana-pratistha- 
nam (bodhisattvanam), prob. error for anayuha-. 

ayuhati (= Pali id.), cf. (an)ayuha, exerts oneself , 
strives (for, acc.): Gv 69.24 (bodhisattvavimoksam; 

similarly in the rest); 80.24, 25; 83.12; 199.24 (in all these 
followed by corresp. form of niryuhati, q.v.); 222.15 
°hanti, followed by viyuhanti; passive, Lank 115.13 
ayuhyamanam nayuhyate, niryuhyamanam na niryuhyate, 
ata etasmat karanan . . . sarvadharma ayuhaniryuhavi- 

gatah, being striven after it is not attained (or [successfully] 
striven after), being renounced it is not got rid of; that is 
why all states of existence are without either acquisition or 
riddance (Suzuki, neither taking birth nor . . . going out). 

ayoga, m. (= Pali id.; in sense 1 Skt. Lex., and acc. 
to BR once in Ram., but acc. to pw bhramarayoga there 
means Bienenschwarm ), (1) practice (of), application (to), 
with loc. or as posterior in cpd.: sukhallikayoga, addiction 
to pleasures (otherwise °kanuyoga, which alone seems to 
be known in Pali), see s.v. sukhallika, LV 407.22; 416.16; 
adhicitte ca ayoga(h) Ud xxxii.27(32) (= Pali Dhp. 185, 
same text); (2) in SP 102.4 (prose) (dhanikah) syad ayoga- 
prayoga-krsi-vanijya-prabhutas ca bhavet, and in cor- 
responding vs 111.9 prayoga ayoga . . .; here both ayoga 
and prayoga apparently mean different kinds of business 
activity; acc. to Tib. it seems that ayoga = hdu ba, 
accumulation (of wealth), prayoga = hphel ba, increase 
(qy: by usury?), but acc. to Das also accumulation, col- 
lection, excess. 

ara, nt., the hither or nearer side or part, in contrast 
to para: Mvy 2662 = Tib.tshu rol, this side (2663 param); 
SsP 1360.9 (kasyacid dharmasyotpadam va nirodham 
va . . .) aram va param vopalabhate. (Cf. AMg. ara, nt., 
this world, this life, this existence. Doubtless the stem from 
which is derived the Skt. adverb arat near, see Edgerton, 
MImamsaNyaya Prakasa, Gloss. Ind. s.v. arad-upakaraka.) 

[araksa, m.: LV 192.18, text araksan sthapayati 
sma, he establishes guards. But v.l. raksa; read either this 
or araksam; in any case the stem is fern, (in -a); cf. 193.15 
araksam prakarotha. In Bbh 230.13 ms. araksani, ed. 
araksyani; read araksyani, see araksya-.] 

araksana-ta (cf. °na, Schmidt, Nachtrage), the being 
on guard: °ta vipratipannesu Siks 286.3 (prose). 

araksitar, one who guards (from, with abl.): °tarah 
pranasapathebhyo Gv 463.7. 

(araksya, see araksya.) 

aranga, m. or nt. (associated with aragayati, q.v.; 
root raj, ranj, cf. Skt. ranga etc.), acquisition, attainment: 
LV 35.3 (prose) sarvakusalamuladharmarangottaranaj^a, 
to the bringing over into acquisition of . . . Tib. brtsams, 
accom plishment. 

aranyaka, m. (Skt. id., forest dweller, not in technical 
sense; = Pali araniiaka, also ara° in both BHS and Pali), 
dwelling in the forest , one of the dhutaguna: Mvy 1134; 
Dharmas 63; AsP 387.3; MSV iii.122.4. 

aranya-dhuta, see s.v. dhuta. 

ara-tas, adv. (= Skt. arat), at a distance, afar (from, 
with gen.): Gv 488.7 (vs) tasya sarvi sugata na durlabha, 
tasya sarvi jinaputra naratah. 

Arati, f., n. of one of the 'armies’ (sena) of Mara: 
Mv ii.240.3 (vs) kama te prathama sena dvitiya arati 
vuccati. The meter is indifferent as to a- or a- initially, 
and LV in the same vs has Arati, q.v. It is hard to be sure 
what meaning was attributed to the word. Foucaux 
( mecontentement ) and Tib. (mi dgah ba) understand LV 
as a-(neg.)-rati. 

-arabdha, injured, in an-arabdha, q.v. 
arabhya, ger., postpos. with acc. (= Pali arabbha), 
referring to, having to do with: SP 21.1 (tarn varaprabham 
bodhisattvam) arabhya . . . dharmaparyayam sampraka- 
Sayam asa (practically = revealed to the bodhisattva V.); 
71.9 samyaksambodhim arabhya . . . bodhisattvayanam 
eva samadapayati; 109.10; LV 400.13 (prose) sattvan 
arabhya mahakarunam avakramayati sma (= 180.6 

sattvesu ca mahakarunam avakramati sma); Mv i. 319. 3-4 
. . . Srotum imam eva marakarandam nigamam arabhya 
(about); iii.212.5 . . . prccheyam drstadharmikam artham 
arabhya utaho samparayikam ; 7 panca kamagunan 

arabhya; 318.13 (aniyatam) rasim arabhya; 412.14 yaso- 
dam sresthiputram arabhya imam udanam udanaye ; Divy 
98.8; 348.17 sthaviropaguptam arabhya; 619.8 bhiksu- 




nyah ptirvanivasam arabhya bhiksun amantrayate sma 
(repetitions below); Jm 172.17 (vs) ...tad bruhi kam 
arabhyeti bhasase; Bbh 37.1-2 yathavadbhavikatam 
dharmanam arabhya ya bhutata; 49.15-16 Samtha- 
katyayanam arabhya; 223.2 hmayana-nihsrtim carabhya 
mahayana-nihsrtim va; etc. 

arambana, nt. (= Pali arammana; in mg. 1 = Skt. 
alambana; in BHS this, q.v., is also used in mg. 3), (1) 
basis, support, point d’appui; basis, reason, (logical) ground ; 
in Bhvr. cpds., having . . . as basis, based on . . .: SP 6.13 
(see s.v. aSravana); 71.7 -vividha-hetu-karana-nidarsana- 
rambana-niruktyupayakausalyair; 318.6-7 yam ca . . . 
tathagatah . . . vacam bhasata atmopadarsanena (add 
with WT va paropadarSanena) vatmarambanena va para- 
rambanena va. . ., either on his own authority (Kern) or 
that of others, or on the basis of (presentation of) himself 
(in visible form) or of others (so essentially Burnouf; per- 
haps more exactly, on the basis of giving an account, a 
description, sc. of himself, by himself or by others); 318.14 
vividhair arambanair, with various bases or authorities; 
319.12 tad arambanam krtva, probably making that my 
reason or basis; 320.3 tathagatarambana-manaskara- 
kuSalamulani, roots of merit (due to) attentiveness based 
upon the T. ; LV 244.5 (dhyanagocaranam) ca samapatty- 
arambananam laukikasamadhinam ; Mv ii.260.15 mahan- 
tanam varnanam arambanam ... (16) bhutanam ca 
varnanam arambanam anuprapnuvanti (Bodhisattvas), 
apparently basis of great castes . . . and of bygone castes* 
(so Senart, but he disclaims understanding what is meant) ; 
Gv 18.21 -bodhy-arambana- (1st ed. misprinted; corr. 
2d ed.) -kusalamula- ; 64.8 and 116.5 arambanikrtya, 
making a basis, object of attention (with acc.); in Siks 253.3 
arambanena = alambanapratyayena (cf. Mvy 2269; Pali 
arammanapaccaya), the third of the four pratyaya, q.v. ; 
(2) physical basis, location (= Skt. visaya): Gv 82.14 
yasniin yasminn adhvani (time, i. e. present, past, or future) 
yasmin yasminn arambane ( cosmic location, of a Tatha- 
gata) . . . tathagatam drastum akanksami; Gv 512,4-5 
abhasam agamann ekasminn arambane yatha caikasminn 
arambane tathasesasarvarambanesu, location(s), of the 
palatial structures presided over by Maitreya; (3) like 
Pali arammana, also = Skt. visaya in sense of sense- 
object, of which in Pali there are six (the 6th being dhamma, 
object of manas); Siks 250.5 caksurindriyadhipateya 
ruparambana-prativijnaptih, recognition of the sense-object 
form, dependent on the sense-organ eye (sight); Mv i.120.11, 
read with mss. arambanarambhanacittam hetuno parikar- 
menti, ... the thought as it grasps the sense-objects (here 
perhaps more particularly the objects of the manas, ideas, 
to which Pali arammana is sometimes restrictedly applied). 
— *(Mv ii. 260. 15-16) Better, basis of great and true renown, 
or qualities, or (physical) appearance ? (Addition in proof.) 

5rambanaka, nt., = alambana(ka) as architectural 
term: Mvy 5589 = Tib. gdan bu, peg, nail, or step (of 
a ladder); Chin, staircase or step of a ladder. Associated 
with 5586 vedika, 5587 sucakah, 5588 sankuh, 5590 
sucika, 5591 adhisthanam; cf. s.v. alambana. 

Arambanachedana, m., n. of a samadhi: Mvy 573; 
SsP 1421.6. 

arambanlya, adj., pertaining to the objects of sense 
(see Srambana, 3): Gv 83.(7-)8 (svacittam eva pariSo- 
dhayitavyam) arambanlya-dharmebhyah, substantially 
(must be purified) from physical conditions. 

arambha (Skt. Lex., see pw 5 App., which follows 
Zachariae in calling this an error for alambha, but Pali 
and BHS support it; = Pali id., in maharambha, = our 
word, SN i.76.21; not recorded in PTSD, except in nir-a°, 
or Childers), (sacrificial) slaughter (of animals), substan- 
tially = yajna: Bbh 118.2 (ksudrayajnesu ca) manaicuxi- 
bhesu ca yesu bahavah praninah . . . jivitad vyaparo- 
pyante. Cf. also anSrabdha. 

aragana, nt., °na(?), and °na-ta (to aragayati), 
(1) attainment : Mv iii.57.14 aryadharmanam araganaye 
(so mss. ; Senart em. aradha 0 ); KP 17.2 and Bbh 287.14-15 
buddhotpadaraganata, attainment of the production of 
Buddhas, i. e. of the privilege of being born when a Buddha 
is living; see under aragayati (1); paraphrased in KP 17.6 
(vs) buddhanam aragana sarvajatisu; (2) propitiation, 
pleasing, winning the favor (of): Gv 529.23 sarvakalyana- 
mitraraganaviraganabuddhih, with a mind to please and 
not displease all excellent friends; Gv 84.1 kalyanamitrara- 
ganabhimukhah ; 107.11 naikabuddharaganatayai . . . (12) 
yadutaraganabhiradhanapujopasthanatayai; 247.22 kalya- 

aragayati (peculiar to BHS, except for ppp. araiam 
DeSln. 1.70 = grhitam, asaditam ity anye; quasi-denom. 
to an unrecorded *araga, cf. aranga and aragana, but 
prob. actually formed as a pendant and opposite to 
viragayati, q.v., with which it is often associated; used 
extensively as substitute for aradhayati, which is often, 
e. g. in the Kashgar rec. of SP, recorded as v.l. for this; 
Senart Mv i.458 emended arag- to aradh-, but on iii.472 
recognized that this was indefensible; Skt. vi-radh- is 
used, tho not often, in ways approaching viragayati; 
see also samragayati and samradhayati for a third con- 
fusion of these two roots): (1) attains, gets, acquires : object 
ajnam, q.v. (perfect knowledge) Mvy 7602; Mv iii.53.9; 
Divy 302.20; kuSalam dharmam (so interpret aradhyate 
. . . dharmo Jm 106.19, as in Skt., BR s.v. radh with a 2; 
pw 7.371 befolgen, vollfiihren) Mv ii.118.9 °yet, 120.1 °ye 
(opt.; Senart em. aradh°); nirvanam aragayisyatiti LV 
434.6 and 7; °yisyanti mamagrabodhim SP 222.2; arageti 
(Siks °gayaty) . . . buddhotpadam Mv ii.363.4 == Siks 
298.2 (see under aragana, 1); saced yuyam yacanakam 
aragayatha Bbh 124.23, if you get (come upon, meet) a 
petitioner (i. e. an opportunity to show generosity) ; osadhlr 
aragayed aragya ca . . . SP 134.3, would get the herbs, and 
having got them ...; food, Divy 173.4, 29 °gayat,i; (aharam) 
236.10 °gayami; in Divy 314.17; 328.17 na tv eva pitrma- 
ranam aragitavantau, (they entered nirvana, or died,) 
but did not attain (wait for) their father’s death (i. e., they 
predeceased him); so mss. in these places, while acc. to 
ed. in 314.23 and 315.3 mss. have agamitavantau, waited 
for, which is the essential meaning in any case, but prob. 
a lect. fac. ; (2) propitiates, gratifies, pleases; object (or 
subject of passive forms) almost always Buddha(s): 
°gayati Mvy 2394; °yanti SP 184.2; RP 15.4; °yeyam, opt. 
Mv ii.276.12; Divy 23.20; 131.5; 133.15; 192.16; Av 
i.287.9; °ye Mv ii.393.1 = °yed £iks 306.12; °yema Bbh 
271.5; °yisyasi, fut. Suv 91.3; °yisyati SP 153.1; aragayi, 
aor. SP 27.12; 384.6; aragita, ppp. (various forms; subject 
Buddhas) SP 22.7; 70.10; 184.2; 290.11; 393.5; Suv 
81.10; Gv 104.17; °gitavan SP 380.10; °gayam asa Samadh 
8.16; °gayitva, ger. SP 385.6; Mv i.104.8 (Senart em. 
aradh°) ; °getva Mv iii.415.4; °gayitu-kama ^iks 244.3; 
°gayitavya, gdve. (subject a human instructress) Bhik 31b. 3. 

arajaka, nt. (secondary deriv., with vrddhi, from 
araja or °jaka), state of kinglessness : Mv ii.70.13 (vs, but 
quantity of initial indifferent) °kam idam asmakam. 

Arada (also Arada, q.v., and see next; = Pali 
Alara), n. of a sage under whom Sakyamuni studied for 
a time; in a dvandva cpd. Aradodraka (-Udraka) Divy 
392.1 (see also under Arada and Aradaka); generally 
surnamed Kalama (= Pali id.): °da-Kal° as one word 
Mvy 3515, but regularly two words: Mv ii.118.1 ff. ; 
198.1 ; iii.322.15, 17 ; in LV 238.14, 19 f. ; 239.6, 12 ; 403.20 ; 
404.2-3, 3-4, Lefmann reads the surname always Kalapa; 
the mss. generally vary, in 404.3 all have Kalama. How- 
ever, there seems to have been some support in northern 
tradition for the ending -pa, for Tib. on Mvy and LV 
renders sgyu rtsal 6es (byed), knowing arts, which seems 
to point to analysis into kala plus a form of root ap-. 




Aradaka = prec. : Divy 392.3 (vs), in a dvandva, 
Udrakaradaka (see under prec. and Arada); the -ka is 
probably m.c. 

arati, m.c. for arati, displeasure (in this mg. Skt. 
arati), by em. (required by meter) in LV 325.11, where 
word-division should be: aratlya ratiya (both instr. sg.) 
samvase na ca sardham, and I do not dwell together with 
displeasure or pleasure. 

[aramatha, grove , = araina, acc. to KN in SP 61.10 
aramatha vrksamulam; but read aram’ atha.] 

aramika, m. (in sense 1 once in Rajat., pw; in Pali 
apparently only in sense 2, and so usually in BHS), 
(1) gardener : Av i.36.10 fT. ; 120.14; 124.6, et alibi; (2) an 
attendant in a Buddhist arama, i. e. a grove used by monks: 
Mvy 3843; Mv i. 325. 19 °ka-sahasrani upasthapayisyanti 
(in a grove for monks); Divy 43.20 (here Tib. khim pa 
zhig, Bailey, JRAS 1950.180; agarika?); 155.13; 157.25, 
27 et alibi; Bbh 166.25; Prat 494.10; Lank 308.6. 

arava, nt., a high number: Mvy 7839 = Tib.rig(s) 
sdom; cited from Gv; var. agava, q.v. But Gv 133.3 reads 
avaga (nt.), which has the same Tib. rendering Mvy 
7713 and is probably to be read for arava. Mironov reads 
aravam, noting vv.ll. agavam, aravam. In Gv 105.21 
replaced by vipasa. 

aravita, ppp. (of denom. to Skt. and Pali arava, 
cry, not to caus. of a-ru which is unrecorded), made re- 
sonant: Mv ii.215.13 (sarvam vanakhandam . . . ninaditam 
mrgapaksiravehi) ca aravitam (mss. °pitam). 
aritiyate, see ar(t)tiyati. 

(aruta, in Jm 123.18, cry (noun), not ppp. of a-ru as 
stated in pw 7.371. The noun is Skt.: BR 6.355, s.v. a-ru.) 
[arudha, Divy 84.10, see s.v. abrdha.] 

[arudha- civara, see rudha- civara.] 
arudhayati (denom. to arudha, mounted), makes 
mounted, causes to mount : Mv iii.146.14 asvarathe aru- 
dhayitva (ger.). 

arupa, nt. ( = arupya; cf. arupin), formlessness : 
Lank 312.8(-9) arupya-rupam hy arupair ... (9) rupam 
darsyanti sattvanam. 

arupayati (== Skt. aropayati; for u cf. Pali ruhati 
and aruha = aroha; see Chap. 43, s.v. ruh), causes to 
mount: ppp. arupita Mv iii.68.19; ger. arupiya Mv i.352.20; 
arupetva iii.160.7 (so em. Senart, plausibly); tridandam 
arupayitva Mv iii.393.18, having caused (her) to take up 
(the triple staff, as brahman pupil). 

arupin, adj. (from arupa, q.v., plus -in), (something) 
characterized by formlessness: catvara arupinah skandha(h) 
Lank 113.9; SsP 382.(15-)16 (tat kim inanyase) subhute 
arupi bodhisattva iti, so what think you, S .? is a Bodhi- 
sattva something characterized by formlessness ? 

arupya, adj. and subst. nt. ( = Pali aruppa, both), 
formless (state), formlessness; there are, as in Pali, four 
such, listed s.v. deva, end: °pya ca samapattir Lank 
24.10; °pya-samapatti LV 442.6; Bbh 90.11 (four); Dhar- 
mas 82 (four); Karmav 47.21 ff. (four, listed); Gv 471.20 
ye te catur-arupya-samapatti-vihara-viharinas ca na 
carupya-dhatu-gatim gacchanti, mahakarynaparigrhita- 
tvat; °pya£ ca samadhayah Lank 65.15; arupya as adj. 
with or sc. deva (— arupyavacara, arupav 0 , qq.v.) Mmk 
103.28; 473.24; 474.1 etc.; arupye navatisthati Lank 
355.8; in comp, with dhatu (perhaps as adj., as with 
samapatti above, but parallel cpds. with kama-, rupa- 
suggest subst.), parallel or cpd. with kama-dh°, rupa-dh°, 
LV 428.20; Mvy 2149 (here the stem dhatu is omitted); 
KP 94.5; alone, KP 27.9. In Mv ii.123.18 arupyani is 
an error for sarupyani, see sarupya. 

arupyavacara, m. (see s.v. arupya), = arupava- 
cara, q.v.: Mmk 419.8; Karmav 30.14. 

arogyayati (denom. to arogya), (1) salutes (per- 
sonally and directly): °yayitva, ger. Divy 259.11; MSV 
i.42.1; (2) sends a greeting to, Ger. lasst grussen (= caus.): 

Divy 129.5 and 273.25 °yayati; 273.19 °yaya, impv.; MSV 
i.42.3 °yayati; (3) caus. arogyapayati, = (2): Divy 128.25 
°paya, impv. (but MSV i.245.14, same passage, °gyaya). 

arocaka, f. °ika, adj. (to arocayati with -aka), 
announcing, making known: presyadarikaya kalarocikava 
MSV ii.83.16; °cakah 84.5. 

arocana, nt., or °na-ta (not recorded in Pali, except 
CPD an-arocana; n. act. to arocayati), saying, statement, 
declaration: °nam Mvy 8424-5; 9295; sarvasattvesu bo- 
dhicittarocanata KP 20.3; anarocanata paraskhalitesu 
Siks 286.3. 

arocayati, (rarely) aroceti (= Pali id., usually °cet.i), 
declares, announces, tells: usually with acc. of thing and 
gen. or dat. of person, but sometimes with acc. of person, 
Mv i.226.14 = ii.29.17 rajanam arocenti; arocenta, pres, 
pple., Mv iii.345.4, 12; caus. (kalam) arocapitam Mv 

i. 307.1 3, the time was caused to be announced; otherwise 
the following are formally standard Skt.; arocayami vo 
(te) . . . (voc. usually here) prativedayami (te, SP 269.8, 
but usually no repetition of pronoun), in formal pronounce- 
ments (usually) by a Buddha, SP 144.1; 259.6; 269.8; 
309.2; 395.10; Sukh 71.15-16; LV 90.21 (ca instead of 
vo or te); kalam arocayati Av i.9.5 announces (that) the 
time (has arrived); object prakrtim, (this) circumstance , 
LV 13*7.11; 200.16; 386.6; 407.8 ;Mv i.246.11; Suv 187.11 ; 
190.8; or artham, the matter, LV 141.6; 404.1; Sukh 3.15; 
(chandam ca tais tathagatair) . . . arocitam viditva SP 
248.(12-)13, and knowing that these Tathagatas had an- 
nounced their consent; yan nv aham anena saha vadam 
arocayeyam Av i.94.1, suppose now I propose a contest 
(in music) with him; miscellaneous, LV 18.11; Mv i.8.11; 
197.1; ii.112.3; 167.10; 178.20; iii.402.15; Divy 2.9; 6.9; 
260.6; Av i.14.11; Kv 55.23; etc., common in most texts. 

arodana (nt. ; = Pali id.), weeping, lamentation: Mv 

ii. 215.9 mahantam arodanam karetsuh (Senart karensuh); 
MSV i.64.11 °na-sabdam. 

aropayati (unrecorded in this sense; cf. Skt. id. 
plants'!), buries: Divy 484.13 atha kalam karoti, tatrai- 
varopayitavyah, but if he dies, he is to be buried right there; 
485.18 atha kalam karoti, tatraivaropayitvagaccha. 

aroha, m. (= Pali id., regularly with parinaha; cf. 
anaha), height or length (of persons, animals, trees, etc.); 
usually cpd. or associated with parinaha, circumference: 
aroha-parinaham, dvandva, Divy 57.1; °naho, id. masc. 
sg., Divy 222.21 (mss.; see s.v. gupti); °nahah Bbh 61.19; 
other cases, °nahena etc., Samadh 22.20; Gv 45.18; Sukh 
40.17; tulyarohaparinahau (Bhvr., dual, with nau, pro- 
noun) Jm 136.7; arohaparinaha-sampanna Mvy 2684; of 
the bodhi-tree LV 278.12; of the Bodhisattva’ s mother, 
LV 25.9 (analyzed in Mv i.205.7 = ii.9.3 into aroha- 
sampannayam parinaha-sampannayam, of the same); 
arohah Mvy 2685 (parinahah 2CL86) ; without juxtaposition 
to parinaha, §iks 28.4 aroha-sampannan, said of horses, 
perfect as to height (mistranslated Bendall and Rouse). 

arjana (to arjayati), winning, acquisition: Bbh 35.9 
(prose) bhoganam arjana. 

arjayati, wins: LV 203.7 (vs) punyam arjayamo 
(meter requires short penult; °yamo? all mss. arj°) bahum. 
Cf. arjana, supporting a (preverb); BR 5.1043 cite samar- 
jita (sam-a-arj-) once from Mbh 13.5551. 

Arjava, n. of a cakravartin: Mv i. 154.1. 

[Artavaka, see Ata°.] 

arnava, adj. (perh. = Pali annava as ep. of sarani, 
see CPD), of the ocean: °vam sarah MPS 7.9; Ud xvii.7. 

[artibhava, m., state of distress, Senart’s em. at Mv 
ii.146.15; but read anyathlbhava, q.v.] 
artiyate, see ar(t)tiyati. 

arddha(?), Mv i. 253.4, Senart rogajata arddha, but 
mss. °jatanaddhe or °narddhe; text and mg. obscure; 
Senart’ s note takes ar° as adj. from rddhi, (diseases) pro- 
duced by magic, which does not seem to me plausible. But 




I have no interpretation to propose. Followed by nianda- 
lako ca adhivaso ca, qq.v. 

Ardravallipratirupa, n. of a former Buddha: Mv 

Aryaka, n. of a cakravartin: SB 160.14 maharajha 
cakravartinaryakena mahakosena. Burnouf and Kern 
take this word as an adj. and Cakravartin as the king’s 
name, which I think unlikely. 

aryaka (= Pali ayyaka), grandmother : MSV ii.70.2 f. 

Aryadeva, n. of a teacher: Mvy 3476. 

aryapaksa, m., group of noble persons , designation 
of a list of 500 Tathagatas (divided into two halves, 
and each half into two hundred plus fifty — approx- 
imately): Mv i.137.9; 138.8; 140.6; 141.8. See Senart’s 
note, p. 485. 

aryapungala, m. (= Pali ariya-puggala), a model 
human personality : LV 423.13 parijnatam (so read with 
v.l. for text °nam) aryapungalair (said of the dharma- 
cakra). Prob. refers to persons in the eight stages of 
(Hinayana) religious development, Dharmas 102; see 
astamaka, saiksa. 

AryabhrkutI, n. of a goddess, Mvy 4282; certainly 
the same as Bhrkutl, q.v. 

arya-mahasimha-ukkasita, nt. (MIndic for °utka- 
sita), Exalted-Great-Lion’s-throat-clearing : Mv ii.281.12 

(here arya is accidentally omitted), 14, 16, 18 (bodhi- 
sattvo . . . caturvidham) °sitam ukkasi. Cf. next two. The 
four ways are listed. 

arya-mahasimha-vijrmbhita, nt., Exalted-Great - 
Lion’s-yawn: Mv ii. 281. 7-11 (bodhisattvo . . . caturvi- 

dham) °bhitam vijrmbheti. Cf. prec. and next. The four 
ways are listed. 

arya-mahasimha-vilokita, nt., Exalted-Great-Lion’ s 
gaze: Mv ii.281.1-5 (bodhisattvo . . . caturvidham) °kitam 
viloketi. Cf. prec. two. The four ways are listed. 

arya-mana, m. or nt., exalted pride: Mv ii.279.1 ff. 
(bodhisattvo . . . dvatrimsatakarasamanvagatam) °nam 
pragrhne. The 32 forms are then listed. On dvatrimsata- 
see §19.34. 

aryavamsa (m. ; — Pali ariyavamsa, see CPD s.v.), 
the (fourfold) attitudes (lit. 'stocks’, sources) of the Buddhist 
saint , listed AbhidhK. LaV-P. vi.l46fL: RP 13.17-18 
caturnam °sanam anuvartanata; 14.7 caturaryavamsani- 
rata; KP 6.17 (vs) ajlvaSuddho sthita aryavamse; 123.3 
samtustah caturbhir aryavamSair (the first three are con- 
tentment with garments, food, seat-and-bed of monks; 
acc. to AbhidhK. the fourth is devotion to the way to 
release, by appropriate behavior); 126.7 (vs) °vamsehi 
samanvito ’pi; Siks 105.8 caturaryavamsaparivarjanataya 
(due to labhasatkara ; misunderstood by Bendall and 
Rouse); 191.10 °vam£a-samtusti (cf. above). 

Aryavamsaketu, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.141.6. 

Aryavati, n. of a river: Karmav 162.14; prob. false 
Sktization for Pali Aciravati = BHS Ajiravatl, q.v., 
(thru a MIndic *Ayiravai, *Ariyavai); cf. Levi’s note, 
which states that it is the same river as the Hiranyavatl 
(q.v. ; on what evidence I do not know). 

Aryasura, n. of a teacher f Mvy 3479. 

arya-satya, nt. (= Pali ariya-sacca), (the four) noble 
truth(s): listed, Mvy 1310 ff.; Dharmas 21 (duhkham, 
samudayah, nirodhah, margah); SP 179.2-3; Mv ii.138.4, 
Bbh 38.9 (as in Dharmas); full statements of all four, 
Mv iii.331.17 ff. ; LV 417.2 ff. The standard names are 
duhkham, duhkhasamudayah, duhkhanirodhah, duhkhani- 
rodhagamini pratipat. 

Aryasatyaka Parivarta (m.), n. of a work, or part 
of a work (cf. Bendall 407, note): Siks 165.17. 

Aryasammatlya, m. pi., n. of a school: Mvv 

Arya-sarvastivada, m. pi., n. of a school: Mvy 
9077 °vadah; Siks 148.13 °vadanam (so ed. with ms.; 

Bendall’s note suggests reading °vadinam) ca pathyate 
(a quotation follows). 

Arya-sthavira, m. pi., n. of a school: Mvy 9095 
(printed °sthavirah, both a’s short, but Index °sthavirah, 
and so Mironov). 

Aryasthaviriya Nikaya, n. of a work belonging to 
that (prec.) school, from which Jm xvi vss 2-3 are quoted : 
Jm 98.24. The verses occur in the Pali Dhp. 

arya-smita (nt.), Exalted-smile or smile of an Exalted 
One (or saint): Mv ii.280.15 ff. (Bodhisattvo . . . pancavi- 
dham) aryasmitam pradurkare. The five kinds are then 

Arya, n. of a yakjinl: Sadh 561.1, 11; 562.5. 

Aryaksa (? mss. Aryaksa), n. of a former Buddha: 
Mv U37.14. 

Aryasanga, n. of a teacher: Mvy 3477. Cf. Asanga. 

aryika (Skt. Gr. and lex. ; f. to Skt. aryaka), a vener- 
able woman , used of Buddhist nuns: °ka-samghah (read 
as cpd.) Bhlk 17b.l and ff. 

[arsa, corruption for arsabha, adj., q.v.: Bbh 

385.17; Gv 401.8.] 

arsabha, adj. (= Pali asabha; °bham, often written 
°bhan-, thanam patijanati MN i.69.32; SN ii.27.26 etc., 
cf. below), of the first rank (esp. religiously), prime , worthy 
of admiration: udaram arsabham sthanam pratijanati Dbs 
209.10; 211.4 etc.; . . . pratijanite Av ii.105.15; . . . pra- 
janami (read pratija 0 ?) ^sP 1448.12; . . . drastavyam 
Bbh 386.13; in Bbh 385.17 (after 15 nirvanam udaram 
ity ucyate, cf. the above phrase), read arsabham (text 
arsam; refers to nirvana; meaning supported by Tib. 
and Chin.) ity ucyate; of the teeth of a mahapurusa, in 
a list of the laksana, Gv 401.(7-)8 (avirala) avisamarsa 
(read avisamarsabha, for °ma arsabha; same corruption 
as in Bbh 385.17 above) asya danta abhuvan. 

Arstisena, m. pi. (cf. Asthisena), n. of a brahmanical 
school, of the chandogas: Divy 637.27. 

(Arhata, m., a member of some heretical sect: Mvy 
3531. Perhaps, as in Skt., a Jain; but Nirgrantha occurs 
separately in 3529.) 

alaksya (nt. ? in Skt. as adj., wahrzunehrnen , sichtbar), 
visible sign , emblem: Divy 118.24 (idam . . . maniratnam . . . ) 
cihnabhutam alaksyabhutam mandanabhutam ca. 

alaptaka, m.,.o/ie with whom one talks familiarly: 
Mvy 2711. In section entitled mitrakaryam; pw 7.319 
gesprachig , leutselig. Tib. gtam hdres pa, defined by Das 
alaptaka (so!), mixed-up stories , garbled accounts, which 
cannot be the mg.; MSV ii.131.11 alaptakenaiaptakasya 
(sc. upasthanam, waiting on when sick, karanlyam), which 
makes the mg. certain; cf. samlaptaka. 

alabdha, ppp., in Mv ii.479.10 mala ca se alabdha, 
and a garland was hung on him. As Senart’s note indicates, 
this seems to require alambita, and to imply confusion 
of roots labh and lamb; note pw 5.217 alalambhe Rajat. 
2.212 'fehlerhaft fiir alalambe’. 

-alambaka = Skt. alamba, support, at end of Bhvr. 
cpd. : Bbh 242.3 dharmalambaka-maitri, love (benevolence) 
that is based on dharma. 

alambana, nt. (in mg. 1, essentially = Skt. id.; in 
mg. 2 = arambana, q.v.), (1) basis, ground, reason 
(= Skt. id.); alambana-pratyaya, third of four pratyaya, 
q.v., cf. arambana, 1, end: Mvy 2269; (2) object of sense 
(= arambana, 3): LV 392.15 sarvalambana-samati- 
krantah (dharmah); Bbh 384.8 (see s.v. samprakhyana) ; 
Sutral. iv.l (see Levi’s note in Transl. ; seems restricted 
to correspondence with citta = manas(?), at least acc. 
to Tib.); (3) architectural term, part of a railing or balus- 
trade; bar, crossbar (functioning as support), esp. of a 
vedika(-jala), q.v,, one of the cross-pieces of a balustrade 
or railing; — arambanaka, q.v.; associated with 
adhisthana (q.v., 4) or °naka (q.v.); repeatedly a sucl 
(sucika) is stated to function as alambana to the upright 




pillars (padaka) of a vedika-jala (Mv), or simply to a 
vedika (Divy): Mv i. 195,1 sucika alambanam adhisthana- 
kam ca abhusi; iii.227.7 ff. sucika alambanam adhistha- 
nakam ca (in some repetitions below, abhusi is added); 
Divy 221.9 sue! alambanam adhisthanam (sc. aslt); see 

alambanaka, nt., = alambana (3); varies with 
°bana in repetitions of Mv iii.227.7, above, viz. in 9, 10, 
11, 12, 13 (in some v.l. °banam). 
alambu = alambu, q.v. 

? alambusa (m. or nt.?), n. of a plant: Mmk 82.18 
alambusa-mulam ksirena saha pisayitva. Prose; perhaps 
error for alambusa, which is the only form recorded in 
literary Skt. (Lex alambusa; no al° is recorded anywhere). 

alambya, adj. (gdve.) or subst., thing to be supported : 
Lank 153.6 alambalambyavigatam . . . samskrtam, free 
from support and from anything to be supported ; 169.5 
and 170.9 yada tv alambyam artham nopalabhate jnanam, 
but when knowledge finds no object which can be supported 
(by it); see also nir- alambya. 

alaya, m., rarely nt. (in Skt. ‘home’, also in BHS; 
Pali id., same mgs. as BHS): ( 1 ) ( habitation , hence) firm 
basis , fundamental base , in an-alaya, alaya-vijnana, qq.v. 
for Tib.: also Lank 374.3 mano hy alayasambhutam, 4 
alayat sarvacittani pravartanti tarangavat (in both of these 
substantially = alaya-vijnana); perhaps here also Av 
ii. 175.2-3 tatas tena bhagavato ’ntike cittam prasaditam 
tesam ca mahaSravakanam alayasamapannanam ( arrived at 
the fundamental basis, the proper mental state ?); (2) attach- 
ment , clinging: Mvy 5382 kamalayah, attachment (Tib. 
zhen pa) to desires (Tib. hdod pa la); Mv iii.314.2 (mss. 
corrupt, ed. incorrect; read) alayarama . . . alayarata 
alayasamudita (praja), mankind takes pleasure, joy, delight 
in attachment (to lusts; see samudita, and Pali parallels 
SN i.136.11 ff. ; Vin. i.4.35 ff.); Mv iii.400.3 hitva alayani 
(em., from Pali Sn 535; mss. alepati); Ud xii.18 alayams 
trln (— the three trsna 2 = Pali tanha; cf. Sn 635 alaya, 
comm, tanha); Mv iii.200.11 alayasamudghato, rooting 
out of attachment, cf. Pali AN ii.34.24; Vism. 293.9, 25 f. 
See also niralaya. 

alayana ( = Skt. alaya; Desin. 1.66 and 8.58 alaya- 
nam, vasagrham), or (v.l.) alayaka, nt., dwelling, nest, 
lair (of animals): SP 84.3 (vs) niksipanti te potakany 
al yanani (v.l. °kani) krtva. 

alaya-vijnana (see alaya, 1) connaissance-rtceptacle 
(E. Lamotte, L’Alayavijnana [Le Receptacle] dans le 
Mahay ana-samgraha, Mel. chin, et boud., vol. 3, Brussels, 
1935, 169 ff.), or basic, fundamental, underlying vijhana : 
Mvy 2017, where alaya = kun gzhi, ultimate basis, iden- 
tified sometimes with citta (Levi, Sutral. i. 18, n. 2 in 
Transl.), and opp. to manas. Frequent in Lank; notably 
2.13 (samudratarangan avaloky)alaya-vijnanodadhipravrt- 
tivijnanapavanavisaye preritams . . . cittany avalokya, 
looking on the waves of the sea, stirred in the range (visaye) 
of the wind of the active vijhana and the ocean of the basal 
vij., and looking on the minds (of the people there; alaya-vi° 
is the ocean, pravrtti-vi b the wind which stirs it; see under 
alaya 1). 

[-alapaka, read -alopaka, q.v.: LV 248.21, 22.] 
[alapana, nt., in balalapanam Dbh 43.6, read ba- 
lollap 0 ; see ullapana.] 

alambu = alambu, q.v. 

all, f. (m.? nom. alih), (1) small ditch (for water): 
Mvy 4177 = Tib. yur phran; cf. the Pali (and Skt. Lex.) 
meaning dike; (2) a-series (i. e. a plus ali), name for a 
series of syllables (chiefly vowels and combinations of a 
or a with semivowels), used as a magic formula in Sadh, 
and defined there 478.7 ff. Cf. kali. 

Alikavenda, n. of a yaksini: MSV i.17.7. Foil, by 
Magha (perh. part of same name?). 

dlikhana (nt. ? ; cf. Skt. likhana and alekhana), 

painting, depiction, delineation: Mmk 67.6 (vs) pata-m- 
alikhanad (cpd. ; m is hiatus-bridger) ; 524.12 (vs) mandala- 

alinga (m. or nt. ; cf. next; = Pali, AMg., Skt. Lex. 
id.), a kind of drum: Mv ii.159.7 (prose) kacid alingam 
(in a series of mus. instruments); iii.70.14 (prose) mrdanga- 
vadyesu alingavadyesu ; 82.3 (vs; mss. slightly corrupt). 

alingika (to prec. ; prob. dim. -ka), a kind of drum: 
Mv iii.407.20 (prose) kacit. mrdangam kacid alingikam 
(mss. alingika). 

alidha, ppp. of a-lih, in an-alidha Lank 14.13; 172.12 
(Suzuki not tasted, prob. rather) not ‘ licked ’ = not grazed, 
not (even) lightly touched (by sectarian or heretical theo- 
rists); applied to questions or doctrines to be expounded. 

alu, m. (or f. ; Skt. Lex. nt., and Skt. aluka, nt. ; 
Pali alu, nt. acc. to PTSD; but AMg. alu, m. acc. to Rat- 
nach., Pkt. m. and nt. acc. to Sheth), a certain edible 
tuber: Mvy 5730 aluh. 

alekhya, or (v.l.) alekha, m., Mvy 5234, defined Tib. 
and Chin, as synonym of vipratisara, kaukrtya, and 
vilekha, vilekhya, qq.v. 

aloka, m. (once nt.), light, as in Skt.; (1) fig., see 
dharmaloka(-mukha); like this, -jnanalokamukha Gv 
169.24, introduction to the light of knowledge; -pratibhana- 
lokamukha Gv 174.13-14; (prajna udapasi) alokam (n. sg. 
nt.) pradur-abhusi Mv iii.332.15 illumination (of the mind) 
became manifested (virtually = enlightenment, true know- 
ledge); (2) m., a high number: Gv 133.13 (= aloka, q.v.). 
See the following items. 

Alokakara, m., n. of a samadhi: Mvy 557; SsP 

alokati (hardly = alokayati or the rare Skt. alokate, 
sees, perceives; not even in the 'sens moral’ suggested by 
Senart; rather denom. to aloka, q.v.), furnishes light: 
Mv i.165.7 (vs, addressed to Buddha) yada ca alokasi 
nagagami, yada ca agata maranaya param, when you 
provide illumination (for creatures lost in the darkness of 
ignorance, 1. 3 ff.) . . . and when you have arrived at the shore 
beyond death (? readings here uncertain), . . . (then the earth 
is shaken etc.) 

Alokamandalaprabha, n. of a Buddha: Gv 285.6. 
aloka-labha, m. (so read for edd. °labdha; see L6vi 
Sutral. n. 1 on xiv.24), attainment of illumination, one 
of the adhimukti-carya-bhumi: Mvy 898. 

aloka- vrddhi, f., increase of illumination, one of the 
adhimukti-carya-bhumi: Mvy 899. 

aloka-samdhi (m. or f. ; = Pali id.), light-joint, 
opening for light, window: Jm 113.23 °dhim divasaih 
karotu. Prob. read this for aloka-samta-(-bhumi, then 
lacuna), which seems corrupt, in Prat 506.11; Chin, men- 
tions windows. On the passage see dvara-koSa. 

Alokasuvegadhvaja, n. of a serpent king: Mvy 3431. 
alokita-vilokita (nt., dvandva; on Pali see below), 
look and gaze; in a cliche, (prasadikena . . .) °kitena Mv 
i.301.6; iii.60.6; 182.12; in other forms of the same cliche 
avalokita and vyavalokita are substituted; see these on 
the Tib. interpretation of the difference of mg. between 
them, to which I do not attach much importance (it 
sounds etymologizing). However, acc. to Pali DN comm. 
i.193.17 these two words mean looking ahead and looking 
all around, which substantially = Tib. 

Alokinl, acc. to printed text also Lokini, n. of a 
yaksini: Mmk 566.13 alokinya mantrah: om lokini loka- 
vati svaha (seeming to use both forms as equivalents). 
Mmk 564.26 probably contained a form of this name 
originally, but is hopelessly corrupt and unusable. 

alopa, m. (= Pali id.), mouthful (of food); cf. next: 
Mv i.339.13 alopa-karam (ger., see §§ 22.5; 35.3, 5) aharam 
aharesi (so with v.l.), and 16 alopa-karakam (ger.) aharam 
aharetsuh, making a mouthful of it, took food; Mvy 5766; 
8572; 8574-6; Prat 533.1-6 (= Mvy 8572-6); Divy 




290.23 carama alopas; 470.17; 481.9; Av i. 341. 13 °pain 
anuprayacchati ; Siks 84.3; 138.5; 215.16; Bbh 76.19 (na) 
cavasistam bhavati yavad dvitiyam alopam praksipati. 

-alopaka, m. or nt. (from prec. plus suffix ka), in 
ekalop 0 and saptalop 0 , the practice of eating only (one, or 
seven) mouthful(s) of almsfood: LV 248.21, 22, ekalopa- 
kair, and saptalopakaih ; so read for °lap° of both edd., 
no v.l. ; cf. Pali ekalopika, sattalopika, DN i. 166.11 and 
12, one who adheres to these respective practices. Confirmed 
by Tib. kham. 

avadi (f. ; — Skt. avali, °li), row , line : SP 3’40.14 
chattravadibhir anvitah. 

Avantaka, m. pi., v.l. (read by Mironov) for Avan- 
taka, q.v. : Mvy 9087. 

avarana, nt. (= Pali id.; see also an-av° and avrti), 
hindrance , obstruction (= pratighatah Bbh 38.19; in Tib. 
standardly rendered .sgrib pa, darkness, obscuration, hence 
sin); Levi, Sutral. i.6, note. Two kinds, klesav 0 (moral 
faults) and jiieyav 0 (intellectual faults); gotra of sravakas 
and pratyekabuddhas free from the former, that of bo- 
dhisattvas, only, free also from the latter, Bbh 3.13 ff. ; 
the two kinds mentioned also Bbh 37.6 f. ; 88.3; Dharmas 
115; avarana-dvayam Lank 140.16; karmav 0 , obstruction 
due to past actions, Mvy 845; 1383; Av ii.155.9; Siks 68.14; 
six obstacles to samadhi, samadhy-av° Dharmas 118 
(kausldyam manam sathyam auddhatyam anabhogah 
satyabhogas ceti); general, Mvy 814; 6512; Bhad 57 
avaranam (acc. pi.) vinivartiya sarvam; Mvy 814 sarva- 
varana-vivarana- ; Gv 107.22, 24 -avaranaya (see s.v. 
vimatrata), etc., common. 

avaraniya, adj., pertaining to (causing) obstruction 
(avarana, q.v.): of karman Siks 280.3; Gv 20.5; of dharma 
conditions, stcdes of being LV 424.18; Bbh 193.18; of 
thoughts (citta) Bhad 19; as quasi-subst., without noun, 
things that cause obstruction, Gv 462.19 visodhakani . . . 

avarjana, nt. (to avarjayati, q.v.; see also avar- 
jana; substantially as in Skt., once, das Sich-geneigt- 
Machen, Gewinnen, BR 5.1123), wrongly defined for LV 
and Divy in pw ; attraction, winning to oneself: LV 250.(7-)8 
(dhyanagocaranam ca rupavacaranam) ca devanam dhya- 
navisesopadarsanad avarjanam kuryam (by performing 
severe austerities; said by the Bodhisattva); 250.22 
devanam cavarjanartham ; Mv ii.423.18 avarjana-sam- 
panno (Senart doue de bonne grace, d’affabilite; i. e. gifted 
with winning ways; followed by mardavasampanno apa- 
ruso); especially (cf. avarjayati) conversion : Bbh 180.5-6 
avarjanarhanam sattvanam avarjanaya (contrasts with 
prebeding uttrasanarhanam sattvanam uttrasanaya); often 
this is accomplished by miracles, because, as Divy 133.9 
says, asu prthagjanavarjanakarl rddhih, magic converts 
the vulgar quickly; virtually the same words 192.8; 313.15; 
539.5; Bbh 80.6 and 82.5 rddhy-avarjanata, process of 
conversion by (exhibitions of) magic; Av i.9.12 tad atyad- 
bhutam devamanusyavarjanakaram pratiharyam drstva; 
the same ii.4.4-5 etc. 

5varjana = avarjana, winning to oneself, the making 
kindly disposed : in LV 245. 14-15-- read: bodhisattvo 
rudrakasya ramaputrasya saSisyasy avarjanam (so 2 mss. 
inch the best; ed. °janl-) krtva . . . prakramad. (The gen. 
requires noun avarjanam.) Tib. hdun par byas nas, which 
is wrongly rendered by Foucaux; it appears to mean lit. 
having made reconciled or desirous, i. e. having made to 
be, of good will (towards himself, the Bodhisattva). 

[avarjanlkrtva, see prec.] 

avarjayati (Skt., sick Jmd geneigt machen, fur sich 
gewinnen, BR), in BHS specifically converts; cf. prec. two 
(Pali avajjeti not recognized in this sense; but acc. to 
PTSD often rendered in comms. by parinameti, which 
could surely mean, brings to religious maturity ): Mv i.34.9 
(bhagavan . . . nirvane pratisthapayanto) avarjayitva an- 

gamagadham etc. (long list of peoples), having converted .. . ; 
closely similar is ii.419.8; Divy 355.14 Yasavadatta sam- 
sarad udvigna buddhagunanusmaranac cavarjitahrdayo- 
vaea, . . . her heart converted, turned (to religion); Bbh 
180.7 navarjayati, does not convert (people); often this is 
done by miracles, Av i.3.4 yan nv aham Purna-brahmanam 
rddhipratiliaryenavarjayeyam ; Divy 365.19 pratiharyair 
avarjitah; Bbh 82.10 (pratiharyen-)avarjitamanasa(h) ; 
Mvy 2429 avarjitamanasah; see under avarjana. 

Avarta, m., n. of a sea and of a mountain: Divy 
102.28; 103.23-104.20. Note: as common noun, avarta 
seems to me to have only meanings which it has in Skt., 
as turrr^turning, turning-place (dharanyavartam . . . dha- 
ranlm SP 475.8 etc.); eddy, whirlpool (Mvy 7037); etc.; 
in LV 126.7, several times, probably of turns (curves, or 
the like) of alphabetic signs; see utksepa-lipi. 

avartana, nt., (1) wandering, straying about (= Pali 
avattana; in Skt. not after RV.): Mvy 6868 (— skor ba; 
followed by parivartanam) ; Divy 194.6 adrakslc Chakro 
. . . tarn devaputram atyartham prthivyam avartanam 
parivartantam ; (2) devious winding, with implication of 
deceptive, wily movements (= Pali avattana): Dbh 72.1 
sarvamarapathavartana-vivartanajnananugatah, pursuing 
knowledge of alt the devious windings and turning s-back of 
the paths of Mara. 

avar(t)ti, seems = avartana, q.v., wandering , 
( re-)turn , in Gv 37.8 sarvalokavarty-anupravartana-karu- 
nagarbha, n. of samadhi, full of the compassion (born of) 
following the wanderings (rebirths) of all (the) world( s). 

a\arhana, nt. (to next with -ana; cf. Pali abbahana, 
extraction, as of thorns; but the real Pali equivalent is 
abbhana), removal, freeing (of a monk from certain pe- 
nances): Mvy 8656 = Tib. dbyun ba, removal, also freeing; 
MSV ii. 203.16, 18 ff. (requires a quorum of twenty monks); 
iii.51.9; 53.4. 

avarhati, abrhati, also abrah- (on origin and Pali 
relations see s.v. abrhati), frees a monk from religious 
disabilities (cf. prec.): abrahitavya, gdve., Prat 488.1; 
abrhyat, prec., 2; abrhita, ppp., 3; avarhata MSV iii.49.11; 
°hatu 51.9; °het 53.10; avarhitavya, gdve., 49.17; °hitum, 
inf., 57.2; ppp. avarhitah 57.4; 58.18; avridhah 74.6, 16; 
75.10, 20, etc. (cf. abridha to abrhati, extracted, s.v. 

avasanika (from avasana plus -ika), of the end, final : 
Bbh 97.24 tatra bijam avasanikasya svaphalasyakse- 

avara- (m. ; rare in Skt. except in cpds., cf. dur- 
avara, BR), guard, in °ra-nibandhana, nt., imprisonment 
under guard: Mv i. 188. 17 (vs) krtvavaranibandhanam, 
making (i. e. applying to his victims) . . . (so mss., possibly 
intending vara°, but this word is hardly used except at 
the end of cpds.; avara occurs also in Pali; Senart emends 
to kara-nib°). 

avarl (once acc. °rim, otherwise all unambiguous 
forms show a- and -i; Skt. Lex. avari; DeSin. 1.12 avari 
and avara), shop, bazaar, only noted in Divy: °ryam 
vyaparam kuru 27.3; 28.7; °ri-samutthitam dravyam 
27.8; ka^ikavastravari 29.4-5, 7, and other cpds. in °ri 
29.7, 12, etc.; °ri-gatam ksetragatam ca sasyadidhana- 
jatam tad apy agnina dagdham 169.28; bhandavarim (in 
15 °rim_) gatva 256.15, 27. 

avasa^uddha, m. pi., a class of gods, = suddhavasa, 
q.v.; only in vs, presumably m.c. : Mv ii.346.15 °ddha 
upagata devaputrah. 

av3sika, adj. (= Pali id.), resident ? (in a monastery; 
said of a monk) or possibly servant, see s.v. navakarmika : 
Av i. 286. 8-9 sa cavasiko bhiksus tatra naslt . . . bhakte 
sajjlkrte avasiko bhiksur agatah (in 286.4 and 287.1 
called naivasika, q.v.); Jm 113.22 °kah so ’stu mahavi- 
hare; avasika-naivasikair bhiksubhir MSV iv.84.7. 

avasin (Skt. ifc.), dweller (with, near , in the confines of; 




with gen.)* brahmanagrhapatayah (sc. varsah, see 109.17) 
upagatakanam (sc. bhiksunam) avasi (n. pi.) . . . anupra- 
yacchanti MSV ii. 110.2, and ff. , brahmans and householders 
living (in the confines settled upon) for (the monks ) that 
have entered into residence (for tlje rains) . . . 

avaha, m. (= Pali id.), taking in marriage , taking to 
wife ; as in Pali, compounded or associated with vivaha 
(q.v. in PTSD) giving (a girl) in mafriage : Mvy 9465 = 
Tib. bag mar blan(s) pa (vivaha 9466 = bag mar btari 
ba); avaha-vivaha-, cpd., Bbh 7.7; 267.12, taking and 
giving in marriage ; often rendered, approximately, mar- 
riage of a son and of a daughter ; avaho va vivaho va MSV 
ii.119.3; iii.138.9. Skt. vivaha marriage seems usually to 
have no such limitation of meaning, but perhaps avaha 
and vivaha have the BHS mgs. in Mbh 13.3232 (otherwise 
BR 5.1124). 

avahaka, f. °ika, adj. (to Skt. a-vah-}, bringing in, 
introductive, inductive : Bbh 97.12 avahaka-hetuh (one of 
10 kinds of hetu); 98.1 (tat punar bijanirvrttam) phalam 
uttarasya bijaksiptaphalasyavahakahetuh; 99.26 (. . . 

tasyah sasyanispatteh sasya-)-paripakasyavahakahetuh ; 
AsP 203.10 (sa . . . prajhaparamita na kasyacit dharina- 
svavesika) va . . . avahika va nirvahika va. 

? avigalita, perhaps slightly (a) fallen down (see 
vigalita): Mv i.154.12, a corrupt and dubious line of vs: 
kim dani avigalita (mss. °to) vara- (mss. vana-)-kesa- 
(so 5 inss., Senart with 1 ms. kosa-)-bhara (mss. °ro) 
vaspaughasamstaragata madanabhibhuta; said of the 
harem-women’s expected reaction to the Bodhisattva’s 
impending departure. If -kesa- be adopted, possibly with 
their beautiful masses of hair somewhat loosened (dishevelled). 

[aviddha, ppp. of a-vyadh, in Av i.87.5 viharah . . . 
aviddhaprakaratorano, prob. (with walls and arched 
gateways) fastened on, attached, or possibly pierced. Acc. 
to Speyer curved, crooked ; he refers to LV 207.16, but 
here the w r ord is applied to a potter’s wheel and means 
whirled, set in motion , made to revolve .] 

? aviddhaka, m., in Mv iii.113.10 (prose) °ka(h), 
n. pi., n. of some kind of tradesman or artisan; in a long 
list of such. Senart also reads so by em. at iii.442.15, 
where mss, acambika or avambika. In both followed by 
gudapacakah. Obscure and prob. corrupt. 

? avilayati, is tired or aches (Tib. mi bde, not well), 
only ..... prsthi me °ti MPS 30.5 = Pali pitthl me agilayati 
(stock phrase). The seeming denom. from Skt. avila is 
prob. a corruption or rationalization for agilayati, q.v. 
(M Indie form, perh. deliberately made over). 

avici = avici, n. of a hell: °cim adim krtva LV 86.11 
(prose), so both edd. without v.l. ; but Lefm.’s Index 
reads avici, referring to this passage, 
avieika, see avieika. 

avus = ayus, /z/e? (§ 2.31) So acc. to Senart, Mv 
i.176.7 (prose) samaye ca avusa (one ms. ayusa, dental s) 
dayanto (mss. °nte), presumed to mean and on occasion 
giving alms with their lives. Doubtful. 

avusa, and other forms based on Pali avuso, brother ! 
(see s.v. ayusmam): avusa, as if voc. to a stem of that 
form, is used repeatedly as an address in AdP, e. g. 13.4, *10, 
22, etc. In Mvi.91.6 (vs) Senart reads avuso; meter needs 
— w x ; mss. ayusah (note that no form of ayusmant 
is metrically possible), anusah, onusah, anusa; in SP 378.1 
(prose) Kashgar rec. avusaho (for ed. ayusmanto), certainly 
to be read (voc. pi. of a stem avusa, as in AdP, with ending 
aho, § 8.88); in Mv i. 317. 15, 16 (prose) avusavo seems to 
be found in the same sense (mss. unanimous on -vo; 
see § 8.89; in 16 mss. anusavo or anu°, but no v.l. in 15). 

avustam, ppp. of a-vas (= Pali avuttha), inhabited : 
so read for avustam (both edd., no v.l.) LV 388.13 (vs; 
meter indifferent). 

avrmhati (see abrhati, Sbrmhana, etc.), removes, 
tears away : Mv i.18.12 (prose) te§am avrmhitam (v.l. 

avrh°) tac chavimansalohitam vyavadahyati; in Mv 
i.13.2 read with mss. avrmhato (pres, pple.) chavimansa- 
rudhiram va prasaraye, tearing off the very skin , flesh, 
and blood, would remove them. 

avrta, ppp. (corresp. to Pali ovata, as Vin. ii.255.23), 
forbidden (also an-a°j q.v.): Bhik 5a.5 avrtam ananda 
bhiksunya bhiksum codayitum (5b. 1) . . . anavrtam 

bhiksor bhiksunim podayitum . . ., it is forbidden for a 
nun to warn a monk , not for a monk to warn a nun. 

avrti, f. = jivarana, q.v.: Gv 32.23 (vs) ksapayaty 
avrtl sarva(h); cited Siks 311.3 with avrtih; Tib. sgrib 
pa, regularly = avarana. 

? avethita, ppp. (= Pali id.; see vethayati), put 
around: Mv iii.225.6 (prose) avethita- (but only by em. ; 
mss. aveti-)prakara, fig. of Buddhas, having encircling 
(moral) walls. Could avethi bt defended, as a noun, from 
the same root? 

avenika, adj. (= Pali id. or °niya; etym. obscure; 
see also aveniya, avedanika, and Konow, Avhandl, 
Norske Viden. ^Akad. 1941, II. Hist.-Fil. KL, p. 41), 
peculiar , individual, particular, special: Divy 2.3 (a cliche, 
practically identical w r ith Av i.14.7 etc.) pancavenika 
dharma ekatye panditajatiye matrgrame, there are five 
peculiar characteristics in every intelligent woman (listed 
in the sequel); Divy 302.24 °ka ime svartha anuprapto 
bhavisyami, I shall have attained these special purposes of 
mine (iti sampasyata panditenalam eva pravrajyadhimuk- 
tena bhavitum); Mv iii.320.6 ye te sattva avenika bha- 
vanti, evamrupah sattva (sc. Buddhas, special creatures) 
aryadharmacakram pravartenti; there are three avenika 
smrtyupasthana (q.v.) in a Buddha, Divy 182.20; Av 
i.7.5; listed Mvy 187-190; (referred to without the adjective 
avenika, Sutral. xx.53; AbhidhK. La V-P. vii.76;) espe- 
cially used of the 18 avenika buddhadharma of a Buddha, 
listed Mvy 135-153 (Tib. ma hdres pa, unmixed, un- 
adulterated, pure); the list here is, (1) nasti tathagatasya 
skhalitam, (2) nasti ravitam, (3) nasti musitasmrtita (or 
°tih), (4) nasty asamahitacittam, (5) nasti nanatvasamjna, 
(6) nasty apratisamkhyayopeksa, (7) nasti chandasya 
hanih, (8) nasti viryasya hanih, (9) nasti smrtihanih, 
(10) nasti samadhihanih, (11) nasti prajnaya hanih, (12) 
nasti vimuktihanih, (13) sarva-kaya-karma jnanapurvam- 
gamam jnananuparivarti, (14 and 15) id. with vak, manah, 
for kaya, (16-18) atite (17 anagate, 18 pratyutpanne) 
’dhvany asangam apratihatam jhanadarsanam pravartate; 
similarly Mv i.160.8 ff. (here they constitute the 5th cak- 
suh, q.v., viz. buddha-c°); Mvy 1-6 = Mv 13-16, 18, 17; 
Mvy 7-12 = Mv 7-12; Mvy 13-15 = Mv 4-6; Mvy 16-18 
— Mv 1-3; Dharmas 79 (substantially as in Mvy; two 
obvious errors); in Sutral. xx.57 comm, (before the vs 
called avenika guna, but after it av° buddhadharma) 
divided into groups, called six cara-samgrhlta av° bu° 
(= Mvy 1-6), six adhigama-samgrhita (= Mvy 7-12), 
three jnana-samgrhita (= Mvy 16-18), three karma- 
samgrhita (= Mvy 13-15); Burnouf, Lotus Appendice IX, 
cites a late Pali list from the Jinalamkara, which substan- 
tially agrees in order with that of Mv (but the category 
is unknown to older and genuine Pali Buddhism, cf. 
Konow, 1. c. above); references to the 18 av°(bu°)dh°, 
SP 62.4; 259.5; LV 160.15; 275.10-11 (text corrupt, see 
Weller and Foucaux); 403.2; 428.6; Mv i.38.14; 50.4; 
237.9; 335.13; iii.64.4; 138.12; 407.3; avenika bu° dh° 
(no number given) SP 77.7; Divy 148.23; Dbh 13.26; 
63.22; eighteen avenika (no noun expressed) LV 438.8; 
avenika, without number or noun but obviously meaning 
the 'same 18, SP 29.11; LV 343.4; acc. to Bbh 88.27 ff. 
and 375.3 ff., 140 avenika buddhadharma, listed (incl. the 
32 laksana, 80 anuvyanjana, etc., but not the 18 usually 
recognized); in Mvy 786-804 a totally different list of 
18 avenika bodhisattva-dharma. 

Sveniya, adj. = avenika, q.v.: Divy 98.22 and 440.16 




p&ncavenlya dharma ihaikatye panditajatiye matrgrame, 
see the same cliche under avenika. 

avedanika, adj., used in AdP for avenika, by false 
Sktization (Konow MAS I 69 p. 11, and loc. cit. s.v. 
avenika; for M Indie (Pali) aveniya, ‘analyzed as aveyaniya 
from avedanika’): 13.38-39 astadaSasv avedanikesu 

buddhadharmesu; 14.19 etc., regularly; yet in 35.16 
avenika (still in text of AdP). 

avedha, (1) (m. ?; not in this sense Skt. or Pali; 
not in Pkt.), depth (of a sea or river; lit. penetration ? cf. 
udvedha): Sukh 31.10 mahasamudrac caturaSitiyojana- 
sahasrany avedhena tiryag-aprameyat, from the great 
ocean , 84,000 yojanas in depth and immeasurable across ; 
37.18 (santi yavad . . .) -pancaSadyojanavistara (sc. 
mahanadyo) yavad dvadasayoj an avedhah, (there are 
great rivers, up to) 50 yojanas in width , up to 12 yojanas 
in depth ; (2) m., continuing force, as of an arrow that 
has been shot, or as of the shoot of a plant growing forth, 
and fig. of the continuative force of life which manifests 
itself in the skandha, see AbhidhK. LaV-P. ii.217; 
purvavedhat = purvabhyasat iii.118, from the continuing 
force of past activity, nikaya-sabhagasyavedhah Mvy 7004, 
the continuative force of the common element in the class 
(of living beings^ sattva; see sabhaga 2), which causes 
rebirth; Tib. hphen pa, something like projection. So also 
avedhah Mvy 7535 = Tib. hphen pa, or sugs, inherent 
power, energy (Ja.). In Mvy 6857 avedhah (between 
aksepah and prasabham), physical projection, penetration 
(cf. Pali id.); Tib. also hphen pa. 

avesa, in LV 163.14 (vs) aveSad (but best ms. ade- 
sad) . . . jinottamanam, equivalent to buddhanam . . . 
adhisthanena (q.v. : by the supernatural power of the 
Buddhas ) in 9-10 above. Our phrase, as in text, could 
mean because of entrance, possession, on the part of the 
Buddhas (BR s.v. 2 and 3); or, reading adesad, by command 
of them. Tib. mthu, power (esp. of magic). 

(avesaka) f. °ika, adj., introducing, bringing in; one 
who or that which introduces-. AsP 203.9 (sa) khalu punar 
iyam subhute prajnaparamita na kasyacid dharmasyave- 
Sika va niveSika va. 

avyuhati = ayuhati, exerts oneself towards, carries 
out, performs, with acc. : MadhK 298.13; 517.20 sa na 
kamcid dharmam avyuhati nirvyuhati tasyaivam ana- 
vyuhato ’nirvyiihatas traidhatuke cittam na sajjati. Is 
nirvyuhati a near-synonym of avyuhati, as niryuhati 
certainly is of ayuhati in Gv? Or is it (as assumed by Tib. 
and La Vall6e-Poussin) an antonym of avyuhati, as 
niryuhati is of ayuhati in Lank, and as (a)niryuha is 
of (an)ayuha? See s.vv anayuha, anavyuha, anirvyuha. 
avrldha, ppp. to avarhati, q.v. 
a6a = amSa, see maitrasa-t5. 
[a£ankitavya(-sahavrata), Mv ii.118.3 (mss. asan- 
kitavyam or asakitavyam sahavratayai), is certainly a 
corruption for akimcanyayatana-(sahavrata), q.v., as 
in LY 238.16; cf. Mv ii.119.9 f. = LV 243.17.] 

a^a-patri, food-bowl : in Divy 246.18 (cf. note p. 707) 
read sauvarnaSapatrl (= °na asa°), for text °na sapatri. 

a£aya, as in Skt., and Pali asaya, mental disposition , 
intent (La Vallee-Poussin, AbhidhK. iv.24 intention ); 
common, but not specifically Buddhist, except the adverbs 
aSayena heartily, earnestly RP 12.9 (ms. aSrayena; cf. 
adhya£ayena), and asayatah ibid. Mvy 7119; Divy 281.4, 
10; Av ii.151.2; Dbh.g. 16(352). 11. The mgs. abode, basis 
etc*, are also standard Skt. Cf. adhy54aya, which is speci- 
fically Buddhist. If Senart is right in keeping asayani in 
Mv iii.400.3, it would have to be understood as = aSayani, 
(evil) intentions or inclinations ; but see asaya. Often cpd. 
with anu4aya, q.v. 

A§a, (1) n. of one of four daughters of Indra: Mv 
ii.58.22 if. ; all four are among eight devakumarika in the 
northern quarter, Mv iii 309.9 — LV 391.4; (2) n. of a 

female lay-disciple (upasikS): Gv 99.12 IT. In mg. 1 cer- 
tainly a personification of a£a hope : the other three are 
Sraddha, Sri, and HrI, qq.v. 

[asatavi, conjectured (Index to Divy) to mean great 
wood: Divy 7.5 yavad anyatamasatavl pravista (mss. 
°tah). Tib., cited by Bailey, JR AS 1950.169, shows true 
reading, °tama salatavi.] 

as&tika (dental t; = Pali asatika), egg of a fly or 
other insect; nit (Childers compares Marathi asadl); as 
vermin afflicting cattle, Kalpanamanditika 196.V.2 
(Liiders Kl. Skt. Texte 2 p. 177, cf. pp. 43, 63, with 
comparison of corresponding Pali text). 

a&asti, f. (once in Skt., pw 3.256 Gebet; from a-sas, 
wish, desire ), desire: Ud xxx.29 sarva hy asastaya(£) 
chit(t)va, = Pali (Vin. ii. 156.27 et alibi) asattiyo, but 
this Pali word = Skt. asakti, attachment , and so substan- 
tially the same as longing, desire. Is a6asti false Skt. for 
Pali asatti (used in the Pali form of the same verse where 
it occurs in Ud)? 

[a£ivrate, LV 275.20 (vs), Lefm.’s em. ; read with 
most mss. (some asa-) aSavrate, in the solemn-undertaking 
of his aspiration (asa, proved by Tib. bsam pa). Cf LV 
285.15 (vs) prapurna ti asa (= a§a).] 

a&itaki, or as°, also written aSitaka, a£ita, asitaka, 
asita, the a-stems being prob. m. (Mv ii.231.13); the Pali 
equivalent is asitika, m. (not °ka, f., as stated in PTSD), 
n. of some plant; occurs, regularly in comp, with -parvani 
(as in Pali with -pabbani, MN i.80.11 = 245.27), in the 
account of the Bodhisattva’s emaciated state after his 
long fast, his members being compared to the joints of 
this plant. The reading asita(ka) is prob. due to popular 
etymology, association with asita black; k£la, q.v., occurs 
in the context, and note kalasltako (perhaps read °ke 
with v.l.) Mv ii.231.13. Other cases, all in comp, with 
-parvani: LV 254.7 asltaki-; 255.21 aSitaki- (all mss.; 
Lefm. inexplicably reads asitaki- here!): Mv ii.126.18 
aSItaka- (v.l. asita-); in 125.12 Senart omits the word 
with one ms., but the other ms. has asita-parvani; 128.5 
aSitaka- (one ms., the other omits, Senart em. aSitaka-); 
129.7 asita- (v.l. asita-). The evidence points, on the whole, 
to aSitaka- or °kl- as the original form. 

a^Ivisa, m. (in Skt., and Pali- Pkt. asivisa, only 
serpent; so also here, even in LV, e. g. 317.9; 339.2), 
serpent-venom , repeatedly in LV: °san vamanti sma 305.13, 
°san . . . bhaksayanti sma 14; °san niScarayanti sma 
306.13, . . . vamanto 21. In 306.18 a^Ivisaparivestitasarlrah 
is taken by Foucaux in this sense, le corps enduit de venin 
de serpent; but surely it is rather having bodies entwined 
by serpents , despite neighboring passages showing the 
other mg. See sumbhalika. 

ASivisa-nadI, f. pi., n. of certain rivers: Divy 107.23 
°nadinam tire salmalivanam. See Saptasivisa-, and next. 

Asivisa, n. of a river: °sayam, loc., Divy 451.6, 10; 
456.24, 28. See under prec. 

[a£u: Johnston, notes on Saundaran. vi.9 and Buddhac. 
vi.64, assumes use as ‘expletive’, ‘to strengthen the force 
of the verb,’ ‘in epic and Buddhist Skt.,’ and suggests 
relation to the Pali particle assu. He so interprets a£u 
in Manu 4.171. I disagree on all this; it seems to me that 
there is no reason to assume any a§u except the adj. and 
adverb, quick(ly). Tib. renders quickly at Buddhac. vi.64.] 
X6ukari(n), n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.136.16 
(n. sg., mss. °rlh or °rih, Senart em. °rl; prose, followed 
by dh-). 

A§uketu, n. of a king, former incarnation of Buddha : 
RP 24.14. 

X£ugandha, n. of a Bodhisattva: Mvy 714. 
airaddhya, nt. (also a&rdddhya, q.v. ; = Pali 
assaddhiya), disbelief, lack of (true) faith: Bbh 15.1; Mvy 
1973 acc. to text of Kyoto ed. and v.l. of Mironov; text 
of Mironov aSraddhya; Index to Kyoto ed. cites both. 




asraya, m. (Skt., basis etc..), (1) in Lank., acc. to 
Suzuki, the alaya-vijnana (q.v.) as basis of all vijhanas; 
one must make it converted, in revulsion (paravrtta, cf. 
Lank 9.11 paravrttasraya) ; Lank 10.5 anyatha drsyamana 
ucchedam asraye (so read with v.l. for °yo, text °yah), 
if the basis is otherwise regarded (loc. abs.), (there is) 
destruction (it is fatal to the holder of such a view); (2) acc. 
to citation in Burnouf introd. 449, six asraya = the six 
sense organs (as one of the three groups constituting 
the 18 dhatu); this is said to be attributed to the Yoga- 
caras in ‘le commentaire de L’Abhidharma’ ; it does not 
seem to occur in AbhidhK. and I have not noted precisely 
this usage in any text, but cf. next; (3) acc. to AbhidhK. 
LaV-P. iii.126, le corps muni d’organes, qui est le point 
d’appui (aSraya) de ce qui est appuye (asrita) sur lui: & 
savoir de la pensbe et des mentaux (cittacaitta). Is the 
obscure passage Mv ii.153.1-2 somehow concerned here? 
It reads, in a verse (see my Reader, Four Sights [Mv], 
n. 40) describing disease (vyadhi): . . . sokanam prabhavo 
rativyupasamo (i. e. °samo) cittasrayanam nidhi, dharma- 
syopasamah (lacuna of 6 syllables) gatrasritanam grhain, 
yo lokam pibate vapus ca grasate etc. I should be inclined 
to emend to cittasravanam (cf. LY 345.21, below), but 
for the phrase gatrasritanam grham, which implies sup- 
port for asraya; Senart refers to Burnouf (1. c.), but finds 
it hard to apply asraya and asrita as used in that passage ; 
( 4 ) commonly, body (cf. prec.): LV 324.16 (vs) subhato 
( = su°) kalpayamana asrayam vitathena, falsely imagin- 
ing the body to be handsome ; RP 6.13 laksanaiS ca prati- 
manditasrayo ; 23.1 me jvalita asrayah, my body was 
burned; 25.7 me tyakta varasrayah; 26.8; 27.16; Dbh 
16.10; Av i. 175.4 pretasrayasadrsah ; 264.9 pretim vikrtas- 
rayam; 272.3; 291.17; 332.9; 356*7; 361.2; ii.172.9; see 
also cancita6raya ; [in LY 345.21 asraya(-ksaya-jhana-) 
without v.l., but Tib. translates asrava, which must be 
adopted: knowledge leading to destruction of the impurities, 
not . . . of the body]. See next. 

-asrayaka, at end of Bhvr. cpd. = aSraya, body : 
LY 153.14 (vs) ko vismayo manuja-asrayake asare, . . . in 
a weak possessor-of-a-human-body. 

asrava, a very common (perhaps prevalent) reading 
for asrava, q.v. 

?asravana-, prob. lesson (so Kern; otherwise Bur- 
nouf): SP 6.13 anekavividhasravanara'mbanadhimukti- 
hetukaranair upayaltauSalyair, with skillful devices which 
had as causes and reasons their (Bodhisattvas’) zeal for the 
fundamental bases of many various lessons (in the law). 
However, \VT °vividlia-sravana° with ms. K'; perh. 
read so. 

a^ravayati (caus. of a-£ru, unrecorded in this sense), 
plays (a mus. instrument): Av i.96.1 vinarn asravitavan. 

asrita (ppp. of a-sri); see s.v. asraya 2, 3; acc. to 
Burnouf, there cited, the 6 a^ritas are la connaissance 
produite par la vue et par les autres sens . . . ; acc. to AbhidhK 
iii.126, = citta-caitta ; what gatrasritanam grham means 
(Mv ii. 153.2), as applied to vyadhi, is not clear, 
asvasa, see asvasa- prasvasa. 

asvasaka, m. (1) (= Pkt. asasaa, Sheth; Skt. asvasa), 
chapter, section (in a book): Mvy 1468; ( 2 ) (= Pali assa- 
saka), desire, aspiration : MSY ii.6.8. 

AsvasanI, n. of a kimnara maid: Kv 6.16. 
a§vasa-pra£vasa (Pali assasa-passasa), m. dual or 
pi., breath; usually used without clear indication of dif- 
ference between the two terms, like anapana, q.v. : LV 
251.15-16 nasikatas caSvasaprasvasav uparuddhav abhu- 
tam; 252.3 °sa urdhvam sirahkapalam upanighnanti sma; 
as separate words, 259.7 asvasaviprahinah prasvasa- 
varjitu; Mv ii.124.10 (and ff.) mukhato nasikasrotrehi ca 
asvasapraSvasa uparundhi (1 sg. aor.); Mv iii.179.19 °sehi 
tathagatam upahanati; Sal 78.3, 17 kayasyaSvasaprasva- 
sakrtyam; Sadh 61.19 °sadikam; the verb usvasati, q.v., 

corresponds to asvasa in Mv ii.208.3-— 4 aSvasaprasvasa 
uparuddha ... no pi usvasati na prasvasati (the two verbs 
repeated twice in lines 8, 9), cf. LV 189.12 ucchvasantam 
prasvasantam, rendered by Tib. dbugs dbyun zhin rhub 
breathing out and in, but in line 15 below prasvasantah 
is rendered dbugs dbyun, breathing out (implying that 
ucchvasantam was understood as breathing in) ; ucchvasa- 
prasvaso (sg.) also’ occurs, seemingly = asvasa-pra°, 
Siks 42.5; in Sadh 146.17 ff. it is entirely certain that 
prasvasa is understood as outbreaking and asvasa inbreath- 
ing, tadanu tan mithunam prasvasavayuratharudham 
nasikavivarena nihsrtya . . . sattvanam kayavakcittani vi- 
sodhya grhitva ca punar asvasavayum aruhya tenaiva 
patha svahrtkamalakarnikayam praviset; consistent with 
this is AMg. ussasa (and relatives), which BHS usage 
would clearly have associated with asvasa, and w T hich acc. 
to Ratnach. means breathing in; Pali tradition is indeter- 
minate, see Vism i. 272.1 which states that Yin. comm, 
defines assasa as outgoing, passasa as incoming breath, but 
that in Sutta comms. (Suttantatthakathasu) the reverse 
is taught (the passage is misunderstood by PTSD and 
Pe Maung Tin; uppatipatiya = Pkt. upparivadi, inverted, 
transposed). Tib. regularly asvasati = dbugs brnubs (or 
cognate) breathe in Mvy 1173, 1175, etp., prasvasati = 
dbugs phyun (or cognate) breathe out Mvy 1174, 1176, 
etc.; it therefore supports Sadh 146.17 ff., and incidentally 
the equation of asvasa with ana and prasvasa with apana 
(see anapana). How old this interpretation is remains 
uncertain, esp. in view of the fact that in Pali the comms. 
differed; Buddhaghosa himself, in the Yism. passage cited, 
declines to arbitrate between the two opposing views. 
Whatever may have been the meaning of the two terms, 
it seems clear that the cpd. (like anapana) was commonly 
used in the sense of breath, collectively and as a whole. 

Asvasahasta, n. of a Bodhisattva: Kv 2.2. 

Asadha, m of a householder: Av i.338.6. 

astamika, nt. = astamika, q.v., Bhik 23a. 3 nait- 
yakam va nimantranakam va astamikam va caturdaSikam 
va . 

Asthiyana, m. pi., n. of a brahmanical gotra: Divy 

asa, m. (only known in Vedic cpd. sv-asa-stha), seat : 
Gv 474.18 (vs) surana tesam ayam asu (n. sg.) sudur- 
jayanam, this is the seat of those heroes . . . Meter does not 
permit emendation to avasa, which is used in parallel 
lines 2, 10, etc.; other parallels vihara; all three are virtual 
synonyms. Prakritic contraction of avasa to asa is im- 
probable. For asa = amsa see maitrasa-ta. 

asamjnika, nt. (to asamjnin, q.v.), unconsciousness: 
Mvy 1989; Dharmas 31; Divy 505.22 sa tatrasamjnikam 
(i. e. tatra-asamjnikam; Index wrongly asamj°) utpadya- 
samjnisattvesu (see asamjnisattva) devesupapannah; 
similarly AbhidhK. LaV-P. ii. 1 99. (In Divy, this state is 
deliberately induced by dhyana.) 

asattvasthayin, adj., abiding until (a) the (coming 
into) existence of (gen.): §sP 300.3-4 ime bodhisattva 
mahasattvah buddhanam bhagavatam asattvasthayino 
(here misprinted °syayino) bhavisyanti, ime nasattva- 

asanaka, nt. (= Pali id., Yv 1.5, taken by comm. 
24.16-17 as dim.), seat (= Skt. asana), here certainly 
not dim.: Av i.321.10 (raja . . .) Bhagavato rthena asana- 
kani prajiiapya, having provided seats for the Lord’s use; 
MSY i.79.14. 

asana- ta (= Skt. asana as nom. act.), seating, the 
giving a seat (to someone, as a courtesy): Mv i. 298. 18 
pratyutthanam (mss. paryut 0 ) asanatam tato ca (. . . ma- 
hajano prito karoti); ^sP 1470.1 (?not clear). 

Asannaka, adj. (= Skt. asanna; perhaps m.c.), near: 
Siks 305.11 (vs) °ko bhavati tathagatanam (= Mv ii.388.18 
with different and secondary meter, reading asannaprapto). 




asannlbhavati (asanna with bhu), comes near , ap- 
proaches (with gen.): AsP 11.7-8 evam carata(h) . . . 
bodhisattvasya . . . sarvajnata asannlbhavati; SsP 825.5-6 
asannibhavaty ay am bodhisattvo . . . sarvakarajnataya 
iti; ppp. °bhutah Mvy 5109. 

asamudacarika, adj., with dharma, (rule) applying 
to customary behavior (samudacara 1): Bhlk lla.l keSava- 
tarikaya aham . . . bhiksunya asamudacarikan dharman 
prajnapayami . . .(2) keSavatarika bhiksunl yathaprajhap- 
tan asamudacarikan dharman asamadaya vartate, sajti- 
sara bhavati; MSY, 13; vii.15 etc. 

? asaya, nt., in Mv iii.400.3 hitva alayani (see alaya) 
asayani (v.l. asanani); the Pali parallel Sn 535 reads 
asavani = BHS aSravani, as°, which must probably be 
read, since asaya (q.v.) seems not to be used in a pejorative 
sense, and no other interpretation for asaya seems possible. 

asarita, nt., and nihsarita, nt. ; °tam Gv 351.18, 19 
respectively: the first two of ten ‘bodily conditions' 
(sarlrastha dharmah), the other 8 being cold, heat, hunger, 
thirst, delight, anger, birth-old-age-diesase-and-death, and 
pain (plda). Context throws no further light. Interpre- 
tation of these two terms obscure. Are they somehow 
related to asario = sammukhagatah Desin. 1.69, and 
nissariam = srastam ibid. 4.40? Something like slack 
condition , slumped-down state might be intended by 
nihsarita; would asarita be its opposite, a state arrived 
at the right point? 

asadana (nt.) or °na, n. act. to asadayati (not in 
PTSD, but occurs in Pali Vin. iv.84.16 asadanapekkho, 
same passage as Prat 510.1 ; could be °na or °na), annoyance : 
Prat 510.1 (bhunksvety) asadanapreksi, seeking to annoy 
(him); Jm 199.24 evam asadanam api . . . pratinudanti. 

asadayati ( = Pali asadeti, not in Skt. in this sense; 
cf. prec.), annoys, troubles, disturbs: ppp. Prat 510.2 
(kaccid esa bhiksur muhurtam apy) asaditah syad, should 
(might) be annoyed. 
asitaki, see a£l°. 

aslyati Mv iii.86.3 (vs), apparently 3 sg. pass, of 
as, impersonal, it is sat , one sits; but the passage is ob- 
scure to me. 

[asivaka, m., app. only by em. for asevaka, q.v.] 
asupta, ppp. of *asvapati (cf. asvapana), gone to 
sleep: Mv i.227.16 (prose) kilantam antahpuram asuptam. 

asurya (nt. ?), n. of some art or philosophy or science, 
in a list: °ye LV 156.21 (prose), after ambhirye; Tib. 
lha ma yin gyi lugs, way or system of the asuras. 

asecanaka, adj. ( = asecanaka, q.v.), charming, 
pleasing, of sights and sounds: darSanlyo °ko apratikulo 
Mv i. 237. 13, of the appearance of a Buddha; darSayanti 
ca atmanam asecanakavigraham Sadh 16.8, and sarvahga- 
pratyangasecanakavigraham (here could be asecanaka) 
22.15, both said of Buddhas; of sound, (ghoso . . .) ma- 
nojnah °ko apratikulo Sravanaya Mv i.194.13, 14; 196.8, 
10. (In Mv i.207.1 = ii.10.11 read with mss. asecanaka 
or asecaniya.) 

asevaka, or °ka, some kind of garment: SP 283.9 
(vs), cited Siks 352.13, asevaka (unmetr. ! one ms. and 
Siks °kam; WT with most mss. °kami~ Kashgar rec. °ka) 
krsna tathadaditva. Tib. acc. to Bendall rdul gzan, dust 
garment (Ja. cloak, against dust on a journey), but acc. 
to WT, and my own copy of Tib. SP, rnul gzan, which = 
samkaksika, q.v.; Burnouf and Kern woolen garment; 
note that Tib. rdul and rnul are very easily confused in 
writing; in MSV ii.52.5 asevaka (ms., ed. em. asivaka) 
seems to mean patch (so Tib., lhan thabs kyis klan pa); 
in the next line, 6, sevakam (ms., ed. em. siv 9 ) dattva 
dharaya, seems to show the same mg., and in 11 below, 
text asivakams (by em.? ms. asev° as before?) tu dattva 
dharayitvayam, confirms this mg. (reference is to materials 
unsuitable for making robes). 

asevana (= Pali id.; Skt. only °na, nt., recorded), 

cultivation (of), devotion (to), at end of cpd. : Bbh 35.28 
(bhogatmabhavasampado) hetv-asevana. 

astiryati = ar(t)tiyati, q.v.: Karmav 47.26; 49.2. 
?astopaka, or (v.l.) astomaka, astoka (could also be 
understood as having initial a-), in LY 249.2-3 ardrapat 
astopaka-jala-sayanai£ ca (in list of ascetic practices); this 
part of cpd. in Tib. rendered stegs buhi sten, top surface 
of a board, which makes sense ( lying or sleeping in wet 
clothes, ... or in water; read jala for jala, as Tib. proves). 
This word is prob. corrupt, and in fact the mss. vary 
greatly; the best ones °maka. 

asthiti (f. ; not recorded, but see below), perseverance, 
persistence: in °ti-kriya, acting with . . ., Mvy 1797; = Pali 
atthita-kiriyata, id. (CPD), which would be *asthita- 
kriyata. See s.v. asthlkrtya. 

[asparSa, supposedly contact , assumed by Senart in 
a cpd. Mv ii.115.12; but see sparSita.] 

aspharanaka-samadhi, name of a dhyana: n. sg. 
°dhih Mvy 1487; Tib. mkhah kliyab, expanse of heaven; 
cf. under asphanaka. 

asphatayati, tears, rends: ger. asphatya Divy 375.25; 
376.5 (santi sattva . . . yan narakapala . . . ayomayena 
sutrena . . . asphatya . . .). 

asphanaka, nt. (= Pali appanaka, °naka; etym. and 
lit. mg. obscure; doubtless = aspharanaka (-samadhi), 
q.v.; CPD conjectures relation to (a-)sphayate, swells, 
grows; LY seems to think of forms of spharati, but this 
may be etymological fancy, despite the Mvy aspharanaka-), 
n. of a kind of dhyana (either alone, or in cpd. °ka-dhyana): 
LV 250.14 °ka-dhyanam samapadyate . . . °nakam iti; 
explained lines 19-20 akaSam aspharanam akaranam 
avikaranam tac ca sarvam spharatlti hy akasasamam 
tad dhyanam (cf. Tib. on aspharanaka-) tenocyate 
asphanakam iti; °kam dhyanam dhyayeyam (or other 
form of this verb) Mv ii.208.2; LY 251.14 f., 21; 259.1, 
8, 10 (akasadhatuspharanam dhyayaty asphanakam 

dhyanam, he meditates the a° meditation which agitates 
the ether-element), and If.; Mv ii.124.9, 15 °nakam (in 9 v.l. 
°nakadhyanam ; in 15 mss. °nakam dhyanam, or asphara- 
kam) dhyayeyam. 

[asphara, tearing, acc. to Senart, Mv i.9.16, in a 
corrupt line of vs; ed. em. sadayasaphaldsphara, see note 
p. 377. But Senart failed to note that the passage i.9.8- 
12.14 is repeated in iii.454. 7-456. 20. This line occurs 
iii.454.15, reading kadaryatapana ghora, which disproves 
at least part of Senart’s em. and is close enough to the 
reading of the mss. at i.9.16 to make it acceptable as a 

?asphuta, adj., clear, clarified , illumined: LY 17.3 
(prose) tenavabhasenasphuta-samana(h), being illumined 
by that light. The mg. is certain, and acc. to Lefm. all 
mss. read so; but not only is asphuta suspicious in itself; 
composition with samanah is also difficult. The expected 
reading is °bhasena sphutah samanah. 

asmaklna, adj. (prescribed Pan. 4.3.2), our: Av 
i.327.4; so best ms., v.l. asm°, which is the form regularly 
recorded in Av (see asmaklna) and which Speyer adopts 
in the text here; but in ii p. 210 he withdraws that reading 
in favor of asm°. There is no record of either form, nor of 
any M Indie equivalent, elsewhere. 

asrava (perhaps oftener written asrava), m. (= Pali 
asava), evil influence, depravity, evil, sin, misery; CPD 
s.v. anasava, intoxicants, i. e. ... passions; L6vi, Sutral. 
ix.23 n.l, L'ecoulement (asrava) est le mouvement qui 
porte la pens6e h se repandre, comme une eau qui fuit, 
vers les choses du dehors; Johnston, Saundaran. xvi.3, 
Transl., note: the influences which attach a man to the 
samsara; hence sasrava and laukika are equivalent, as 
are anasrava and lokottara; Tib. (e. g. on Mvy 2141 
aSravah) zag pa, misery, also sin: anupadayasravebhyas 
cittani vimuktani, see anupadaya; aSravaksayajnana is 




the sixth abhijna, q.v.; Suska asrava na puna Sravanti 
LV 351,1 (with play on etyrn., root sru), the dsravas, 
dried up, flow no more; getting rid of them is arhatship, 
praptam mayarhatvam ksina me aSrava(h) LV 376.11; 
jina ... ye prapta asravaksayam LV 406.6; arhantanam 
kslnasravanam Mv i. 59. 7 if. ; the Buddha is sarvasravan- 
takaranam Mv i. 203. 16 = ii.7.12; prahlnasarvaSrava- 
bandhanasya Buddhasya Divy 379.12; ksinaSrava (or 
°srava), said of a bhiksu, Divy 542.21, of a muni Jm 
17.16; equivalent to duhkha, in formula of 4 noble truths: 
(after idam duhkham) ayam aSravasamudayo 'yam a6ra- 
vanirodha iyam aSravanirodhagaminl pratipad LV 348.19 f. ; 
in Mv ii.285.5, after statement of all four truths as usual 
with duhkha, they are repeated with aSravah (pi.), ime 
aSravah, imo (mss. ime) aSravasamudayo ayam aSrava- 
nirodho etc',.; nirvasyanti ana&ravah Mv ii.66.6; there are 
four aSrava (also = ogha, yoga), listed LV 348.21-22, 
viz. kama-, bhava-, avidya-, drsti- (so also in Pali, kama, 
bhava, avijja, ditthi, but also a list of only three, omitting 
ditthi); very common is anasrava (= ksina° above), free 
from the depravities or from evil; pure (less commonly 
niraSrava, LV 405.21, of Buddha), sometimes contrasted 
with its opposite sasrava: napi ye dharrna anasravah te 
sasrava ti deSayami (and vice versa) Mv i.173.8-9; sasra- 
vanasravah (dharmah) SP 142.10; devamanusyasarvasra- 
vakapratyekabuddhakuSalani sasravany anasravani va 
(all of little value) Gv 500.14; anasrava (or °£rava), of 
persons, SP 34.13 (read here adya me with mss. for adyeme); 
LV 242.11; jnanam vipuiam anasravam SP 15.7; anasra- 
vam te caranam Mv i,164.8, thy conduct is pure; aSrava- 
nam ksayad anasravam cetovimuktim (acc. sg.) Mv 
iii. 321. 9-10; ana§ravasadrsam prathamadhyanam Divy 
391.16; sasravam cittam Mv ii.403.13; saSravanam (den- 
tal n) . . . dhyanasamadhisamapattmam (of the false 
teacher Rudraka) doso LV 244.2-3; unlike anuSaya, 
with which it is sometimes associated or even equated 
(AbhidhK. LaV-P. v.79), it is always used with evil con- 
notation; in Gv 461.3-4 kaiyanamitradhmah . . . bodhi- 
sattvanam sarvabodhisattvacaryasravah, the last cpd. 
contains -bodhisattvacarya plus Sravah (= sravah, 
streams; cf. -pranidhana-Srotamsi, line 6), not -aSravah. 

*asvapati, nowhere recorded except in BHS ppp. 
asupta, and caus. adj. or nom. act. Ssvapana, qq.v. ; 
must have meant goes to sleep (cans, puts to sleep). 

asvadamya, (1) adj. (gdve.), enjoyable, pleasant (of 
sounds): Mvy 391 °niyo ghosena (of Tathagata); (2) subst. 
(also svadamya, q.v., in same use) only noted in triple 
dvandva cpd. khadaniya-bhojamyasvadaniya (Mv i.38.7 
°bhojamya-asvadaniyena), in which this third element 
(after hard food and soft food) may perhaps mean con- 
diments, or savories; Tib. on LV 2.22 myan ba, to be 
tasted : LV 2.22 (text corrupt); 58.5-6; Mv i.38.7; Siks 
208.2 (Bendall and Rouse to relish). The gdve. assadanlya 
exists in Pali and assayanijja in AMg. ( tasteful ; full of 
relish, Ratnach.), but no equivalent of the word seems 
to be recorded elsewhere in the BHS meanings. 

Ssvapana, nt. (adj. or nom. act. to caus. of *asvapati, 
q.v.), sleeping potion or charm (lit. putting to sleep): Divy 
526.23, 25 rajnah santahpurasyasvapanam dattva (25 

Sha, interj. (only in Skt. Lex., 1. des Vorwurfs , 
2. des Befehls, 3. drdhasambhavanayam, BR): Jm 222.12 
ahal (between two verses; in mg. 1, I think, tho acc. to 
Speyer, Av i.244 n. 6, mg. 3; the Bodhisattva is rebuking 
a king who eats human flesh); Av i.244. 15 sa pratyeka- 
buddha uktah: aha re (so Speyer em., ms. ra) bhikso . . . 
(said by an evil, malicious person; mg. 2, but doubtless 
colored by mg. 1). 

ahataka, adj. (to ppp. ahata, with specifying ka, 
§ 22.39), the ones that were wounded : yattaka(ni) ahataka(ni) 
Mv i.359.22; 360.2; 361.4, as many (deer) as were wounded. 

aharana- (nt.?), in Jm 88.10 aharanapaharana- 
kusalatvad, some kind of operation in handling a ship, 
perhaps towing , see ahara(ka)-. Otherwise Speyer Transl. 
125 with n. 1. 

aharanata = Skt. aharana, winning, getting: dat. 
°tayai, °taye, quasi-infin., Mv ii.279.11 ff. tasya arthasya 
°tayai bodhisattvo aryamanam pragrhne, for the attain- 
ment of this purpose (goal)...; ii. 399.7, 15 anuttarasya 
amrtasya °taye. 

ahavaniya, adj. (= Pali id., cf. Vism. i.220.6; more 
usually Pali ahuneyya; mg. prob. influenced by Pali 
pahuneyya, see s.v. praha vanlya; both these forms in 
-havanlya prob. due to popular etym., tho found in Pali 
and BITS),, worthy of receiving offerings (respectful gifts): 
Mvy 1772 (in section named manana-paryay ah) ; A v i. 193.10 
°yani tani kulaniyesu kulesu matapitarau samyah manyete. 

ahara, m. (i) some member of a ship’s crew, men- 
tioned with navika and others Av i.200.5; ii.61.9; evidently 
= aharaka, q.v.; perhaps tower, cf. Pali Jat. iv.159.16 
(navam) aharitva gamato, apparently having towed away 
from the village; cf. also aharana; (2) in Mvy 798 = Tib. 
rgyud, usually — tantra; perhaps a mystic technique in 
general, or possibly bringing in in a more specific sense, 
see s.v. yamaka; (3) district, province: May 28; see 
Huitzsch, ASoka, 163 n. 11; (4) ahara, nt. = Skt. ahara, 
m. food: Divy 13.7 °ram, n. sg. ; same MSV iii.22.10. On 
ahara-krtya see s.v. krtya (2). 

aharaka, in., in Mvy 3851, acc. to Tib. shod cih 
stobs pa, which seems to mean someone concerned with 
food; so also Chin. Prob. this is etymological guesswork 
(Skt. ahara). Certainly it refers to some member of a ship’s 
crew; see ahara, aharana; perhaps one who tows (or 
otherwise propels?) a boat, as in Pali aharitva (navam) 
Jat. iv.159.16. 

aharika, nt. (from ahara with ika), bringer, that 
which brings: °kam sarvajnajnanasya Samadh p. 6 line 15 
(said of a kind of samadhi). 

aharya-padaka, adj. (or subst.; = Pali ahacca-p 0 , 
apparently based on *ahrtya-p°), (a couch or seat) having 
removable (or more literally insertable ?) legs: Mvy 8438 
°dakaroh! (arohin, one who mounts or sits upon...); Prat 
506.6 °ke plthe va mance va balena nisided . . . 

ahindati, °te, also °dyate, (= Pali °ti; see hindati), 
wanders: °dati May 242.31; °dase Divy 165.3; °dyamana, 
pres, pple., Divy 141.22. 

(ahrtaka,) f. °ika (doubtless = Pali ahataka, m., 
Vin. iv.224.34, where kammakaro is glossed by bhatako 
ahatako, in contrast with dasa — antojato dhanakkito 
karamaranito), perhaps hired servant (of some particular 
kind): Bhik 16a. 4 (the candidate for initiation is asked) 
masi dasi? . . . ma ahrtika ma vikritika etc. PTSD derives 
ahataka from Skt. ahata, implausibly. 

ahrsta, ppp. (cf. Skt. ahrsyat-, once), bristling: 
(romakupa) MSV iii. 138. 21. 

ahetuka, adj. (from ahetu(ka), vrddhi deriv.; cf. 
nairhetuka), arising from no cause: °kam (sc. rupam), 
na casty arthah ka§cid ahetukah kva cit MadhK p. 24 
line 11 (so mss.); p. 123 line 13. 

ahrlkya, nt. (cf. Pali ahirika, °ika, adj., and some- 
times nt. noun), immodesty, shamelessness; associated with 
anapatrapya; Mvy 1971 °y am ; stem °ya- &iks 105.8; 
Bbh 14.25; 223.10, 11. 

sihvaya (m.?: same mg. Pali avhana), begging aloud, 
vocally asking for alms: Mv iii.387.18 (vs, = Pali Sn 710, 
where avhanam) °yam nabhinandeya (Senart °ya). 

ahvanana, nt. (n. act. in ana from denom. ahvana- 
yati summons, in Skt. recorded only in legal sense, but e. g. 
in Mmk 48.3 [manjusriyam . . .] ahvanayet): summoning 
(a deity), invocation: °na-mantra Mmk 27.3, 8, 17-18 (see 
s.v. mantra); 53.19 °na-visarjanam kuryad; 94.13 °na- 
visarjana-; 126.16, 18; 358.6 astamam °nam proktani. 

ik§u- kuttitikam 




iksu- kuttitikam, adv. (see note in £iks p. 409), with 
kuttyamanasya, by (the torture of) being crushed like 
sugar-cane : Siks 182.1. 

iksu-dvada6I, n. of a festival, sugarcane-twelfth (a 
day on which presents of sugarcane are made): Karmav 

Iksvaku (= Pali Qkkaka 2, DPPN), n. of a legendary 
king, son of Subandhu and father of Ku£a, named from 
his birth from a sugar-cane plant: Mv ii.422.20 ff. ; iii.1.1 ff. 

?inkhika (or inkh°), adj., with Sira = sira, vein , of 
unknown mg.: pancenkhikah Sira mocayitva rudhiram 
payita (sc. devi) MSV ii.15.8; pancenkhika-Siravedha 

inga, a large number or method of computation: 
LV 148.15; no v.l., but Mvy 7982, citing this LV passage, 
itta; Tib. for both gtan la hbebs pa (v.l. in Mvy gdan for 
gtan), which regularly = viniScaya; is it intended here to 
render the root ing in the sense of separation ? Gf. the 
phonetic-grammatical use of the root, esp. s.v. ingya 
in BR. 

icchatva = (and prob. false reading for) itthatva, 
q.v. However, if Wogihara were right in his interpretation 
of icchantika, q.v., this would support derivation of 
icchatva from itthatva. 

icchantika, adj. or subst. m., acc. to Suzuki (Studies, 
219 n. 1, and 391), one destitute of Buddha-nature : Mvy 
2210, 2223 = Tib. hdod chen (po), (subject to) great 
desire (somehow based on pres. pple. of icchati); Lank 
27.5 katham °ko bhavet; 65.17 °kanam . . . anicchanti- 
kata-moksam (read as one cpd. word) kena pravartate; 
and often in Lank. Wogihara, as cited by Suzuki 1. c., 
thought that the word was derived from *itthamtvika 
(cf. itthatva), worldly ; Tib. does not support this. 

(icchitavya, gdve., to be accepted , recognized (as in 
Skt. icchati): Mv iii.406.8— 10 na khalv ayam gharavaso 
va icchitavyo yasyedrSo upabhogaparibhogo ; nihsam- 
Sayam ayam kumaro . . . krtadhikaro icchitavyo . . . Acc. 
to Senart, M Indie for Iksitavya, to be regarded . But in Pali 
and Pkt. icchati and derivs. seem always to represent Skt. 
is, desire [except that Sheth derives some forms from ips, 
seek], while only ikkh- seems to represent Iks-.) 

[icchu, see ucchu.) 
ijita, m.c. for ihjita, q.v. 

incati = injati, which perhaps should be read: 
Mahasamaj. Kl. Skt. Texte 4, 195.4 tasya romani nencati; 
Pali equivalent na sam lomam pi injayum DN ii.262.12. 

ihjate or °ti (= Pali injati, injamana), moves, stirs 
(intrans.); caus. ihj ay ati, moves, disturbs (trans.); fre- 
quently spelled in mss. and edd. injya-, also ijya- (esp. 
in Av, often kept by Speyer, as in i.253.9-10 anijyamanair 
indriyaih, but elsewhere, as i.187.7; 250.1 he reads with 
mss. aninja- in the same cliche ; these readings are pro- 
bably only corruptions, but see s.vv. anihja, anihjya, 
and other forms there referred to: na cenjate balavan 
LV 259.7 (of Bodhisattva); na ca injate bhramati va 
259.20 (id.); an-injamana§ ca SP 24.15 (Bodhisattvas); 
an-injamanam (bhiksum) Gv 84.18; romam na imjeya 
(opt.) Mv ii.408.5, a hair would not be moved (or caus., 
it would not move a hair; mss. iccheya, but em. proved by 
ii.411.8); an-injamanena kayena sthito 'ninja- (v.l. 'ninjya-, 
q.v.) -praptena ca cittena SP 5.10, and so read (omitting 
ca; see critical note) 19.14; an-injamanena cittena SP 
159.6; an-injyamanena (see above; vv.ll. °ihja°, °ijya°) 
kayena LV 131.2; an-injamanair (text sometimes an-ijya 0 , 
see above) indriyais Av i.187.7; 250.1; 253.9-10, etc. (in 
a cliche, see Index); caus., inf., . . . me te romapi nenja- 

yitum samarthah syuh Divy 185.10, they would not be 
able to move even my hairs; also injitum (caus. inf.), 
na ca samartha mama romam imjitum Mv ii.340.13 = 
341.11 (and cf. 340.17); cf. s.v. ihjitatva. See also next 

injana, nt., or °na, f. (both — Pali id.; cf. an-i°, 
prec., and next), motion, wavering, vacillation (of mind; 
body ; hair, as a very small and delicate part of the body) : 
LV 259.9 (vs) na cefijanam napi manyana-pracaram (so 
read, see s.v. manyana); Av i.88.7 (prose) na ca Sakitam 
bhagavato romenjanam api kartum; Gv 128.6 (prose) 
sarvenj ana-many ana-(read so with 2d ed.) -spandana- 
prapaficanapagatacittam ; Gv 253.14 (vs) na ca tubhya 
injana (could be nt. or f.) ... manyana-spandana na ca 
prapanca; (the rest are fern.) LV 366.3 (vs) no ca kayen- 
jana (n. sg.) ; Mv ii.414.19 (vs) na sattvasarasya karonti 
injana (acc. sg. ; Senart em. °nam); RP 12.15 (vs) citta- 
injana (read as cpd.); 13.14 (vs) cittenjana; KP 136.8 
(vs) sarvenj ana-manyana-vipramuktah; Dbh.g. 26(52).4 
bhavi tatha abhave injana nasti kacit. 

ihjita (= Pali id.), (1) primarily ppp. of ihjate, 
q.v.; see ihjita- tva; (2) subst. nt., motion , movement 
(literal and physical): Mv i.305.21 (vs) prasadiken' imjitena 
(read ijitena; § 2.73; cf. ijya- forms s.v. ihjate) pravi- 
^antam (buddhasya ^ravakan), entering with serene walk; 
(3) subst. nt., mobility, vacillation, unsteadiness; = ihjana 
or °na, and like these often associated with manyana 
(or manyita), spandita (miswritten sya°), and other 
qualities deprecated in religious life: Mvy 7218 °tam == 
Tib. gyo ba, foil, by syanditam; SP 336.3 (vs) varjitva 
injita (v.l. °tan) manyitani ca ; 372.7 (prose) injita-manyita- 
prapancitani jnasyati; Dbh 64.13 sarvenjita-manyana- 
syandita-vikalpapagato bhavati; Bbh 339H8 (prose) 
(-abhinive£a-, q.v.) -sarvenjitani . ... prahiyante; 340.21 
sarvabhinivesenjitaprahanata^ ca. See also an-ihjita. 

ihjita- tva, nt. (to prec.), state of being moved: Mv 
ii.411.(7-)8 (napi bodhisattvasya) romasyapi ihjitatvam, 
and not so much as a hair of the B. was moved . 

itta, Mvy 7982, prob. error for ihgh, q.v. ; cf. however 

(itara, adj., commonplace, low, vulgar, — Pali itara 
and ittara, but also Skt. itara, BR 5.1139; hence not a 
specifically Buddhist word; doubtless specialized semantic 
development of itara, other: e. g. LV 88.11 itara-jatxyah, 
commonplace , vulgar people. No *ittara has been recorded, 
but see itvara, which is presumed to be its Skt. original.) 

itaretara, adj. (= Pali itarltara; the Skt. word not 
in this sense but only reciprocal, cf. Wackernagel II.l 
§ 60 a, note), any sort of, this or that , any at all, miscellaneous, 
hit-or-miss: Mvy 2216 netaretarepa samtustih; Mv iii.348.4 
°rena ca pin<japatrena samtusto bhaveyam; RP 13.9 
alpeccha itaretarair abhirata(h), pleased ( satisfied ) with 
anything at all; 16.5 bhavati ca itaretarena tus^ah. 

itivj-tta (nt. or m.), — next (rarely): nidanetivrtta- 
Kv 81.21 (prose), in list of canonical writings. 

itivrttaka, nt. (in Bbh nr. ; = ityukta, °taka, qq.v., 
— Pali itivuttaka, which seems clearly bas6d on iti vuttam 
= ity uktam, but in BHS has been blended formally, by 
Hypersanskritism, with Skt. itivrtta, nt., see BR; Tib., 
see below, proves that at least for Tib. translators the 
word was connected with vrtta rather than ukta), n. of 
a canonical work or type of literature, story of past events 
(associated with jataka): Mvy 1274 = Tib. (de lta bu) 
byun ba (-hi sde), story, history (root hbyun, happen, 
take place, — vrt); here itivrttakam is foil, by jatakam; 
SP 45.7 (vs) sutraiii (or, with v.l., sutranta) bhasami 





tathaiva gatha itivrttakam jatakam adbhutam ca; Bbh 
67.20 (wrongly punctuated) . . . prakasayati (comma, or 
no punctuation) itivrttakams ca purvayogapratisam- 
yuktam (= °tan; end of sentence!); Bbh 397.12—13 
tathagatah purvante itivrttakams ca jatakamS ca smrtva. . . 
Cf. vrttaka. 

itihasaka, nt. (! = Skt. itihasa, m.), history, story, 
legend : Mvy 4971 °kam, n. sg. (follows puranam; gender 
influenced by this?). 

itthatva, nt. ( = Pali itthatta), the being in this world : 
Mv iii.447.8 (ksina me jatir . . .) noparim itthatvam iti 
prajanati. Recorded as icchatva Mv i.52.7 devanikayato 
cyavitva icchatvam agacchanti, and in similar phrases 
52.8; 338.18; ii.133.4. Senart allows icchatva to stand, 
regarding it as a genuine phonetic alternative form (i.417); 
and all mss. read so in these passages. But in view of 
iii.447.8 it seems to me likely that icchatva is a mere 
graphic corruption, § 2.22. See however icchatva. 

ityukta (nt.), cited by Burnouf, Intr. 60 f., and Kern, 
SBE 21.45 n. 4; not noted in texts; = next. 

ityuktaka (nt. ; cf . prec. ; = itivrttaka, q.v. ; a more 
historical Sktization of Pali itivuttaka), sayings (sc. of 
the Buddha), n. of a canonical work or type of literature : 
SsP 1460.5 gathoddananidanatyuktaka- (read °nidanet- 
yuktaka-)-j ataka-. 

itvara, adj. (= Pali ittara; Skt. Lex., rare and late 
in lit., see pw; cf. itara, which in Pali is commonly treated 
as the same word but seems to be unrelated in origin; 
possibly secondary blending has occurred between the 
two words), slight , small, trivial, unimportant', brief, 
momentary (of time): Mvy 2699 °ram (n. sg.); Mv iii.186.4 
°ram khu ayam tapo, this (sun's) heat is a trivial thing; 
LY 123.4 (vs) kim tasyabharanebhir (so, as one word) 
itvaraih, what need has he of trivial (ordinary, worthless) 
ornaments ?; RP 39.12 asaram itvaram ca lokam (acc. 
sg.); &iks 167.8 mahakarunyacittotpadenetvarena kamopa- 
samhitena, by an impulse of pity, tho vile (? better trivial, 
slight), and full of desire (Bendall-Rouse); of virtue, merit, 
etc., Gv 529.9 itvara-guna-samtustair, satisfied with slight 
virtues; LV 271.3 (vs) itvarapunya devamanuja; Gv 508.24 
itvara-kuSalamulanam devamanusyanam (of those w r ho 
do not follow the Mahay ana); Siks 60.14 itvara-kuSala- 
mulah; of time, Bbh 87.4 itvarakalabhyasat (short), con- 
trasted with dlrghakalabhyasat line 3; vijnayate netvara- 
darsanena Ud xxix.ll = Pali SN i.79.17 (momentary, 
fleeting glance); of gifts, Divy 317.8 kim punar me itvarena 
danena pradattena. 

idampratyaya, adj. ( = Pali idappaccaya, e. g. 
Yism. 51*8.30), having this (or that) as its cause: Dbh 26.3 
. . . gambhiredampratyayanubodhanena pratyekabuddha- 
yanam samvartayanti. 

idampratyaya- ta (= Pali idappaccayata; abstr. 
from prec.), state of having this (or that) as its cause; gener- 
ally in comp, with pratitya-samutpada, dependent origina- 
tion owing to the state of (etc.); so also the Pali equivalent 
is usually cpd. with paticcasamuppada (or °panna), tho 
the editions wrongly separate the words, as in Yin. i.5.1: 
idampratyayata-pratityasamutpadam Gv 89.13; Bbh 
204.25; 396.21; °padena Bbh 110.23; °padanulomah Bbh 

id&ni (M Indie for °nim; cf. dani), now : Mv i. 154. 15 
(vs, m.c.); 247.20 (vs, m.c. ; v.l. idani, unmetr.) 

iddhi (= Pali-Pkt. id.; MIndic for rddhi), magic 
power : Mv ii.322.1 (vs; read) maruna raja va£ir iddhiprapto 
(or perhaps va£i riddhi 0 , see this; text divides wrongly, 
va Siriddhi 0 ). 

idha, adv. (— Pali id., Skt. iha, §2.36), here: Mv 
i.19.10 (all mss. but one); 20.6 (4 of 6 mss.); iii.134.20 
(no v.l.). 

indra, m. (1) as in Pali (Sakko devanam indo), the 
deva who in Skt. is named Indra (but frequently also 

called Sakra) is in BHS often called Sakra, devanam 
indra, §akra king of the gods, the word indra being clearly 
a common, not a proper, noun; so SP 69.8; LY 62.14; 
66.4; etc., passim; this is specially clear when the n. pr. 
Sakra is omitted but the gen. devanam retained, as in 
LV 62.15, 18 devanam indra, O king of the godsl (2) a 
high number: Mvy 8022 indrah = Tib. dban po, lord 
(regularly = indra); (3) n. of a yaksa: May 29; 236.25; 
(4) n. of a brahman: Divy 74.17 ff.; (5) n. of a king: 
Mmk 625.21. 

-indraka (= Pali -indaka), at end of Bhvr. cpds., 
= indra (either as n. pr. or in the sense of lord, king): 
LY 54.13 (vs) devadanavaganah sa-indrakah; 391.14 (vs) 
devah sa-indrakas; Mv ii.260.4 (prose) sendraka deva. 

indraklla, m. (= Pali inda 0 , also °khlla; hot recorded 
in this sense in Skt., where it appears to. mean bar, bolt 
to a gate or door; AMg. indakhlla, said to mean a portion 
of a city gate; a door bolt . . ., Ratnach. ; qy: was the ‘bolt’ 
fastened under the door, in the pavement? cf. Meyer, 
Kaut. 71, 689), threshold slab, a stone imbedded in the 
ground at the entrance to a city gate, or to a palace, 
house, or apartment: Mvy 5582 °lah = Tib. hkor gtan, 
lit. circle bar, or Tib. sgohi them pa, threshold of a door; 
Das cites both these Tib. phrases as synonymous renderings 
of indraklla, and defines them as steps at the threshold or 
at the entrance of a house; cf. Divy 544.7, three indrakilas, 
viz. nagare indrakllo, rajakule . . ., and antahpure . . ., 
thresholds to a city, a royal palace, and a harem ; this passage 
is a comm, on Divy 543.22 (yah . . . bhiksur . . .) rajnah . . . 
indrakilam va indrakila-samantam va samatikramed, if 
any monk crosses a king's threshold or its environs ; generally 
referred to as located at a city gate; in entering the city 
one steps upon it: Mv i.308.7 samanantaram indrakilam 
padena cokramati (= ca-avakr°), and as soon as he (Buddha, 
entering a city) stepped on the i° with his foot; Divy 250.20 
(Bhagavata) sabhisamskara (q.v.) indraklle pado vyava- 
sthapitah (in entering a city); 365.1 (Buddha . . .) indraklle 
padau vyavasthapayanti (in entering a city by the gate); 
Av i. 109.1 yada ca bhagavata indraklle pado nyastah (in 
entering a city; the gate is not mentioned); Gv 205.3 
rajadhanim praviSata indrakilam akramatah, as (a Buddha) 
was entering the capital, as he stepped upon the threshold 
(pres, pples., gen. sg.); Mv ii.396.3 (vs) so indraklle (mss. 
°kilo) sthita, standing on the threshold , apparently of the 
city (rajadhani) mentioned line 2; used in comparisons as 
type of immobility, recommended in religious life: Mv 
i.292.14 yathendrakilo prthivIsamniSrito sya . . . asam- 
prakampi, as an i° should be fixed in the earth, (so . . .) 
immovable; Ud xvii.12 indrakilopama; in this sense applied 
to the mind or thoughts of a Buddha or Bodhisattva, 
Mv ii.261.3 and 262.5 (Bodhisattvas) indrakilopamacitta- 
tam ca anuprapnuvanti; iii.225.5 indrakllopamacitta (of 
Buddha); Av i.223.12 bhagavan . . . indraklla iva (here 
physically and literally motionless, like a threshold-stone) 
tasmin pradeSe sthitah. 

indrakllaka, m. — prec., q.v.: Mv i.195.16 (prose) 
tesam . . . dvaranam caturnam varnanam indrakllaka 
abhunsu, these gates (of a city) had threshold-stones of four 

Indrakuga, n. of a brother of Ku$a: Mv ii.433.16. 

Indraketu, (1) n. of a samadhi: Mvy 531 (not in 
SsP); (2) n. of a former Buddha: LV 172.5; (3) n. of a 
yaksa: Samadh p. 43 line 21. 

Indraketudhvajar&ja, n. of a Buddha: Siks 169.13; 
(the same?) of a Buddha in the zenith: Sukh 98.15. 

indragopa, or °paka, in comp, with §iras or £Irsa(n), 
redheaded, said of (miraculous) elephants: LV 55.3-4 
(prose) indragopaka-sirah, n. sg., of the Bodhisattva in 
the form of a small elephant, about to enter his mother’s 
womb (in vs line 7 replaced by suraktaSIrsah) ; Mv iii.411.4 
(prose) indragopa-SIrsam, of another magically created 




elephant. The words °pa and °paka denote a red insect in 
Skt. and Pali; acc. to BR the cochineal insect. 

Indracurna, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.139.7. 

Indrajalin, n. of a Bodhisattva: LV 291.18. 

IndratapanS, n. of a capital of the former Buddha 
Indradhvaja: Mv iii.226.6 ff. 

Indrateja(s), n. of a former Buddha: Mv i. 136. 14 
°jah, n. sg. 

Indradatta, n. of a 'virtuous man’ (satpurusa, 
q.v.): SP 3.11. 

Indradamana, n. of a former Buddha: Av i.86.8 ff. 

Indradeva, n. of a Bodhisattva: SsP 6.10. 

Indradhvaja, (1) n. of various former Buddhas: 
Mv i.138.4; iii.226.6 (with capital Indratapana); Av 
i.105.3 ff. ; 84,000 former Buddhas of this name, Mv 
i.58.14; 62.4; a Buddha in the southwest quarter, SP 
184.11; (2) n. of a naga: Mvy 3363. 

Indradhvajaketu, n. of a Tathagata: Gv 281.7; 
same as Candradhvajagrlketu 280.12. 

indra-pata, nt., acc. to pw 2.294, Luftgewand, so 
v.a. Nacktheit : °tam Svetapatam dhyusitapatam Kv 81.6-7 ; 
but can indra- have this mg. ( — sky, air, as in digambara)? 
I find no basis for the theory. All the context shows is 
that persons dressed in these garbs should not be con- 
secrated (dlks). What the garb of Indra (I of a prince) 
means is not clear. It is true that sveta-pata is recorded 
as used of the Jain sect otherwise called Svetambara; 
doubtless this was the reason for Boehtlingk’s conjecture, 
based on the assumption that this word equals digambara ; 
but I doubt that this is sufficient to support it. That 
a real sort of cloth is meant is suggested by nana-patesu, 
line 6. 

Indrapura, n. of a town: May 29. 

Indrabhuti, n. of an author: Sadh 353.11. 

Indramaghagri, n. of a gandharva-maid : Kv 5.9. 

Indramati, n. of a Buddhist monk: Gv 47.10. 

indra- yasti, f. (nowhere recorded in this sense, which 
= Skt. indra-capa etc.), (1) rainbow : LV 296.17 (vs) ke 
cagata vimalaketu yathendrayastyah, bright-colored as 
rainbows; Siks 258.9 (vs) yatha naru iha indrayasti (Tib. 
hjah, rainbow) drstva vimrSati angaSu (= °£as) nihsva- 
bhava Sunyam; (2) n. of a naga: Mvy 3358. 

(Indrasaila, as n. of a mountain, recorded in BR, 
pw only as Buddhist, but occurs in Skt., see Kirfel Kosm. 
99; noted by me in May 253.30; and see next.) 

Indrasailaguha, n. of a locality (cf. prec.): Mvy 
4124 °guha, n. sg. 

IndrasrI, (1) m., n. of a Buddha: Gv 284.15 (vs) 
°6iri, n. sg. ; but see s.v. Citrartha; (2) m., n. of a Bodhi- 
sattva: Gv 442.6 °sriyo, gen. sg. ; (3) f., n. of a gandharva 
maid: Kv 5.9. 

Indrasena, n. of a naga: Mvy 3310. 

indrahasta, m. (°tah, n. sg.), Mvy 5823, or °sta, 
f. (n. sg.), Suv 104.7; Tib. in both dban pohi lag (pa), 
a literal rendering of the Skt., which Das says means 'a 
plant the viscid aromatic root of which resembles the 
human arm in shape’; in both Mvy and Suv one item in 
lists of herbs, osadhi (Suv ausadhayo, n. pi.). Mvy has 
other Tib. renderings, apparently foreign words and not 
in Dictt., hab San tse hu (which also renders prativisam, 
Mvy 5822) and ha ba Sa tshe hu. 

Indrayudhagikhin, n. of a naga: Mvy 3356. 

indrlya, (1) nt. (Pali also uses the word of this group, 
see PTSD s.v., B, Nos. 15-19), one of the five moral 
faculties (Sraddha, virya, smrti, samadhi, prajna), to which 
correspond five powers (bala) with the same names: 
listed Mvy 976-981 ; Sutral. xviii.55 (and cf. xi.12, Transl. 
106, n. 10); Dharmas 47; each treated as a dharmaloka- 
mukha, LV 33.17-20; mentioned, with balas, but not 
listed, SP 47.2; 80.1 ; (2) a high number, Gv 106.3 sattven- 

Indriyegvara, n. of a boy: Gv 131.5 ff. 
imamhi, loc. sg. of idam, = iha, here; repeatedly 
in Mv, e. g. ii.107.6; 478.7; see §21.66. 

iyamtata, adj., of such an extent, so great, or (here) 
so small : Sukh 32.1 (prose) tad yatha sa ekavindur 
iyamtatah sa prathamasamnipato (see samnipata) ’bhut. 
Could this be an error for iyantah — Skt. iyan, n. sg. m. 
of iyant? But I have not noted such MIndic morphology 
in the prose of Sukh. Emendation to iyattakah (Vedic 
only and rare) is not attractive. 

iyamduhkha, adj., having torments to this extent 
(iyam for Skt. iyat, see § 18.54): Divy 375.15, 21; 376.1, 9 
°kha hi bhiksavo narakah (or narakah). 

iranta(h), n. pi. pres. pple. = Skt. Irayantah (§ 3.38), 
setting in motion : Gv 372.13 (vs) paripacayanti jagu 
dharmaprabham iranta (imu . . .) Cf. iryati. 
iriyapatha, MIndic for Irya°, q.v. 
iryati (= Pali iriyati; cf. Vedic irte), wanders : Mv 
iii.118.18 vanad vanam iryasi (so mss., Senart em. !r°) 
camkramanto. The ya-present formation is doubtless due 
to influence of the noun irya (see irya), commonly in the 
cpd. Iryapatha or irya°. 

irya, iryapatha, iryavant, iryavant, semi-M Indie 
spelling for Iry°, q.v. 

irsya = Skt. irsya, jealousy : all mss. at LV 52.13; 

372.17. Weller 20 would em. to irsya; but this may be 
only Sktization of semi-M Indie ir°, cf. irya- etc. As Weller 
notes, irsya is found as v.l. in some mss. of Mv (i.37.6; 
44.13, four of six mss.; iii.27.17; 164.19); tho in all these 
cases at least one ms. has ir°, the form ir° may have been 

Ila devl, n. of a devakumarika in the northern 
quarter: Mv iii.309.8 = LV 391.3. 

Igadhara, n. of a naga: Mvy 3333 (but Mironov 
l£a°); Tib. g£ol mdah hdzin, plow-holder (implying Isa°). 

Isamdhara, m., n. of one of the seven mountains 
(or mountain ranges) surrounding Sumeru, = Isadhara, 
q.v.; read so at Mv ii.300.18 where the only ms. reads- 
iyamdhara (Senart em. isamdharo). 

Isana, m., n. of a region, in the south: Gv 115.1 
daksinapatha °no nama janapadas; 116.3. 

Isadhara, v.l. in Mironov for Mvy 4144 Igadhara, 
q.v., n. of a mountain. See also Isadhara (2). 
Isamdhara, see Isamdhara. 

isika, nt., or isika, f. (perhaps also isika, nt. ; cf. 
Pali esika, °ka, interpreted in Dictt. as pillar, post), sign- 
post: Mvy 7048 isika mapita bhavanti (Tib. 6in-rtags, 
tree (or wood) sign; Chin. app. sign-post or the like): Mv 
i.196.1 and iii.228.12 dvaranam purato isikani (iii.228.12 
isi°, v.l. isi°) mapitani abhunsuh; Siks 173.16 isika-padam 
va dadyat, or should present a sign-post (at the caitya of 
a past Buddha, marking the holy spot; otherwise but 
implausibly Bendall and Rouse). 

Isidatta (= Pali Isi°; semi-M Indie for l^$idatta, 
q.v., also Risi°), n. of a sthapati of King Prasenajit of 
Sravasti (Kosala): Divy 77.27; 466.23, in both read, 
substantially with mss., (grhapatir) Isidattah Puranah 
sthapati (dual). 

isu, nt. (in Skt. only m., f.), arrow : Mv ii.82.4 and 
5 isu ksiptam (n. sg.). 

Istaka, m. pi., n. of a brahmanical gotra: Divy 

635.17. ’ 

I§tarupa, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i. 139.11. 
ist5 (cf. AMg. itta, with non-aspirate, beside ittaya 
= Skt. istaka), brick: SP 50.9. (vs) i§ta-maya (ed. em. 
°yan) . . . stupan. Perhaps loss of suffixai ka m.c. ; § 22.24. 

i§tika (= istl, istrika, istri, i$tiya, all semi-M Indie 
forms of strl; for i- see §3.113; cf. Pali itthika, AMg. 
itthiya, etc.; no MIndic *itthl or *itthika, with domal 
stops, seems recorded), woman: LV 43.5 (vs) purusa- 
istika- (m.c. for °ka-) daraka^ ca; 79.20 (vs) istikan (acc. 

8 * 




pi.) evam aha; Mv i.244.5 (prose) istikaye (gen. sg.), v.l. 
for text istrikaye; ii.384.22 (vs) istikasu (no v.l.). 

istiya, v.l. for text istriya and °yo at Mv ii.70.1, see 
s.v. istrl. If istiya is correct, it corresponds to isti, q.v., 
as striya (n. sg.), q.v., does to stri. It would be n. sg. 
(while istriyo, at least, is n. pi.). 

isti, i§ti (Pali itthi, itthi), = istika, istrl, qq.v., 
woman : LY 74.15 (vs) ye ca istidaraka suduhkhita (Lefm. 
wrongly °darakasu duh°), and what women and boys . . .; 
LV 235.15 (vs), perhaps read ima isti°, cf. ms. A imestika- 
maratim (= imam plus isti°), for Lefm. ima istri°; Mv 
ii.299.14 (vs) istibhavam, state of ( existence as) a woman; 
other instances as v.l. for forms of istrl, q.v. 

isyate, °ti (= Skt. icchati; acc. to Wh. Roots, used 
in certain cpds. E -f ), seeks: Divy 476.16 (na) mama 
. . . kimcid evam isye (1 sg.); 560.7-8 (vs) yadi tvam 
prltim isyasi. 

istrika = istrl, istri, q.v., woman: LY 220.5 (vs) 

istrika (n. pi., or stem in comp, with foil.) darakaS ca; 
Mv i.244.5 (prose) istrikaye (v.l. istikaye), gen. sg. 
istrigara, istriyagara, see stryagara. 
istri, istri (= ASokan id. [Shah., Man.]; Skt. stri; 
see s.v. istika, isti), woman: SP 358.6; 455.3; LY 42.17; 
80.10; 193.14 (istriya gen. pi., = striyam); 195.16; 242.17; 
330.14, 18; 340.1; Mv i.303.20; 304.4; all the prec. vss; 
Mv ii.70.1 (prose) istriya (instr. sg. ; v.l. istiya) sma 
parajit§, na ca kahimcit istriyo (n. pi.; v.l. istiya, q.v.) 
raja, sarvatra puruso (Senart °sa) raja; 71.1 istriye (instr. 
sg., v.l. istiye); 321.23 istri- (v.l. isti-) sahasraih; iii.26.21 
istriye (oblique case); 84.8, 14 istrihi (instr. pi.); Siks 
242.13 (vs) istrinam (gen. pi.); Gv 254.16 (vs) istri-koti; 
255.18 (vs) istri-ganaS ca. 

ihatra, adv. (iha plus the suffix of amutra, which 
is the next word in Mvy; cf. AMg. ihaim, from iha plus 
another loc. ending), here , in this world: Mvy 2975 (foil, 
by amutra). 


?inkhaka, °ika, see inkh°. 

idr&ika, f. °ki, adj. (cf. Skt. IdrSaka; no form in °ika 
seems recorded), such: SP 325.11 (vs) kriyam IdrSiklm 
(no v.l.). 

♦Iryati, see iryati. 

Irya or irya (chiefly the latter, semi-M Indie, has 
been noted; = Pali and AMg. iriya) — the much com- 
moner Irya-patha (or irya°), deportment , behavior, par- 
ticularly good, dignified , proper deportment: Mv i.302.10 
iryam (mss., Senart Iryam) pasyitva (of a Pratyekabuddha); 
iii.60.9 (kalyana) punar iyam pravrajitasya irya (Senart 
irya); 92.10 irya (Senart irya); LV 115.2 (vs) tesa (gods) 
yatha ca irya; 116.7 (vs) yatha irya netra vimalaprabha, 
since he possesses proper deportment and an eye of pure 
splendor (so better than taking irya-netra as cpd. with 
Foucaux); 330.12 (vs) iryam (no v.l. in mss.) caryam ca 
preksate, he (Bodhisattva) regards (considers duly) proper 
deportment and conduct; MSV ii.l 86. 10 (prose) taya iryaya 

Irya-patha, m. (= Pali iriya-patha, AMg. iriya- 
vaha; in mss., esp. of Mv and LY, often written irya° 
or iryya°, semi-M Indie, which Lefm. usually keeps but 
Senart emends to irya°; once, at least, iriya-patha, as in 
Pali, Mv ii.157.1, prose, kept by Senart; also airyapatha, 
q.v.; see prec. and next), much commoner than the syn- 
onymous Irya, (1) movement (of physical movements of 
any sort): Mv i.22.11 (prose) chinna-iryapatha (all mss., 
Sen. em. °irya°) gacchanti (mss. gacchati), sinners in hell, 
confined in huts (gharakehi oruddha), go with (freedom of) 
movement cut off, i. e. suffer restraint of movement (but 
possibly more specifically, suffer restraint of posture, see 
4 below, e. g. are not allowed to sit or lie down); (2) ap- 
plied to any particular course of religious, esp. ascetic, 
performance, and specifically to disapproved ascetic 
practices of heretics, such as the ‘five-fire’ practice (men- 
tioned in the prec.): Divy 350.7 (sa) tesam-tesam (of 
heretical ascetics) Iryapathan vikopayitum arabdhah; 
(3) generally less specific, behavior , deportment , good or 
bad, of people in general ; but esp. of the approved deport- 
ment of pious Buddhists, of monks, or of Bodhisattvas 
or Buddhas; most commonly with favorable implication; 
but this may be made clear by an adjective, esp. pra- 
sadika, gracious , (religiously) attractive: Mv iii.27.3-4 
prasadikena Iryapathena (v.l. iryya°), of a Pratyeka- 
buddha; in £ik§ 348.6 prasadika and aprasadika irya°, 
good and bad deportment , contrasted; Divy 82.14 ^an- 

teneryapathena, of MahakaSyapa; LY 427.18 praSanterya- 
pathah, and 19 sarveryapathacaryaviSesasamanvagatah, 
attended by all excellent deportment and behavior, of the 
Tathagata; creatures in general vary in deportment, LV 
35.8 yathadhimukta-sattverydpatha- (v.l. cited °iryya°)- 
samdarSanaya ; Gv 527.3-4 sarvasattvadhimuktisamair 
iryapathaih; specifically good deportment, SP 282.3 (vs) 
°patham yo mama raksamano bhaveta bhiksu...; LV 

29.4 (vs) iryapathe-stha, abiding in...; 179.17 (bodhi- 
sattvo . . . sarvantahpurasya . . .) Iryapatham upadarSya, 
having displayed proper behavior to all the harem (so Tib.); 
220.6 iryapathebhyaS (most mss. iry°) cyutah, fallen away 
from right behavior; Dbh 71.19 tathagateryapathacarya- 
caritranugato ; Mv ii.157.1 (prose) iriyapathasampanno, 
perfect in deportment , of a monk; 390.8 (vs) iryapathena 
su-upeta (with mss.) satva, (there are no evil-doers here;) 
creatures are well endowed with proper deportment; Av 

11.1 30.4 (corrupt); Mv i. 174.11 (vs) iryapathe (3 mss. iry°) 
ca virye ca dhyane jnane Same dame; iii.346.6 iryapathe 
(so mss.) ca virye ca dhyane jnane tathaiva ca; often it 
is said that a newly-initiated person (of superior character) 
shows the iryapatha, deportment , of a monk of long standing, 
LV 409.19-20 tad yathapi nama varsaSatopapannasya 
bhiksor iryapathah samvrtto ’bhut; Mv iii.65.5 iryapatho 
(Senart em. iry°) sanam samsthihe sayyathapi nama 
varsaSatopasampannanam bhiksunam; similarly Mv 
ii.234.5; iii.92.10 (irya instea'd of iryapatho); 180.15; 
181.7; 329.12; 413.13; Divy 37.3 (varsaSatopasampan- 
nasya) bhiksor iryapathenavasthitah ; Av i.284.9 (dvadaSa- 
var§opasampannasyeva) bhiksor Iryapathena . . . avasthi- 
tah; (4) as in Pali iriyapatha, also used of four postures 
or bodily attitudes, that is modes of physical behavior, viz. 
walking, standing, sitting, and lying down: Mvy 212 
vihayasabhyudgamya caturvidham Iryapatham kalpayati, 
mounting in the air, displays the four . . . (one of the abhijna- 
karmani); Mv i.168.10 (vs) Iryapatham (3 mss. iry°) 
darSayanti catvarah purusottamah, no ca pariSramas 
tesam . . . , Buddhas display the four modes of behavior 
(like other men), and yet they are never weary (i. e. do not 
need to sit or lie down); AsP 520.12 dvabhyam everya- 
pathabhyam sthitva, sthanena cankramena ca (only 
standing and walking; he vows not to sit or lie down) 
kalam atinamayeyam, repeated (var.) 521.6, which is 
cited Siks 40.5 dvabhyam everyapathabhyam . . . ; Gv 
22.20 ff., Iryapatha repeatedly of physical movements 
(walking, standing, and sitting, line 22) of ordinary (not 



U gr aparipr ccha 

religious) men; LV 9.8 caturiryapatha-vinayanopavana- 
(so read, text °naupavana-)-suvardhita-taror (Tib. lus, 
body , for -taror, implying -tanor), (of the Bodhisattva) 
who possessed a ‘ tree ' ( body ?) well-raised in the grove of 
(by?) exercise of the four modes of behavior ; LV 256.18 
(sadvarsa bodhisattvo yatha nisanna evasthat paryankena) 
na ca iryapathac (all mss. ca iry° or cery°) cyavate sma, 
and did not abandon the posture (of sitting cross-legged); 
Mv i.236.14 (here mss. iry°) = 241.8 (vs) iryapatham . . . 
sarvabhibhuno (mss. °to) na vijahante (i. e. they walk 
and stand still when he does, see prec. line); only three, 
tribhir Iryapathair . . . sthanena cankramena nisadyaya 
RP 45.18. 

Iryavant, adj. (recorded only in semi-M Indie form 
iryavant, with short a m.c. ; from Irya), characterized by 
proper deportment: LV 113.20 and 114.7 (vss) iryavantah, 
n. pi. (of gods); 240.10 (vs) iryavanto, n. sg. (of the Bo- 

Irsi, or Irsi = Skt. Irsya, envy (see §3.115): LV 
75.10 (vs) kamachandu naiva'tasya irsi (some mss. irsya, 
unmetr., while irsya would be possible; v.l. also irsu) 
naiva himsita. 

irsu, Irsuka, see an-i°. 

(irsyayate, °ti, is jealous , is envious : Mv ii.480.5 
(prose) °yase; Siks 62.2 (prose) te paresam Irsyayanti. 
Must have existed in Skt. since the ppp. irsyayita, as nt. 
ndm. act., is recorded; see pw. Denom.from irsya.) 

Irsyaluka, adj. (= Skt. irsyalu), jealous , envious: 
SP 429.6 (prose) ma . . . sattva irsyaluka ma matsa- 
rino . . .; Samadh p. 53, line 5 (vs; here -ka could be m.c.). 

Igadhara, m., n. of a mountain: Dharmas 125; 
Mironov for Mvy 4144 (with v.l. I^adhara). See under 

Isadhara, (1) n. of a naga, Mironov's reading for 
Isa° Mvy 3333; (2) m. pi., n. of a range of mountains 
( = Isa°; see under Isadhara): Siks 246.4 °ra(h). 

Isvara, (1) n. of a rich householder's son in Campa: 
Karmav 66.9; (2) n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 442.9. 

ISvaragunaparajitadhyaja, n. of a Tathagata: Gv 
380.22; later, in vs, called Isvarajitagunadhvaja, 383.14. 

Isvaragupta, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.141.4. 

ISvaradeva, n. of (apparently) two Bodhisattvas (in 
the same list! is one an error?): Gv 442.8, 10. 

Isvarajitagunadhvaja, see fSvaragunaparajita- 

iSvariya, nt. (— Pali issariya, AMg. id. or isariya; 
penultimate i may be m.c.), sovereignty: Mv ii.395.6 (vs) 
na tasya ko pi (by em. ; one ms. vl) jane isvariyam The 
Siks ^parallel, 308.4, has isvaratvam. 

Isadhara, m. (= Pali Isadhara), n. of a mountain 
(one of the seven ranges surrounding Sumeru; Kirfel, 
Kosm. 186): Mvy 4144 (but Mironov Isa°, with v.l. Isa- 
dhara). Gf. next, Isamdhara (Isam°), I&adhara, Isa- 
dhara. Kyqto ed. text Isa°, Index ‘Isa 0 (l6a°)’. 

Isadhara, m. (see under prec.), (1) n. of a mountain 
or mountain-range: Divy 217.12, 14; MSV i.94.6; (2) n. 
of a deity (giving rain): Siks 247.7 (or may be Isa°; samdhi 
ambiguous); (3) implied by Tib. instead of Isadhara, q.v. 

Isi, Isit, adv. {= AMg. Isi; Skt. isat; form lacking 
-t noted only in vss, but regularly in metr. indifferent 
positions, hence not m.c.), a little , slightly ; only noted in 
Mmk, but common there: Isismitamukham 133.3; 135.2; 
°mukha 236.11; 239.21; isitkayavanamitam 133.6; ma- 
hatma ... isi drsyati tatksanat 240.1 ; isit pracodita 
363.25; in prose, isitprahasitavadanah 41.22; isid avana- 
mayet 391.2; others 388.3; 390.22; etc 


?ukara- (v.l. udakara-, utkara-; cf. ugra-lipi), in 
Mv i.135.6 (prose) ukara-madhura-darada-cina- (etc.), 
sc. lipi, a list of various kinds of writing. Senart would 
em. ukaramadhura to uttara-kuru, very implausibly; the 
parallel LV passage has ugra-lipi which surely represents 
the same original as this word. 

ukirati (m.c. for o-k° = ava-k°; § 3.55), scatters , 
throws down upon (acc.): °ranti naranayakottamam Sukh 
49.7 (all mss. uk°); 50.3 (mss. ok°, unmetr.; Muller ok° 
both times). 

ukkattati, see utkattati. 

ukkarika (= Skt. utk°), a kind of sweetmeat: Divy 
500.23, 24, 26 ukkarikapanah (and acc. °nam). Gf. uk- 

Ukkala, nt. (presumably = Skt. Utkala, Orissa; cf. 
Pali Ukkala)* n. of a locality (adhisthana), where Trapusa 
and Bhallika originated ; when they visited Buddha they 
were journeying from the south (Mv iii.303.6), presumably 
homeward bound (so also in LV 381.4-6, where they are 
described as uttarapathakau) : Mv iii.303.4 uttarapathe 
ukkalam namadhisthanam. tato ukkalato . . . trapuso ca 
bhalliko ca . . . 

ukkarika, nt. (cf. ukkarika), some kind of sweet- 
meat or delicacy: Mv ii.190.6 (prose) anye nanaprakarani 
khajjakani alllyanti, anye ukkarikani alllyanti, anye 
modakani alllyanti; iii.158.9, 12 (modakani ca) ukkarikani 
ca. (In line 12 v.l. ukvaritani.) 

ukkasati (MIndic for Skt. utka°; = Pali id.), coughs , 
clears the throat: Mv ii.281.13, 18 ukkasi, 14, 15 ukkase 
(both aor.). See next two. 

ukkasana (nt. ; = Skt. utka°; cf. prec. and next), 

a cough , or clearing of the throat: Mv ii.418.16 °na-6abdena 
maro . . . bhagno; 419.16, 18. 

ukkasita (nt. ; == Pali id.), = prec.: Mv ii.281.13 
(mahasimha-) ukkasitam ukkasi (repetitions in sequel); 
410.4 (bodhisattvena ca) ukkasitaSabdena bhagno (sc. 

[uktamustivat LV 176.4, error for rikta°; see £iks 
238.2 (citation from LV) and Bendall’s note.] 

ukramati (for o- = ava-k° § 3.54), see avakramati. 

uksa, m. (false Skt. for Pali, AMg. ukkha, each re- 
corded once, cf. Pischel 194, or for Skt. ukha), pot f vessel: 
LV 324.13 (vs) udaro mutrapurlsasamcayo asucoksah, the 
belly is a heap of urine and dung , a vessel of impurities. 
Is the masc. gender due to assimilation to udara, in this 
isolated occurrence? 

Uggata, see Udgata. 

uggam-, uggir- (or uggur-), MIndic for Skt. ud-g°, 
see § 2.9. 

Ugra, (1) n. of a naga king, previous incarnation of 
Buddha: Mv i.131.5; (2) n. of a householder (grhapati; 
prob. = Pali Ugga, in DPPN no. 5), character in the 
Ugrasutra, q.v.: Karmav 162.6, 10. See Levi's note, 
and Pali AN iii.51. 

Ugratejas, (1) n. of a former Buddha: LV 5.11 (2) 
n. of a god (devaputra): LV 39.13 (prose; °tejo, i*. sg.); 
(3) n. of a son of Mara, unfavorable to the Bodhisattva: 
LV 310.9 °teja(s), n. sg. 

Ugradattapariprccha, n. of a work, = next: £iks 
18.18; 37.7; 78.7; 180.1, 14: 192.11; 193.3; 196.7; 198.1; 

Ugrapariprccha, = prec.: Mvy 1396; Siks 11.2; 




120.3; 131.10; 315.14; called Ugrapariprccha-sutra (cf. 
Ugrasutra?), Siks 136.1. 

Ugra-lipi, a kind of writing: LV 125.22. Tib. drag 
sul can confirms ugra-; cf. under ukara-. 

Ugra- sutra, n. of a work: Karmav 162.6; see s.v. 
Ugra (2), and Levi’s note. The passage here cited does 
not occur among the &iks citations from the Ugrapari- 
prccha(sutra), which may or may not be a different 

Ugrasena (= Pali Uggasena), n. of a king of Benares, 
in story of the naga Campaka (Pali Campeyya Jataka): 
Mv ii.177.9 ff. 

ucita, nt., merit : Karmav 26.23 yatha hy ucitam 
niksiptam, evam . . . gacchanti durgatim, /or as their 
merit has been thrown away (laid down), so they go to an 
evil fate. Contrasts with duritam, sin, in 29.14 yatha 
duritam niksiptam, evam . , . gacchanti sadgatim. (This 
specialized use of ucita seems nowhere recorded.) 

[uccaka, wrongly suggested Divy p. 705, note on 
40.10, as contained in vrsikoccaka- ; read vrsi-kocava-, 
see kocava.] 

uccagghati, also °ghayati (= Pali ujjagghati; cf. 
samcagghati ; sometimes written °caghati, doubtless by 
mere errors c for j is surely secondary but unexplained, 
cf. Pischel 190, 191, and Wogihara, Lex. 41), laughs at, 
mocks, sneers at, derides; often with forms of ul-lap- 
(-lap-), q.v. : SP 382.12 ye te tarn bodhisattvam . . . 
ullapitavanta uccaghitavantah (WT uccaggh 0 ), who yelled 
derisively and laughed at that B.; &iks 12.15 uccagghantah 
prakrameyuh, would depart sneering (at not receiving 
promised food); 13.1 devata uccagghanti vivadayanti 
(a Bodhisattva who fails in his duty); 49.12 (prose) evam 
vijrmbhamana uccagghanto; AsP 232.(12~)13 (te vijrm- 
bhamana) hasanta uccagghayanto likhisyanti; 18 paraspa- 
ram uccagghayamana (v.l. °yanto) likhisyanti; 385.13 
anyan . . . avamamsyate uccagghayisyati ullapayisyatikut- 
sayisyati pamsayisy ati ; 388.19. 

uccagghana, nt., and °na (to prec. ; sometimes written 
with gh for ggh), mocking, laughing at: Mvy 5226 °nam 
(followed by ullapanam); SP 482.6 (ya evam) sutran- 
talekhakanam uccagghanam karisyanty ullapisyanti ; LV 
431.18 hasyoccagghanavivarjana- (so read for Lefm. 
°occatyana°) ; Siks 45.7 uccagghanam tarjanam ca; 185.1 
uccaghanam (read -ggh-) sahate, unmananam kutsanam 
sahate; 271.6 nasty uccagghanollapana-danam, there is 
no giving with sneers and derisive yells. 

uccamgama, m. (uccam, adv., = Pali id., see Childers, 
plus gama, going aloft), a kind of bird: Divy 476.10 fT. ; 

[uccatyana, LV 431.18, error for uccagghana, q.v.] 
uccataraka, adj. (cf. Pali uccatara, see PTSD s.v. 
ucca; Skt. uccaistara), higher : Mvy 8603 na nicatarake 
nisanna uccatarake asane nisannayaglanaya dharmam 

uccati, MIndic for Skt. ucyate, is said: Mv ii.101.2. 
Uccadhvaja, nt., n. of a palace in the Tusita heaven: 
LV 29.14 °jam nama tusitalaye mahavimaftam. 

uccandra-bhakta, adj., eating at night {jin the last 
part of the night, if Skt. Lex. definition of uccandra cited 
in BR is correct; rather, when the moon has risen ?): °tah 
MSV i.15.1 (as an adlnava). 
uccalana, see an-ucc°. 

ucca- (adv., Vedic), as in Pali in cpds., aloft, on high, 
high(ly): ucca-pragrhitan SP 75.6 (most mss.; ed. uccan 
pra° with 1 ms.). 

uccavaca-ta (to Skt. uccavaca), state of being greater 
or less; variation: Mv i.59.5 antara ca °ta ayusah (sc. 
manusyanam), and between them there was variation of 
(length of) life. 

ucchahkha-, ucchanga-, utsanga-, cpd. with -pada 
(or -carana), (= Pali ussankha-pada,) ep. of a maha- 

pujrusa (esp. Buddha), no. 7 of the 32 laksana; orig. form, 
etym., and mg. obscure; acc. to Pali DN comm. ii. 446.28 ff. 
it means that the soles of the feet can be seen as they 
walk, because ‘the ankles are fixed high’ ; if from utsanga, 
having feet characterized by a ‘ lap ’ (an up-curve under the 
foot, making the sole visible?). Tib. on Mvy 260 says 
having the ankle-bone (or, joint of the ankle-bone ) not visible 
(so one Chin, version, and Jap.); but Tib. on Bbh 375.14, 
cited by Wogihara, having feet not uneven ; another Chin, 
gloss (also cited in Mvy 260, and elsewhere, Burnouf infra) 
refers the epithet to the knees; Gv 399.24 glosses suvyak- 
prabhasvara (not very clear or specific). These northern 
interpretations make the impression of floundering in a 
morass of ignorance. See Burnouf, Lotus, 573. Forms: 
utsahga-pada Mvy 260 (but Mironov ucchahkha-); LV 
106.1; Dharmas 83 (v.l. utsahkha-); utsanga-carana Bbh 
375.14; 378.19; 379.9; 381.10; ucchahga-pada LV 429.13- 
14; uccharikha-pada, Mironov Mvy (see above); Mv 
i.226.16; ii.29.19; 304.19 (the mss. clearly intend this all 
three times I correct Senart’s text); Gv 399.24 (note also 
v.l. utsahkha- in Dharmas 83, above). This form ucchahkha 
is closest to the Pali; the very obscurity of its etymology 
may argue for its originality. 

ucchanga, nt. = 2 utsanga, q.v. ; and see prec. 
[ucchata, Mmk 371.24, 25; 372.13; read ucchrita, 
or possibly ucchrta, q.v., cf. 373.12, 21.] 

ucchada- (1) (= Pali ussada; = ucchadana, q.v.), 
shampooing, rubbing down: KP 152.2 ucchada-snapana- 
parimardana-bhedana-vikirana-vidhvamsana-dharmah (of 
the body); (2) in Siks 208.11 -santarocchada-patikobhaya- 
krtopadhanesu paryankesu Sayitva; Bendall and Rouse 
app. understand ucchada as some kind of cloth (cf. uccha- 
daka); but the preceding santara, which certainly goes 
closely with what follows it, is hard to interpret on that 
theory, and suggests em. to santarottara (q.v.), a cpd. 
known to Pali; it might mean here . . . having cushions 
made on both sides with woolen cloths inside and outside; 
(3) in Av i.354.10 Speyer’s em. is certainly wrong. The 
ms. is quoted as praptaucchadakayas ca; certainly uc- 
chada = utsada (1), Pali ussada, elevation on the 7 parts 
of the body which show this feature in a mahapurusa; 
Tib. mtho ba confirms this. Acc. to Speyer, Tib. has 
mdun, fore-part, before that word; but surely Tib. read, 
or intended, bdun, seven, and we must read sapto- for 
praptau-; the cpd. means with a body possessing the 7 
high places or protuberances (see under utsada (1), and cf. 
Bbh 375.20 saptotsadakayah). — Add to (2): my sugge- 
stion on Siks 208.11 is made dubious by sottarocchada- 
pata (ms.; ed. em. sottaracch 0 ), adj., MPS 34.68 and 69. 

ucchadaka, m. (? cf. ucchada, utsada, Pali ussada), 
only noted SP 341.14 (vs) bahu-ucchadakas caiva bahuru- 
pavicitritah (dattah, viz. to monasteries); Burnouf cous - 
sins; Kern elegant objects; Tib. for the pada reads kun 
dgah dag dad hchag sa byin, in which I cannot discern 
a rendering of anything which ucchadaka could represent; 
hchag sa = cankrama, place of promenade (for monks); 
neither high places nor cloths seem to fit here. 

uccharkara, adj. (subst. ? n. sg. °rah; so Mironov; 
Kyoto ed. ucchargara, ucchakara, var. ucarkara, and in 
Index ucakara, uccharkara; evidently from ud plus sar- 
kara), stony ( stony ground ?): Mvy 9338-9 = (h)gram sa, 
gram pa; Das cites gram sa, stony, — uccharkara. 

ucchava, MIndic (AMg. id., cf. Pali ussava) for utsava, 
festival, festivity: Siks 365.7. 

ucchahati, °te, MIndic (cf. Pali ussahati and Pkt. 
ucchaha = utsaha) for Skt. utsahate, can, is able: °hate 
Av ii.21.15; °hanti Mv i.27.10, 13. 

ucchadaka, m. (cf. next), shampooer, rubber-down: 
Bbh 379.12 °kah snapakaS ca. 

ucchadana (= Pali id., also Skt., but see below), 




in Mv ii.269.15 and 278.1, ucchadana-(in 278.1 Senart 
em. achadana-)-parimardana-svapna- (278.1 supana-) 
-bhedana-vikirana-vidhvamsana-dharma, ep. of the body; 
corresp. to Pali anicc’ucchadana-parimaddana-bhedana- 
viddhamsana-dhammo, e. g. DN i.76.18, of which I believe 
the true interpretation was given by Rhys Davids, Dia- 
logues 1 (1899), p. 87 and note; ucchadana and parimar- 
dana are primarily shampooers’ terms, shampooing and 
rubbing down (so Skt.), but with double entente (not 
recognized in Pali comms.) also destruction and wiping 
out ; BR suggested that Skt. ucchadana was M Indie for 
utsadana, which means both rubbing down and destruction ; 
Skt. Satayati, cuts off , destroys (n. act. satana), and root 
sad-, fall (n. act. sadana, das Ausfallen ), may also be 
concerned, at least in part; see katana, used in a cpd. 
very similar to that of Mv above; parimardana is noted 
in Skt. and M Indie only of shampooing (so also Mvy 
6779), but the verb Skt parimardati means also crushes , 
destroys. In KP 152.2 ucchada (q.v.) must have been 
limited to its shampooers’ mg., since snapana follows. 
But in some BHS texts Satana, q.v., is substituted, elim- 
inating that mg. and bringing in exclusively what I (with 
Rh.D.) regard as the secondary, punning mg. of the Pali 
cpd. Rhys Davids renders erasion, abrasion, admitting 
that the pun is untranslatable. In American gangsters’ 
jargon, to rub out means to obliterate , kill. We might render 
Mv: (the body) which is characterized by rubbing down 
(‘off’), wiping away (‘out’), sleep (or dreams, often symbol 
of impermanence; here, too, a sort of word-play), breaking 
up, scattering, destruction. 

ucchadita, ppp. (to Pali ucchadeti = Skt. utsadayati, 
see s.v. ucchadana; ger. ucchadya recorded in Skt., BR 
s.v. ucchadana), shampooed, anointed : Mv i. 213. 10 = 
ii.16.14 (prose) ucchadita-snapita-visada-gatro ; i.217.14 

ucchadya, ger. (to *ucchadayati, M Indie for avachad 0 , 
§ 3.54, cf. AMg. ucchaiya, covered, Ratnach., = avacha- 
dita), covering : LV 227.11 (prose) svavadanani vastrair 
ucchadya (all mss.; only Calc, achadya). 

ucchitya? seemingly ger.; so mss., Divy 103.22 
. . . unmadam api prapnoty ucchitya va kalam karoti. 
Ed. em. ucchritya, which seems to make no sense; it 
means having lifted, raised up, trans., and there is no 
object here; even if intrans., having risen, I do not see 
that it makes sense. There is some corruption, but I see 
no good em. 

(ucchinna, ppp. (Skt.), cut off : SP 43.12 (prose) 
ucchinno ’smi buddhayanad iti vaded, would say ‘ I am 
cut off from the Buddha-vehicle’ . Mss. vary and text has 
been questioned (Kern, Transl., adopts another reading), 
but it is supported by Tib. ha ni sans rgyas kyi theg pa 
bead pa ho.) 

ucchiraska, adj. (= Skt. ucchiras; Skt. has -Siraska 
in other cpds., but this form may have -ka m.c.), with 
head uplifted: Jm 119.21 (vs) krodhocchiraskan iva krsna- 

[ucchihitva, in Mv ii.127.12; 128.16; 130.2 (sadhu 
ca susthu ca abhisamskarena) uc°, is a mere graphic 
corruption for utthihitva (ger. of utthihati = uttisthati); 
cf. LV 254.21 and 256.4 utthito, in a parallel passage, and 
§ 2.22. Senart doubtfully assumes that it is ‘equivalent’ 
to utthihitva; this form should rather be put into the text.] 

ucchu (m. ; = Pali id., Skt. iksu), sugar-cane : Mv 
i.241.11 (vs) ucchusamavarnam (of Dipamkara), of color 
like-sugar-cane. So read also with Senart in same vs i. 236. 17 
(mss. corrupt). And in RP 59.5 (vs) jnanam tatra utpadaye 
cchu ivatra, we may understand utpadaye(t) (u)cchu, or 
possibly (i)cchu, as in Pkt. 

ucchurita, ppp. (to ud plus Skt. churayati), beset, 
bestrewn: Divy 594.28 (vs) jvalakalapocchuritormicakram 

Ucchusma, n. of a deity: Mvy 4332. 
ucchrta, ppp. (hyper-Skt., if not corruption, for Skt. 
ucchrita; cf. utsrta), raised: SP 235.14 (vs) suskapamsur 
itocchrtah (both edd., no v.l.), for ita(s) ucch°; also Mmk 
373.12 (= ucchrita 21), see ucchata. 

uccheda, nt. (m. in Skt.), cutting off, destruction: 
Lank 10.5 f. (prose) anyatha drsyamana (= °ne) ucchedam 
(n. sg. ; or for uccheda plus m, Hiatusbridger?) asraye 
(so read with v.l. for °yah), if the basis (of the universe, 
or of consciousness) is viewed otherwise, (it is) destruction 
(acc. to Chin, cited in note, of insight ; or, perhaps, simply 
ruin, fatal consequences ?). Suzuki nihilism (see 6a6va- 
toccheda), but this seems hardly appropriate to this 

ucchedana; f. °ni, adj. (= Pali id.; in Skt. nt. subst.), 
cutting off, destroying, or destroyer: Jm 103.10 °nl vittavatam 
kulanam (sura). Same line in Pali Jat. v.l 6.27. 

[?ucche§tum, v.l. ucchrestum, infin., to send forth, 
emit, hurl out: Divy 186.5 (nago ’ngaravarsam) ucch° 
arabdhah (against a monk). But ud plus Sis can hardly 
have the required meaning, and the v.l., tho nonsensical, 
seems to point in the right direction: read utsrastum, from 
ud plus srj (or a M Indie or false hyper-Skt. form thereof).] 
(ucchosa, (m. ; Skt., see Schmidt, Nachtr.), drying 
up, extirpation: Mmk 495.15 (vs) read, sarva (or sarve) 
ucchosam (text sarvecchosam) ayanti (meter is thus cor- 

ucchraya (m. ; = samucchraya, q.v.), body, bodily 
existence: SP 145.12 (vs) sa paScime cocchrayi . . . (Also 
used as in Skt. in sense of height, e. g. SP 159.9, prose.) 

ucchrapayati (= Pali ussapeti; VS 23.26 ucchra- 
paya, isolated; caus. to ud plus sri; see also ucchrayayati, 
ucchrepayati), raises, sets up: LV 193.6 (vs) prakara 
ucchrapita(h) ; Mv i.176.6 (vs) ucchrapita-dharma- 
dhvaja; ii.112.18 patakan ucchrapayanti ; 343.22 (vs) 
(dhvajana kotinayutasahasra) ucchrapayetsu (aor.); Av 

i. 384.10 patakah . . . ucchrapita(h). 

ucchrayayati (caus. to ud plus sri ; = ucchrapayati, 
q.v.), raises, sets up: Divy 76.6 (yastir) ucchrayita; 77.20; 
466.16, 20 sarirasamghata ucchrayitah (in 76.6; 77.20 ed. 
em. ucchrapi 0 ). 

ucchrepana (nt. ; nom. act. to next), the lifting up: 
Bbh 379.1 (bhaisajyam ca) dattva vyadhy-avanatocchre- 
panan matraSi ca . . . 

ucchrepayati, °te (= ucchrapayati, q.v.; cf. prec. ; 
on form see § 38.65), raises , sets up: LV 213.18 °pitam 
vaijayantasamam; 351.7 °pito dharmadhvaja(h) ; 394.22 
(vs) °payasva mahadharmayupam ; 399.19 (vs) °paya . . . 
tathagatadhvajam; 413.17 (prose) °paya mahadharma- 
dhvajam; Suv 62.8 (vs) °pitam dharmadhvajam (note in 
prose 90.11 ucchrayisyasi, v.l. ucchrapayisyasi). 

ucchvasa-prasvasa, m., = aSvasa-praSviisa, q.v.: 
Siks 42.5. 

ucyati (only Vedic, and not quite in this sense; here 
perhaps back-formation from ppp. ucita, the only form 
known in Skt. and MIndic), suits, is pleasing: Mv i.348.18 
(prose) tad yusmakam kim varam ucyati, so what boon 
seems good to you ? 

u'jjankika, some kind of attitude or behavior which 
monks must avoid in begging food: Mvy 8546 nojjanki- 
kaya (instr.). Tib. hjol thabs su (? perhaps with robe 
dragging, sc. on the ground?); Chin, (here) apparently 
pulling at clothes while walking; elsewhere, acc. to Wogihara, 
Lex. 41, Chin, walking on tiptoe , and so Jap. on Mvy. The 
pw 7.322 says the ‘correct’ reading would be ujjaksika, 
and Wogihara, Lex. 41, suggests that the corresponding 
Pali is ujjhaggika (or rather, by em. ujjagghika), Vin. 
iv.187.16, which means laughing, derision, see uccagghati; 
this seems indeed quite possible. 

ujjangala, adj. (= Pali id.; defined DN comm. 

ii . 586.22 by visama, Vv comm. 335.15 by jangalam, lukha- 




dhusaro anudako bhumippadeso . . . jangalato pi ukkam- 
sena jangalam, on Vv 84.5), desert , waste (land): SP 233.2 
°le prthiviprade£e ; AsP 429.4 (prthivipradesa ya) usara 
ujjangala(h); Mv ii.207.5, 8 (vss) ujjangalo ca jangalo 
(Senart, Index, treats ujj° as n. pr.). 

ujjighrant, pres. pple. (cf. Skt. Gr. ujjighra; otherwise 
no form of ud plus ghr& seems to be recorded), sniffing , 
smelling (at food): Prat 533.8 nojjighrantah pipdapatam 
paribhoksyamah. (Same passage cited from a Stein ms. 
fragment, La Vall6e Poussin JRAS 1913.846, top.) 

Ujjitapara (mss. mostly Ujita°; Senart Ujjhita 0 , 
which seems implausible), n. of a former Buddha: Mv 

ujju, adj. (= Pali id., beside uju; Skt. rju; cf. next, 
rjju, and anujjuka), straight , right ; usually in vss where 
jj could be m.c., but once in prose in Mv iii.225.1 ujjucitta; 
the rest in vss: Mv iii.436.3 °gatesu; LV 133.20 ujju 
karitva kayam; 138.20 ujju-bhrasta; 295.8 sadojjuprastho 
(so read; = sada ujju°). 

ujjuka (= prec., q.v. ; also rjuka; Pali id., beside 
ujuka): SP 125.14 (vs) drstim kurvami ujjukam; in SP 
324.2 ms. K' indicates ujjuka for text -rjuka (rj°). 
[Ujjhitapara, see Ujjita 0 .] 

Ujjhebhaka Toneharaka, n. of a king: Mv iii.382.10- 
11 (prose); called Tonehara 386.9 (vs). 

-ujiia-ka, ifc. Bhvr. (to *ujna = Pali unna for Skt. 
avajna; see § 3.55), contempt , in a-£ath’-ujnakas ca (u 
may be in samdhi for a-u), free from deceitfulness and 
contempt: Dbh.g. 6(342).21. 

uttankika, some kind of attitude or behavior which 
monks must avoid in begging food : Mvy 8545 nottankikaya 
(instr.). Tib. bran bas (? bran breast ; also dwelling) ; Chin, 
(here), perhaps walking with the palm of the foot (? or, 
with hands touching the feet?); acc. to Wogihara, Lex. 41, 
another Chin, renders limping ( das Hinken ); Jap. squatting 
(at the entrance of a house). 

udaya (m. or nt. ; — AMg. id., Skt. utaja), hut : Mmk 
37.3 ekante udayam krtva prativastavyam ; 83.5; 106.21; 
113.18; 121.20; 145.19; 524.19; 573.18. 

udigalla (or odi°?), only in gtithodi 0 , q.v. See 
Levi’s note, Karmav (22-) 25 f., where Dravidian origin 
is suggested: Telugu odagala-vadu (= Hindi -wala), 
sweeper (in the Indian sense, cleaner of toilets); Tamil 
odugal, conduite d’eau. 

uddara-, in °ra-dharma-viharinam (acc. sg.), Thomas, 
ap. Hoernle MR 119, cf. 121 note 22 (from Ratnarasi 
Sutra), conjecturally rendered ( practising ) heretical ( prin- 
ciples ). 

UddiySna = Oddiyana: Sadh 361.16. 

Uddiy£naka = prec.: May 97 (see L6vi p. 105 ff.). 
? utacchiyam, Ud xviii.22, is prob. a mere corrup- 
tion: yo ragam utacchiyam aSesam = Pali Sn 2, yo 
ragam udacchida asesam, who has cut off passion without 
remainder . If a substitute for ud-acchidat is intended 
(which should end in a long syllable; °yam?), it would 
seem to show t for d (by hyper-Sktism? §2.29) and y 
for the second d (Pktic). I do not understand Chakravarti’s 

utapta(vant), m.c. for Skt. utta 0 , glowing etc. : 
utapta Dbh.g. 41(67).10; °ta-vatl Siks 337.12 (= uttap° 
7, where meter also requires uta°). 

utittira, onomat., a sound said to be uttered excep- 
tionally by a tittira bird; see MSV i.118.10; 120.18. (Tib. 
says only a different sound.) 

utkaca, adj. (in Skt. rare and doubtful in mg.), 
with hair standing up: Mvy 9197; Bhik 28b.4; MSV iii.7.14 
(see s.v. prakaca). 

Utkata, m., nt., or °ta, f., n. of a town (dronamukha, 
°khya, q.v.): Mvy 5285 °to nama dronamukham; Divy 
620.12 °tam nama dro$a° (acc.), 28 utkatadronamukhyam ; 
621.10 yenotkatam dronamukham (nom., nt.), 19 °tan 

(abl.); fern. 620.21 °tam nama dronamukham (acc.), 
°ta 26. From a verbally close Pali parallel DN i.87.6 it 
appears that the town called in Pali Ukkattha (see DPPN) 
is the same; see Puskarasarin. 

utkattati, or (M Indie) ukka° (see s.v. kattati), 
takes out: Mv iii.158.13 yamalakato (see yamalaka) 
modakam ukkattetva; 431.7 tarn bhandam sarvam 
ukkattitam (sc. from a river); in Mv ii.249.11 read mama 
hrdayo udumbare utkattito sthapito (Senart with one 
ms. utkanthito, v.l. utkarito; in the other two passages 
above Senart em. ukkaddh-). 

utkanthati, and ppp. utkanthita (cf. next; in Skt. 
only longs for ; longing ; but Pali ukkanthati also is annoyed , 
°thita annoyed ), is annoyed ; annoyed ; the ppp. in Mv 
ii. 272. 7 raja Srutva utkanthito evam jato, the king , hearing 
(this), became annoyed , as follows (here certainly not 
desirousl ); similarly ii.274.11 so utkanthito (context 
makes desirous impossible). In Bbh 193.6 (tair bodhi- 
sattvah luhaih stokair asatkrtya dhandham) ca labdhair 
notkanthyate na paritasyati, prob. is not made annoyed 
(pass, of caus.). There may be other cases; many are 

utkantha (see prec. ; Pali ukkantha), possibly annoy- 
unce , mental distress: AsP 494.8, see s.v. paritasana. 

Utkarika, n. of a merchant: Divy 227.26 tatranya- 
taras cotkariko nama banig ... Cf. Otkarika (the same 
person as Utk°). There seems to be no reason to connect 
this n. pr. with aukarika (okkarika), qq.v., as has been 
assumed by Feer, Speyer (on Av, Index, s.v. okkarika) 
and Cowell and Neil (Index to Divy). But perhaps we 
should read cautk° in 227.26 and assume Otk° as the name. 

utkarsana (nt.), °na, and °na-t5 (== Pali (att-)- 
ukkamsana, °na; cf. next), praise , laudation , exaltation 
(regularly of oneself, or one’s own): LV 32.14-15 atman- 
utkarsana-ta (i. e. atma-an-utk°) ; KP 1.15 (vs) atmotkar- 
sani (loc.); 135.6-7 (prose) atmasilotkarsana ; Bbh 158.4 
atmotkarsana; $iks 126.6 svapaksotkarsana-(vacana). 

utkarsayati (cf. prec.; not in this sense Skt.; = 
Pali ukkamsati, °seti), exalts , i. e. praises: gdve., ^iks 
197.10 sacec cancalendriyo (raja) bhavati, utkarsayitavyam 
(sc. bhiksuna), if (the king) is flighty (unstable), praise 
must be bestowed (saying: It is very meritorious on your 
part that your kingdom contains so many worthy monks 
and brahmans who live undisturbed by thieves etc.). 
Acc. to Bendall, Tib. has bstan par bya ho, and accordingly 
Transl. renders The Brother should admonish him’ (more 
exactly, the Tib. means elucidate , make intelligible). But 
I do not see how the BHS word can mean this. The mg. 
of the Pali word is appropriate here; by encouraging 
flattery the king is to be strengthened in a good course. 

utkarika, m., the expression evam: Mvy 7618 = Tib. 
de bzhin no zhes bya ba (Chin, similarly). There is a var. 
udgarikah (cf. Skt. udgara, sound , utterance ?), but Mironov 
utka° without v.l. I do not understand the etym. (ut-kr, 
°karoti, or °kirati?). 

♦utkareti (°rayati, °rati?), ger. °ritva, having emptied: 
Mv i.327.3 (prose) (bhajanani . . .) puretva utkaritva, 
having filled and emptied the pots. The mg. is clear; etym.? 
to utkirati? Senart em. utkiritva, without good reason. 

utkil&a, m., see next. Perhaps utkaSah, alone, is to 
be read in this sense for text utkasah in Gv 307.23 (prose) ; 
after a Tathagata’s parinirvana, by a follower of his, 
udvegasamjananartham dharmika utkasah (i. e. °sah?) 
krto ’bhut: aho bateyam . . . mahadharmolkantardha- 
syatlti samvegajananlya katha krta. But cf. utkasa. 

utkasana-gabda, m. (ud plus kas; cf. next), con- 
spicuous , vigorous pronouncement (so Tib. on Mvy): Mvy 
2799; Divy 517.25 bhagavatotkaSaSabdah krtah . . . pari- 
vrajako (26) bhagavata utkaSanaSabdam ^uSrava; also 27. 

utk£i§a-&abda, m. = prec., q.v.: Divy 517.25. See 
also utkaSa, m., perhaps used in this same sense. 




utkasa, (1) (m.), clearing of the throat (= Skt. ut- 
kasana): LV 416.11 (vs) utkasasabdu napi sruyati tan- 
muhurtam (mss. vary greatly, but Tib. lud pahi sgra 
confirms this form and mg.); (2) m. utkasah, see s.v. 
utkasa; if the theory there stated be rejected, the word 
would have to be classed with (1) and would seem to 
mean something like hemming and hawing , or rather 
ominous sound (calling attention to the future disap- 
pearance of the dharma), in Gv 307.23. 

-utkira, m. (in Skt. adj., aufhaufend ), heap , some- 
thing thrown or dug up, in musi-utkira, see s.v. musi. 

Utkilaka, m., n. of a mountain: Divy 450.9, 11; 
455.28, 29. 

(utkllayati (= SKt., pw 7.322, also 1.220 utkilita; 
wrongly defined in Divy Index and for Divy passage in 
pw 7.322), opens : Divy 528.9, 11 nagaram (a stronghold 
of ogresses) utkilayitvanyatra gacchatha (11 gatvavasthi- 
tah), having opened up the city . . .; Mmk 395.19 sadhakec- 
chaya utkllayati mocayati yathavyavasthayam upastha- 
payati, opens , frees, etc.) 

utkuta (? reading stated in note to be 'not clear’; 
cf. utkutuka?), seems to designate some kind of enter- 
tainer: Siks 330.16 (vs; after nata-nartaka jhallaka-mal- 
lah) utkuta-Sobhika-haraka (qq.v.) . . . (Tib. cited as 
bzhugs; not clear to me.) 

utkuta- sthayin (cf. prec. and next), lit. remaining 
in a squatting position (?), designation of Certain ascetics, 
app. Ajivikas (cf. note in ed., and 332.1): °yina ekacaranam 
Siks 332.7. 

utkutuka, adj. (cf. utkuta-; acc. to BR, occurs in 
Skt. (SuSruta) only as utkatuka or utkutaka; the Pali 
form is app. only ukkutika; AMg. usually ukkudua, °duga, 
°duya, but also ukkaduya), squatting on the heels (see 
PTSD s.v. ukkutika for detailed description); as adj. 
applied to persons, to postures, also in comp, either 
adjectivally or adverbially; adv. utkutukam(?), °kena, in 
squatting posture : °ka nisanna (n. sg. f.) Av i.315.11; °kam 
nisadayitva Bhik 16a.l having made her sit squatting, 
but in 10b. 3 °tukena nisadya, sitting in a squatting posture 
(adv.); in 10a.4 °tukam nisadya, in sense == 16a.l, °kam 
either adv., or MIndic (or corruption?) for °kam; °kena 
adv. also Mv i. 144. 10 (na . . .) bodhisattva matuh kuksigata 
utkutukena (so read, Senart °takena, mss. utkutumbakena) 
parSvena va yatha kathamcid va sthita bhavanti (but 
paryankam abhumjitva); in i.213.7; ii.16.11 situation is 
the same, but adj. is used, na utkutuko (so Senart with 
both mss. ii.16.11; in L213.7 Senart °tiko, but one ms. 
has -uko); in cpds., Mvy 6709 °kasanam, Tib. tsog tsog 
por; 9275 °ka-sthah, Tib. cog (read tsog) bur; see next; 
°ka-prahanam (see this), an ascetic exercise, — Pali 
ukkutika-(p)padhaqam, Mv iii.412.17 (vs) = Divy 339.24 
= Pali Dhp. 141; °ka-sthandila-£ayanaiS ca LV 249.4, 
and by sleeping in a squatting posture or on bare ground ; 
258.15 (vs) utkutuka-dhyayi (so read with best mss., 
metr. superior to Lefm.’s reading utkuta-dh°), meditating 
in a squatting posture ; °tuka-sthitena, adv., while sitting 
in a squatting posture, Bbh 153.12; 181.20. 

utkutukika (to prec.), squatting posture : Mvy 8548 
notkutukikaya (instr.); Tib. rtsog (read tsog?) bus ma 
yin. (Jaschke and Da$ record tsog pu, squatting; the French 
Catholic Diet, tsog pu or °bu; see prec.) 

utkuhjapayati, caus. (to Pali denom. ukkujjati), 
causes to be set ( right side ) up: °yisyatha MSV iv.140.15. 

utkumbhati, prob. rears (of a balky horse; so guessed 
from context): KP 108.2 (yatra . . .) aSva(h) skhalati 
utkumbhati va khadunka- (q.v.)-kriya va karoti, when a 
horse stumbles or rears or acts viciously. Tib. seems to have 
no correspondent for this word; the several Chin, versions, 
likewise, fail to clarify it; they seem to have only two 
verbal expressions for three of the BHS. 

utkula, adj., high, rising ; only with nikula, low, 

descending, and usually in cpd. utkula-nikula (cf. Pali 
ukkula-vikula, interpreted as high and low, AN comm. 
ii.35.21), high and low, hence uneven : Mvy 2708 °lam, and 
2709 nikulam (the Tib. definitions, san ham son 2708, 
hbar hbur ram mtho dman 2709, seem to refer confusedly 
to the pair of words together, and mean uneven, high- 
and-low); LV 77.17 utkulanikulaS ca prthivipi*adesah 
samah samavasthitah, and the high-and-low ( uneven ) 
places became even; 272.17 utkula-nikula-sama-kara- 
carana-gatih (of the Bodhisattva’s gait), . . . making even 
places that were uneven; MSV i.14.19 (as an adinava). 
The cpd. utkula-nikula occurs VS 30.14, where it is un- 
explained in comm, and not definable by context; utkula 
occurs once or twice besides; nikula is hardly recorded 
otherwise, and seems to be unknown in MIndic (Pali has 
vikula instead, above). 

Utkulaka, m., n. of a mountain (= Ktilaka, q.v.): 
Divy 450.10. Cf. preceding. 

utkrstataraka, adj. (compv. of utkrsta plus ka), rather 
superior : Bbh 16.8 (prose) utkrstatarakebhyo gunebhyo 
na vicchandya . . . nihlnatarakesu gunesu samadapayati. 

utkrstika, prob. cocking or throwing back or up (of 
the head): Mvy 8541 notkrstikaya ; Tib. (mgo mi gyog, 
head not covered; or) mgo mi brdze (= our def.); °ka-krta, 
one who has adopted the above attitude: Mvy 8607 °krtaya 
(Tib. only brdzes, or rdzes, pa, as above); Prat 536.4 
°krtasya (but here Chin, is said to mean qui a la poitrine 

utkotana, nt. (see below), or (var. in Kyoto ed. ; 
and Mironov without v.l.) khotana, nt. : °nam Mvy 8423. 
Both form and mg. obscure; occurs between bhiksu- 
paiSunyam and dusthularocanam. Tib. skyo snogs (var. 
brhogs) byed pa, causing quarrels; Chin, disturbing the 
samgha; Jap. raising questions about a matter already 
decided. The last implies derivation from utkotayati, 
q.v. Skt. has nothing helpful on either reading. Pali 
ukkotana-ka, Vin. ii.94.7, means reopening a settled question 
(wrongly PTSD), just as the verb ukkoteti seems always 
so used. But ukkotana is defined by DN comm, i.79.30 
as taking bribes (to obstruct justice), which finds support 
in AMg. ukkoda, bribery (Ratnach.), and seems to fit 
better the Pali occurrences; it is always found in a list 
of instances of trickery and deceit (typical is DN i.5.22 
ukkotana-vancana-nikati-saciyoga pativirato) ; cf. the Skt. 
root kut. If khotana (Skt. Gr., limping ) is the true reading, 
I know of no plausible interpretation. 

utkotayati (= Pali ukkoteti; cf. prec.), reopens a 
question already legally settled: Prat 503.4 (yah punar 
bhiksur janam samghena yathadharmam) niksiptam adhi- 
karanam punah karmany utkotayet, patayantika. 

utkroSa, m. (to ut-kru£; nowhere recorded except 
as n. of a bird), outcry: LV 230.5 (vs) utkrosu (n. sg.) 
mukto, and 8 utkrosu (acc. sg.) krtva aho mama eka- 
putrol; 232.20 (vs) utkrosu fmss. utkrasu, utkasu) krtva 
dharanitale nirasto; Gv 326.6 mahantam artasvaram 
utkrosam akarsuh. Uncertain is Divy 453.21 (in a list of 
five individuals who sleep little at night) utkrosa (v.l. 
utkona) rni; possibly a debtor in case of an outcry (made 
against him by his creditor? understanding utkroSe). But 
Tib., as translated in the note p. 709, is said to render 
utkroSah the red duck (see below; in Skt. a bird, Seeadler), 
and seems to omit rni; probably read for this prani (below). 
Divy Index watchman (?); implausible; PTSD compares 
this word with Pali ukkusa, a bird, apparently osprey 
(— kurara). Lacuna in this story MSV i.149.10; N. Dutt, 
on basis of Tib. srog chags ( livinq being ) nur pa ( red duck), 
conjectures utkrusa-p rani. Should not Tib. be corrected 
to nu ba, weep(ing), p ut-kru£-? 

utkro£ate (not recorded in this sense), cries for , 
demands (alms): Divy 473.11 (Sakro . . .) dvari sthitva 
bhaiksyam utkro6ate. 




utkrosana (nt. ; = utkrosa, q.v.), outcry : Gv 326.21 
mahantam artasvaram utkrosana-sabdam srutva. 

utkrosayati (denom. to AMg. ukkosa, see below), 
exalts, magnifies : AsP 419.4 atmanam utkrosayati paran 
pamsayati. The AMg. ukkosa is derived by Sheth and 
Ratnach. from utkarsa' (or utkrsta) and defined as adj., 
highest, supreme , or, as n., pride. If this is the true etym., 
our word would be a hyper-Sktism, by false etym. Possibly, 
however, the AMg. word may really represent a Skt. 
*utkrosa, which, like Eng. a crying-up, could conceivably 
have meant glorification. To be sure I find no record, 
otherwise, of such a mg. in any deriv. of ut-krus. 

utksipana (nt. ; from ut-ksip plus -ana, but new 
M Indie formation, like Pali ukkhipana; cf. Skt. utksepana), 
lifting up, nom. act.: LV 114.10 (vs) caranotksipane, in 
the lifting of their feet. 

utksipati (Skt. in mg. lifts up, etc.), (1) lets up in 
sense of permits to ascend, opp. niksipati: LV 186.(12-)13f. 
ekaikasya ca prasadasya sopanani panca-panca purusa- 
satany utksipanti sma niksipanti sma ( let go up and down); 
tesam tathotksipyamananam niksipyamananam ca sabdo 
’rdhayojane sruyate sma; (2) (= Pali ukkhipati) suspends 
(from the order of monks); ppp. utksipta: Bhlk 29b. 1 
utksiptanuvartaka (see anuvartaka); similarly Mvy 8480 
utksiptanuvrttih, the following ( cleaving to) a suspended 
(monk), so Tib. spans pahi...; (3) averts (the senses, 
particularly the eyes, from forbidden objects): Divy 278.29 
indriyany utksipati, and in the following lines; indriyany 
utksipyavasthitah MSV iii.18.11,. stood averting their eyes 
(in embarrassment); in this sense == Pali (indriyani) 
okkhipati from avaksipati, see avaksipta; apparently 
BHS utks° is false Skt. for MIndic okkh 0 ; acc. to Chin. 
( eyes not cast to one side), anutksiptacaksuso Prat 529.10 
would belong here; curiously the Pali equivalent, Vin. 
iv.186.29 okkhittacakkhu (note lack of negative!), appears 
to mean with downcast eyes, which the old comm, inter- 
prets by observing that it is a sin to enter a house or sit 
down looking around at this or that (taham taham olokento), 
so that okkhitta-, as opposite of this, would mean essen- 
tially the same as BHS an-utksipta- as interpreted by 
Chin. But for this evidence, an-utksipta- might be inter- 
preted, in accordance with Skt. usage, as not lifted up 
(thus in another way = okkhitta-). 

utksiptaka, m. (°pta, see prec. 2, plus specifying 
-ka; = Pali ukkhittaka), (a monk) that has been suspended: 
MSV ii.113.12, 15, etc. Read this for utksepaka(-tva) 
MSV iii.67.11, 12; cf. 69.6. 

utksepaka, m. (= Pali ukkhepaka, Vin. i.338.24 ff. ; 
to utksipati 2 with -aka), one who moves suspension (of 
a monk): MSV ii.177.6ff.; 191.7 ff. See prec. for MSV 
iii.67.11, 12. 

utksepanlya, adj. (gdve., to utksipati, 2; — Pali 
ukkhepamya, with kamma), with karman, ( ceremony ) of 
suspension (from the order): Mvy 8646 °nlyam (doubtless 
supply karma); Divy 329.10 kurutasyotksepanlyam (so 
text) karma; Bhilc 28b. 4 yasya bhiksoh samagrena bhik- 
susamghenotksepaniyam karma krtam; MSV ii.176.4; 
201.13; penalty for refusal to recognize or correct sins, 
MSV iii.28.10 IT. (as in Pali Vin. ii.21.21 ff.), or for heresy, 
ib. 30.9 ff. 

utksepa-lipi, n. of a kind of script: LV 126.5; fol- 
lowed by niksepa 0 , viksepa 0 , and (6) praksepa-lipi; 
also, line 7, utksepavarta-lipi, and (in some mss., supported 
by Tib.) niksepavarta-lipi. All these terms seem to be 
intended to refer to the shape of the letters, rather than 
to the countries where they are used. It is hardly possible 
to guess what the author meant by them, and the woodenly 
literal Tib. translations give little help; Tib. renders 
utksepa, gdeg pa, elevation (and avarta, skor ba, turn); 
niksepa, bzhag pa or bzhog pa, putting down; viksepa 
(which Tib. transposes to the point in line 6 where Lefin.’s 

ms. A has it), rnam hthor, scattering; praksepa, bsnan pa, 
addition, increase. 

utkhalati, see utskhalati. 

Utkhalin, m., n. of one of the 16 devaputra guardians 
of the Bodhimanda: LV 277.12/ (Tib. ut-ka-li.) Cf. next. 

Utkhali, or (v.l. supported as to vocalism by Tib. 
u-khu-li) Utkhurl, n. of a goddess, attendant on the Bo- 
dhisattva in his mother’s womb: LV 66.8. Cf. prec. 

utkhatayitar, m. (cf. Dhatup. khadayati = bhedane? 
is there some confused relation to Pali ukkhetita, Vin. 
iii.97.21, abandoned ?), one who causes to depart from (abl.), 
to abandon: Gv 462.23 (kalyanamitrani) . . . °taro lokani- 
ketat (sc. for a Bodhisattva). 

Utkhuri, see Utkhali. 

[utta, implied in (duhkhena) cotto LV 133.16; read 
either catto = ca-atto, with ms. A, or carto = ca-arto 
(one ms. cited as cortto); Foucaux affecte par la douleur, 
which must be substantially the meaning.] 

-uttaka, adj. ifc., perhaps made, produced: Mv ii.457.14 
(prose) hastisalaya patalani ghanani mahantani bahujana- 
uttakani, (when a fire had broken out in the elephant- 
stables) . . . the thatches of the elephant stable, thick, great , 
made by many people . . . This assumes a ka-extension of 
AMg. -utta in deva-utta, bambha-utta, produced ( created ) 
by (the) god(s), by Brahma (see citation in Sheth s.v. utta). 
The origin of the word is obsciire; Sheth and Ratnach. 
rqgard it as identical with Skt. upta, sown. Senart has 
no suggestion as to mg. or etym. 

uttanuruha, adj. (ut plus tanu°), with hair erect (thru 
joy): Jm 204.18 mudottanuruhah. 

uttapta, ppp. (to Skt. uttapati, cf. BHS uttapayati), 
orig. (and in Skt.) purified by fire (of metals; so also BHS, 
suvarnam uttaptam Mv i. 165.2); here fig., purified, pure, 
of food: uttaptottaptair upakarana-visesair MSV iii.19.20; 
134.10; of mental and abstract qualities, Mv i.106.1 
uttapta- (so mss., Senart em. °tam) jnanam tesam pra- 
vartate; LV 8.2 smrti-mati-gati-dhrty-uttapta-vipula- 
buddheh, of vast enlightenment purified by . . .; 11.6 -pra- 
modyottapta-vipula-smrti-samjanane ; uttapta-ku^alamu- 
las te Suv 5.4; °ta-kusalamulena 159.6; 167.9; 171.12; 
°tam (mss. uptam, but Tib. and Chin, render uttaptam) 
kusalamulam 172.11; °mulanam Gv 268.3; uttaptah Mvy 
1816, where context suggests earnest, strenuous, and one 
of three Tib. renderings, sbyans pa, means primarily 
purified, but also exercised, trained; uttapta- ta, abstr., 
state of being purified, LV 422.1 (vs) tena hitakarena uttap- 
tata-prapta (so read, as cpd.) bodhih siva, . . . attained 
thru being purified. 

?Uttaptarastra, Senart’s em. at Mv i. 139. 13-14 for 
mss. Attapta 0 , Attapta 0 , see s.v. Atapta 0 . But the em. 
may be right: having a pure rule or kingdom, see uttapta. 

Uttaptavlrya, n. of a previous incarnation of Buddha: 
RP 22.20. 

Uttaptavaiduryanirbhasa, n. of a former Buddha: 
Sukh 5.19. 

UttaptasrI, n. of a kalpa: Gv 447.3. 

uttama (1) (nt.?), top part (of a building), roof or 
top story: Divy 321.17 (yuvatayo) rodanti vesmottame; 
(2) (m. or nt. ; = Pali id., see PTSD s.v. kasika), upper 
garment: kaSikottama-dharinah (mss. °varinah) Mv i.296.4. 
In Pali also, apparently, only after kasika; (3) m., n. of 
a naga king: May 247.27. 

Uttara, m. (and nt., see 8) (1) n. of a former Buddha: 
Mv iii.239.2 f. ; (2) n. of a follower of the Buddha Kasyapa, 
who later became Sakyamuni: Av i.239.7; ii.23.5; 51.8; 
88.1; referred to MSV i. 217. 13 as if concerned in the story 
of (Nandipala) Ghatlkara; also MSV i.261.20; (3) n. of 
a maharsi (perhaps = 1 or 2?): Siks 189.9; (4) n. of a 
brother of Nalaka Katyayana: Mv iii.382.14; 383.1; 
(5) n. of a youthful (manava) follower of King Prasenajit 
(cf. DPPN Uttara 10): Divy 156.10 ff.; (6) n. of a mer- 




chant of Rajagrha who became a Buddhist disciple and 
whose mother became a preti (cf. DPPN Uttara 7): Av 
i.261.11; a like story of an Uttara .of Sravasti, MSV 
iii.19.18 IT. ; (7) n. of a naga king (cf. Uttaraka): Mvy 
3261; (8) nt., n. of the Buddha Mangala’s city ( = DPPN 
Uttara 19): Mv i.249.2; described in the following. 

Uttaraka, n. of a naga king (cf. Uttara 7): May 

uttarakala, app. further, higher art: Jm 208.2 sottara- 
kalanam kalanam. No clue has been found as to precisely 
what is meant. 

Uttarakuru, if Senart’s text is right, in Mv i. 103. 10 
designates an inferior region or people in which successful 
Bodhisattvas are not reborn: °rusu nopapadyanti (along 
with pretas, asuras, and animals). But mss. all vary: utte 
ca kurusu, uttame ca kulesu, (one only) uttara ca kurusu. 
Doubtful. As n. of one of the dvipas, see dvlpa. 

uttarakuru- dvlpa-lipi, a kind of script: LV 126.4 
(Tib. indicates omission of dvipa). 

Uttarakururaja, n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.140.3. 
Uttarakaurava, adj. with manusya, inhabiting (the 
dvipa) Uttarakuru: Divy 215.28 ff. 

(uttarana, nt. [as in Skt., e. g. samsara-samudrotta- 
rana, BR s.v. uttarana], rescue, salvation: listed Mvy 1751 
as one of the synonyms of saranam, esp. as applied to the 
Buddha [follows tarakah, followed by paritrata].) 

uttarati, false-Skt. for M Indie (Pali) otarati = 
avatarati (§ 3.54), arrives at: SP 302.7 (vs) srutva ca 
(sc. jnanam) adhimucyante uttaranti ca . . . (one ms. only 
cited as otaranti; WT utt° without v.l.). 

Uttaradatta, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 443.4. 
uttaram, see s.v. .uttari. 

Uttaramati, (1) n. of a satpurusa, q.v. : SP 3.12; 
(2) n. of a Bodhisattva: RP 1.12; SsP 6.12. 
uttara- manusyadharma, see s.v. uttari. 
Uttaramantrin, m. pi., n. of a people: Mvy 3056. 
Uttaramanusa, n. of a naga king: May 247.26. 
uttaram- manusyadharma, see s.v. uttari. 
UttarasrI, n. of a gandharva maid: Kv 5.18. 
Uttara, n. of a girl, servant of Sujata: LV 268.7 ff. 
uttaragamana (nt., or m.; uttara plus ag°), sub- 
sequent arrival (in the world), i. e. rebirth; future incar- 
nation: Mv i.189.1 (vs) °ne (in a new incarnation ) kulava 
mahesakhyo ... so copapadyate. 

uttarapathaka, adj. (or subst. ; from °patha plus 
-ka), of the north country; one who lives in it: LV 381.4 
(prose) °pathakau dvau bhratarau trapusa-bhallika- 
namakau; Mv ii.175.4 °pathakam bhasyam, northern 
dialect; 6 °pathaka vayam. (They came from Taxila, 7 

uttari (apparently the usual form; also uttari, chiefly 
if not wholly m.c. ; uttarim, once uttarim; uttare, 
°rena; possibly uttaram, but use of this as separate adv. 
uncertain; in prior part of cpds. uttari-, °re-, °ram-, 
besides normal Skt. uttara- ; Pali apparently only uttarim 
as separate word, uttari- in prior part of cpds, besides 
uttara-) adv., and prep, or postposition with abl. or gen., 
further, beyond, of time, space, number, etc.; synonym of 
bhuyas; all the forms enumerated seem to be equivalent 
and interchangeable to the extent indicated above; none 
seem recorded in these uses in Skt. or Pkt. acc. to the 
dictionaries; once uttari may be intended as n. sg. m. of 
an adj., Bbh 102.15 (prose) na ebhya uttari na ebhyo 
bhuyan anyo hetur vidyate, no other cause is found beyond 
these, greater than these (cf. the next passages); with de- 
pendent abl., usually atas, tatas: nasty ata uttari nasty 
ato bhuyah (cf. prec.) Bbh 25.17 (prose); nata uttari 
nato bhuyah 36.18; (cf., without dependent, kutah punar 
uttari kuto bhuyah 297.22;) tatottarl (m.c.?) aganiyu 
tasya aslt samghas . . . SP 192.7 (vs; for tata uttari), 
beyond that (number), incalculable was his assembly; atas 

ca bhuya uttari visistatararn (both edd. as cpd. uttarLvi 0 ) 
. . . pujam karisyarni SP 412.3 (prose); tata uttari (of time) 
SP 160.4 (prose); ato 'py uttari (of serial numbers) LV 
148.12 (prose, and repeatedly in sequel); tatottari LV 
154.7 (prose! for tata ut°); tata uttarim (this form is 
isolated) bahukalpam Dbh.g. 17(353). 17, many kalpas 
beyond this; ata uttari Gv 104.25; LV 239.15 (both prose; 
to LV corresponds Mv ii.119.5 and 120.16 where uttari 
has no dependent form); ato ca uttari Mv iii.55.15 (prose); 
tato vottari tisthet Sukh 4.12 (prose), or should remain 
(a time) beyond that; ato bahu uttari lokadhatu Sukh 
46.1 (vs); varsasatam va tato vottari Gv 522.6 (prose); 
tata uttare Dbh 48.15 (prose); atottarena LV 172.21 (vs; 
for ata ut°); uttari manusyadharmad . . . jhanadarsanavi- 
sesam saksatkartum (263.11 °sesah saksatkrto) LV 246.16; 
263.11 (both prose; cf. the cpd. uttari-manusya 0 below), 
. . . beyond, human conditions; with dependent gen., mama 
uttari yo (ed. uttariyo) visisto LV 119.3 (vs), who is 
distinguished beyond me; naitasya (ed. ne°) acariya uttari 
LV 125.5 (vs)> there is no teacher higher than he; tasyottarena 
Mv i.2.2, Senaft em., but read with mss. pratyot 0 , q.v. ; 
i.250.5 (sloka vs) dipamkarasya ottarena (see this; bad 
meter), prob. read °karasyottarena, which may mean 
°sya-ut°, after Dipamkara; uttarena Vairambhasya maha- 
samudrasya Divy 105.29 (prose) beyond . . .; adv., without 
dependent: form uttari, uttari cabhyanumodayisyanti 
SP 338.3 (prose), and further they will...; yad uttary 
arhattve pratisthapayet 348.2 (prose), if further he should 
establish them in arhatship; dananisargah punar uttari 
pravartate sma LV 95.7 (prose); (tatha) cottari paryesate 
LV 245.20 (prose); uttari senam amantrayate sma 319.19 
(prose), (Mara) further addressed his host; Mv ii.119.5 and 
120.16 (parallel to LV 239.15, above, where ata uttari); 
uttari visesam (Senart °ri-vis° as cpd.) arabheyam Mv 
iii. 173.4 (prose), may I attain further (exceptional) dis- 
tinction (as compared with the retinue, who were now his 
equals); Mv iii.396.9 (prose; parallel to Pali Sn prose after 
517, where uttarim, v.l. uttari); Sukh 10.12 (prose); RP 
4.3 (vs); Siks 16.14 (prose); Dbh.g. 20(356).17; 23(359).2; 
in some of the preceding uttari occurs in situations where 
we should except an adjective, which seems even more 
called for in the next, w T here, however, f. or m. gender 
would be demanded: (na sa stri . . . samvidyate) ya tasya 
rupena sama kutah punar uttari Gv 172.21 (prose) ... no 
one who would be equal to her in beauty, how much less 
beyond (superior to) her\, and parallels in the sequel with 
masc. for fern., but always uttari, 172.23, 26, etc.; uttari 
(prob. m.c., but cf. Bbh 102.15 above), na uttari prarthayi 
(ger., or aor.?) SP 215.10,' not asking (or, we did not ask) 
further; uttarim (not m.c., tho in vss!), Dbh.g. 6(342). 9; 
te kalpakotim athavapi cottarim . . . Sukh 45.6; uttare, 
sometimes, as in the first two, interpretable as n. sg. m. 
of uttara (§ 8.25), but so closely parallel in use to uttari 
that it is better taken as adv.: jatya ca so vimsatir uttare 
va SP 313.8 (vs); sadrSo ’sti na te kutottare LV 364.18 
(Lefm. with mss. kutontare, Foucaux cites kutottare 
from a ms., and this is certainly meant); na me ’sty ato 
’rtha(h), ata uttare ganana apratimasya jnanam (so read) 
LV 151.4-5 (vs); kascid uttare naivasamjnanasamjna- 
yatanasamapatter margah LV 245.3 (prose); uttare vai 
nanamisena samtarpya Gv 146.3, similarly 146.16; 152.15 
(all prose); te kalpakotir athavapi uttare Sukh 74.17 
(cf. 45.6, above; vs but end of pada), they, for crores of 
kalpas or even further . . .; in LV 119.6 (vs) reading un- 
certain, kuta uttaram (so Lefm. with ms. A, other mss. 
°ri, unmetr. ; Calc. °rl, perhaps rightly) va, how could 
there be one higher (prob. adverb); [in Mv ii.243.7 (prose) 
ed. tasya panjarasya uttarim sthitva, but read with v.l. 
upari, on top of the cage; this mg. is not found for uttari(m) ;] 
in composition, uttari-jhana-viSesasucanatayai Gv 191.11 
(prose; apparently substantially = uttara); note esp. 




uttarottari-(v.l. °ra-)-visistatara-kusalamula- LV 429.14 
(prose), more and more exceedingly superior roots of merit ; 
(ekam pudgalam sthapayitva) saiksapratipady uttari- 
karanlyam Sukli 2.13 (prose), (except one person) who 
had something left to do in the saiksa course (the rest all 
being arhats); note that Pali has the same cpd. uttari- 
-karaniya, but acc. to PTSD only as a karmadharaya, 
an additional duty , not as a bahuvrihi as here; in some of 
the above it is not certain whether uttari- is compounded 
with the following word or a separate adverb; in LV 
246.16; 263.11, above, uttari must be prep., governing 
manusyadharmad ; to these passages correspond Mv 
ii.121.7, 12; 122.2 uttari-manusyadharmasya jnanaye 
darsanaye sambodhaye; Senart takes the word as a cpd., 
depending on jnanaye etc., prob. rightly, tho the gen. 
manusyadharmasya might be dependent on prep, uttari; 
the latter construction is impossible, and a cpd. (= Pali 
uttarimanussadhamma, superhuman faculties or conditions; 
the analysis of the Pali comm, cited by Childers is incon- 
sistent with that indicated by LV 246.16 and 263.11) 
must be assumed in Mv ii.l 30.12 kamcid uttarimanusya- 
dharmam; Divy 145.21, 28 and 146.16 uttarimanusya- 
dharme (so with mss., ed. wrongly em. uttare man°); 
Siks 62.4 uttarimanusyadharmair; besides this, the same 
cpd. is recorded in BHS (not in Pali) as uttara-manusya- 
dharma-(-pralapa, m.), Mvy 8367, declaring (falsely the 
possession of) superhuman faculties (one of the parajika 
sins); also uttaram-man° Divy 144.4, 28; 145.18 (mss., 
in 144.4 ed. em. °re); Bhik 26a.3; uttare-man° Divy 144.9, 
13, 21, 23, 27; 145.3, 11, 13, 17; 146.8, 25 (in all these 
read as cpd.; ed. takes uttare as separate adj., misled by 
the fact that the cpd. is a loc., ending °dharme; see above 
for evidence that uttare = uttari as adv. and prep.); in 
Divy 144.5 apparently anuttare is used as synonym of 
uttare in this cpd. (taken by ed. as separate adj.), yady 
ekam sramano Gautamo ’nuttare-manusyadharme riddhi- 
pratiharyam vidarsayisyati vayam dve (see anuttara; 
but this word does not fit and must be either a cor- 
ruption, or a sign of misunderstanding by the author of 
the passage; elsewhere in the same passage only forms 
of uttara-, uttari- etc. are used). 

uttarika (Pali, see below), in &iks 332.1 (vs) ajlvika- 
dharma-caranam uttarikana anuttarikanam, of Ajivika- 
sectarians, superior and not superior^! ); acc. to Bendall 
and Louse, Transl., those who have or those who have not 
the higher aim, which is hardly illuminating. See Bendall’ s 
note in Text p. 414 for report of a Chin, interpretation, for 
which I find no basis in Indie. In Pali uttarika is reported 
only Nett. 50.10 °kanam phalanam pattiya; obviously 
superior or the like. Pali has no anuttarika. 
uttari- karaniy a, see s.v. uttari. 
uttarika (to Skt. uttara), superiority, in bhaktottarika, 
superiority of food : Divy 284.24 yo °rikaya jesyati...; 
285.15 na kvacid °kaya parajayati; 285.20. 

uttarim, see s.v. uttari; uttari- manusyadharma, 
and other cpds. of uttari-, see id. 

uttari, uttarim, uttare, uttarena, and their cpds., 
see s.v. uttari. 

1 uttarya, nt., and °rya, f. (cf. Skt. and Pali uttarlya, 
AMg. uttariya; perhaps a hyper-Skt. form for the latter?), 
apparently a covering (for a part of the body: hands, 
ears, or back), but cf. 2 uttarya: karna-prsthottaryani 
stambhani (!?) maniratnakatakakeyurakani pralambitani 
samdrsyante sma Kv 7.20; in Kv 30.12 in a long cpd. 
describing ornaments and clothes of girls, keyura- . . . 
samayuktanam (kumarinam); in Kv 78.(20-)21 at end 
of a long cpd., list of ornaments and garments, maull- 
kundala- . . . ratnahara-skandhoparisvajanika-(corrupt?) 
-prsthottaryany angustha-vibhedikany (q.v.) anyani ca 
vividhani vastrani. 

2 uttarya, ger., in Kv 32.17 vamanakarupam abhinir- 
maya, mrgajinenottarya, venudandam upagrhya . . ., 
evidently covering (with a deerskin). Cf. 1 uttarya. As 
a ger. the form seems inexplicable, unless as an extension 
of the Skt. usage with ut-tha-, ut-tambh-; is a MIndic 
uttharya intended (to utstarati, see s.v. uttharati, == 
strnoti; or to Skt. ava plus str-)? Note that Kv is also 
the only text where 1 uttarya is recorded; has the noun 
influenced the form of the gerund? 

uttana, adj. ( = Pali id.; in this sense hardly Skt., 
but see pw for approximations; cf. uttanl-karoti), open: 
of the face, in uttana-mukha-varna (= Pali uttana-mukha, 
wrongly defined PTSD), of open (frank) countenance 
(suggesting accessibility, friendliness; so Pali DN comm., 
contrary to PTSD), Bbh 123.11; 217.9 (in both foil, by 
smitapurvamgama); clear, manifest f of dharma, Mvy 
1304; Av (with vivrta); uttana-kriyam agamya 
Bbh 81.11, coming to manifestation ; °nam dharmadeSanam, 
°nam avavadanuSasanrm Bbh 224.15; te (sc. dosah) 
. . . uttana visaditdh prakaSitah Bbh 45.20; of doctrines 
that are obvious and so simple , easily comprehensible, in 
contrast with such as are profound (gambhlra) and hence 
comprehensible only to superior minds, Bbh 82.18; 283.19. 

uttanaka, adj. (= Pali id., Skt. uttana), supine, on 
the back; upturned (with back down): Mv i.213.7 (prose; 
parallel ottanako, q.v.) na uttanako (tisthati; the Bodhi- 
sattva in his mother’s womb); °ka prapatetsuh Mv ii. 283.1 ; 
412.15; (bhumav . . .) °kan pratisthapya Divy 375.10 
(these all prose); °kan krtva . . . bhumau SP 84.9 (vs); 
hastau . . . °kavasthitau Mmk 407.3 (prose; the hands 
upside down, in a mudra); °kah Mmk 362.23 (vs). 

uttani-karoti (= Pali id. ; to uttana; in Skt. mukham 
°nikrtya, opening the mouth , see pw), publishes, makes 
known : Mv iii.408.18 (aryasatyam . . .) °roti prakasayati; 
Mvy 2771 °karisyati (sc. dharmam); Av i.287.5 karma . . . 
prakaSitam uttanikrtam; ii.151.3 atyayam . . . vivrtam 
uttanikrtam; Gv 48.3 vibhajaty °roti; 67.3 (dharmapary- 
ayam . . .) °romi vivarami; 149.2 °kurvatam, gen. pi. 
pres. pple. 

uttani- karman (== Pali °kamma; to prec.), publica- 
tion, proclaiming, making known: Bbh 408.14 tesam (sc. 
dharmanam) samakhyanam vivarana °karma. 

Uttapanarajamati, n. of a Bodhisattva: Gv 442.8 
(read °rajasyottapana° for °rajasyattapana°). 

uttapayati (caus. of Skt. ut-tapati ; on mg. see uttapta ; 
Skt. caus. not recorded in this sense, even of metals), 
purifies (orig. of metals; here fig.)* Gv 385.17 (bodhisattva- 
vimoksam . . .) uttapayan, purifying. 

uttarana (nt. ; in this sense not Skt. or Pali; see 
uttarayati), carrying out (of a promise): Siks 126.7 prati- 
jnottaranavacana va; a neg. is needed; either delete 
preceding punctuation and understand a-prati°, in samdhi 
with preceding va; or read with ms. of Bodhicaryav. 
panjika on 5.54 (ed. 124.3, with note) pratijnanuttarana- 
vacaria; in either case, not carrying out one’s promise. 
La Valine Poussin erroneously corrects to the reading of 
Bendall’ s text of Siks. 

uttarayati (in this sense not recorded), carries out, 
fulfils: LV 184.14 (vs) °raya pratijnam, fulfil your promise; 
or rather, with Corrigenda (and metrical requirements) 
pratikahksam, carry out the expectation (of people, i. e. 
what they hope from you). Cf. prec. and samuttarana. 

uttarayitar, m. (in this sense not recorded; to Skt. 
uttarayati), one who brings forth, rescues: Gv 462.25 °taro 

? uttini-karoti, see uttrnl 0 . 

uttima, adj. (= Pkt. id., Sheth, and Pischel 101; 
in AMg. uttimanga = uttamanga, Pischel 1. c. ; Skt. and 
Pali uttama; [see §22.16), highest, supreme: Mv iii.268.1 
°ma-yasam, mss. (Senart em. uttama-yaSam). 

Uttiya, n. of a Sresthin: Mv i.36.3 ft. 




uttisthate (special use of Skt. stha plus ua, q.v. in 
BR s.v. 3), arises = is being built , of a house: Divy 304.12 
(anyatarasya grhapater grham) °te. 

utt^ni-karoti ( = Pali uttinam karoti; implies adj. 
*uttrna, deprived of thatch ), makes (a building) roofless, 
object aveSana-malam (so read with mss., see s.v. mala): 
°krtva Mv i.328.10, 14, 20; 329.1 (in the last two read 
with mss. °malam ut°krtva); °karetsu (v.l. °suh) i. 328.12 
(here one ms. uttini-k°, apparently intending the M Indie 

uttrasa, m. (Skt. Lt .. ; = Pali uttasa, utrasa; cf. an-u°, 
nir-u°), fear: Mv i.79.13 °sa-bahula(h) ; Siks 83.8 sukara- 
syeva uttraso; Gv 351.5 na casyaparime tire uttraso 
bhavati; MadhK 264.4 srotrnam uttrasaparivarjanartham. 

uttrasana, n. (and adj.?) (once in Skt., Dhatup., 
pw 2.295, as n. act.; not in Pali; cf. AMg. uttasanaa, 
°naga, adj., terrifying ), the act of frightening : Bbh 146.13 
uttrasanavarjanena (dvandva), by frightening and pro- 
pitiation; 180.5 uttrasanarhanam sattvanam uttrasanaya; 
(adj., or ifc. Bhvr. ?) Divy 604.2 -paramabhisananirnadam 
sakalajanottrasanam, terrifying all people. Cf. next. 

Uttrasam (to prec.), n. of a raksasi: May 243.20. 
utthapeti (cf. Skt. ut-thapayati, ermuntern , BK s.v. 
5), raises up, exalts = cheers , refreshes : fut., esa me utthape- 
syati Mv iii.3.16 (vs). 

? uttharati, cf. AMg. uttharanra, pres. pple. ; seemingly 
implied by ger. uttharya, if this is to be read for 2 uttarya, 
q.v., Kv 32.17. 

utthala (adj., or subst. m. or nt. : = AMg. id., a 
sandhill , a sandy down; Skt. *ut-sthala), (a) dry, sandy 
(place): §iks 249.13 purusa utthale de£e udapanam . . . 

(utthapana, f. °ni, adj. [= Skt. utthapani, sc. rc, 
Kaus., BR s.v. 2], concluding [verse]: n. pi. °niye [mss.; 
Senart em. °niya] gatha Mv ii.26.13, prose.) 

utpattati (ger. °ttitva(na), ppp. °ttita; app. blend 
of utpatati with a quasi-denom. from utpatti, or modi- 
fication of utpatati by confusion with utpatti; Senart 
i.374 n.), springs up, goes forth, flies up: °tva Mv i.6.8 ff. 
(prose), six times, subject rays of light, arci(s), as also with 
ppp. °ta Mv i.26.3 (prose; in same line nipatitayo, fallen 
down); °tva Mv ii.243.11 (prose), subject Sakuntako, 
hence clearly to root pat, fly; ger. °tvana, Mv iii.456.5, 
subject inhabitants of hell; in parallel to this, i.11.15, 
Senart reads utpatitvana, but mss. (upetitvana or upentit- 
vana) are equally favorable to utpatti 0 ; the mg. could be 
having gone ( flown ?) forth, or perhaps having originated, 
been (re-)born. 

utpatti, f. (= Pali uppatti, see esp. atthuppatti, 
CPD; cf. Skt. utpatti in pw, 4), orig. occurrence , and so 
occasion: asyam utpattau Mvy 9209, on this occasion, 
see nidana 6. 

-utpattika, ifc. Bhvr. — utpatti, see sotpattika. 
ut-pattra, adj., with leaves fully out: Jm 129.20 
°traih (drumaih). 

utpathajiva, adj. m., one who makes his living on 
by-paths: MSY i.52.7, see pathajlva; ii.146.12. 

utpathika, adj. (°i(n) plus -ka), = next; in Mv 
iii.179.7 (prose) read na utpathiko aryadharmanam, not 
going astray from Aryan principles; one ms. na utpatiko; 
Senart with v.l. navutpattiko, q.v. 

utpathin, adj. (Skt. utpatha plus -in; cf. prec.), 
goiyg on a wrong course: LV 325.6 (vs) (yo nara . . .) £Ile 
utpathi (n. sg.) dhyana (so read with ms. A for ed. dhyayi) 
utpathi (so read, as required by meter, for °thi; n. sg.) 

utpadyati, (1) arises in one's mind, appears or occurs 
to one: katham tava utpadyati Mv iii.393.1, how does it 
strike you ? what do you think of it (the proposal of an 
opponent in debate)?; ppp., tesam .... utpannam Mv 
i.311.11, it occurred to them (foil, by direct quotation; so 

also in the next two); raj no utpanno (read °nnam?) Mv 
ii.64.17; tesam dani utpannam ii.69.14; (2) in mg. of Skt. 
caus. utpadayati, produces, causes : ye . . . hetham utpa- 
dyema Mv i.365.10, who (— if we) should cause injury. 

utpadyana (nt. ; = Pali uppajjana; M Indie -ana 
formation to utpadyate), production, origination: Gv 48.5 
(prose), read: harsa-utpadyana-samtanani (see s.v. sam- 
tana 2). 

utpanna, see utpadyati. 

utpala, (1) m., Mvy 7797, or nt., Mvy 7926 (cited 
from Gv) and Gv 106.19; 134.3, a high number; (2) m., 
n. of a former Buddha: Mv iii.235.16; (3) m. (= Pali 
uppala, °laka), n. of a (cold, Dharmas, Tib. Mvy) hell: 
Mvy 4934; Dharmas 122; Divy 67.23; 138.7; Av i.4.9 
etc. ; (4) m., n. of a kalpa: see Upala (and cf. Utpalaka 3). 

Utpalaka, m. (1) n. of a hunter: Mv ii.102.1; 104.8*; 
105.18; 114.6*, 7* (in passages marked * Senart prints 
Uppalaka with one ms.); (2) n. of a naga: Mvy 3287; 
SP 4.12 (Burnouf, and hence BR, Utpala); May 247.30; 
(3) n. of a kalpa (cf. prec. and Upala): Gv 446.14. 

utpala- gandhika (in Skt. Lex. as n. of a kind of 
sandal), see s.v. gandhika. 

Utpalanetra, (1) n. of a king, former incarnation 
of the Buddha: RP 24.4; (2) n. of a Bodhisattva (the 
same as 1? but represented as contemporary with the 
Buddha): Gv 3.2. 

Utpalapadmanetra, n. of a former Buddha: Mv 
i. 138. 13. 

Utpalabhuti, n. of a perfume-dealer: Gv 182.10. 

Utpalavaktra, n. of a cakravartin: Thomas ap. 
Hoernle MR 101, from Mahasamnipata Sutra. 

Utpalavarna (= Pali Uppalavanna, called Theri), 
n. of a follower of the Buddha, referred to as a sravika 
Mvy 1072; Mv i.251.21: as a bhiksunl Divy 160.7; 401.24; 
Karmav 159.18 (see Levi’s note on her story). See also 

Utpala6rlgarbha, n. of a Boddhisattva : Dbh 2.10. 

Utpala, n. of a raksasi: May 243.15. 

Utpalavati, f., Divy 471.1 IT. ; 476.21 ; or Utpalavata, 
lit., Divy 479.19, n. of a city. 

Utpalavarna, n. of a Buddhist disciple, doubtless == 
Utpalavarna, Jm 115.24 (vs; but °la° does not seem to 
be m.c.). 

(utpata, [m.], the act of plucking out, cf. pw 2, App. : 
Divy 299.2, 20; 301.26; 303.19. [In Divy 517.18 utpatam, 
epithet of padam, foot( print), prob. corrupt; the same vs 
in Pali, Dhp. comm, i.201.5, reads ukkutikam, v.l. ukka°.]) 

utpataka, adj. (cf. Pali uppataka; in Skt. only as n. 
of a disease), plucking out : &iks 69.18 dantotpataka(h), 
n. pi. 

utpandutpandu, or °duka, adj. (amredita, ut plus 
pandu, with or without -ka which may have pitying dim. 
force; = Pali uppanduppanduka-jata), very pale: °dukah 
krSaluko durbalako Divy 334.1, 3; °duh krSaluko durbal- 
(ak)o 571.18, 20; °duko bhavami krSaluko durbalako 
571.21; °dukani sphutitapanipadani 463.8; °ka(h) MSY 
i.i.10 etc. 

utpata, m. (or °taka, m., or upadu, m.; = Skt. 
utpataka, Mbh 18.44, AMg. uppayaga, Ratnach. 5.15; 
cf. Pali uppataka, an insect), flea; three variants, upaduh 
Mvy 4858, utpatah 4859, °takah 4860; Mironov utpata- 
kah, v.l. utpatah only; Tib. lji ba, or khyi £ig, both flea. 
With the form upadu may be compared Skt. Lex. (Trik.) 
upadika, some sort of insect. 

utpada, m. (Skt. id., production etc. ; so in cittotpada, 
q.v.), (1) in bodhisattvotpada, Kashgar rec. for bodhi- 
sattvavavada, SP 65.1 et alibi, see avavada (of which 
this seems to be a secondary distortion); (2) (= Pali 
uppada, for Skt. utpata), portent, omen: Mv iii.386.10 
°desu vidyayukto (of a brahman purohita); prob. in this 
mg. utpada-ganda-pitakani MSY ii.82.17, (bad) omens , 




boils and abscesses , or boils' and abscesses due to the (above- 
described) omens ; but Tib., if I understand it, fails to 
interpret the word. Senart, Mv ii.549, note on ii.279.20, 
assumes this mg. also in purvotpada-sampanno bodhisattvo, 
which however seems to me to mean simply perfect in 
(or, as a result of) previous births; so agrotpada-sampanno 

ii. 279.21; and cf. ii.259.12 IT., also of bodhisattvas, purvot- 
pada-sampanno . . . kalyanotpada 0 agrotpada 0 jyesthot- 
pada° sresthotpada 0 pranidhi-purvotpada 0 ; a very similar 
list ii.291.12 ff. If I am right, utpada here has its normal 
Skt. mg; (3) calamity (due to bad omens; development 
of 2): °dam apadyeyur MPS 31,63 (otherwise Waldschmidt). 

utpadayati, with object citta, samjna, manasikara, 
or the like, produces an intention, resolution (cf. cittot- 
pada): cittam, Mv i.38.10; 80.4 (to become a Buddha); 

iii. 138.8; Kv 12.16; 27.12 (read -cittam utpadayanti); 
59.20; ppp., sprhacittam utpaditam abhut SP 101.5; 
manasikaram, SP 72.15, duhkhamanasikarasamjnam, SP 
78.5; bhutasamjnam, Vaj 22.10, 18. 

utpadika, adj. (cf. also cittotpadika), productive : 
Kv 80.6 prajamandalasyotpadikah (klesah). 
utpika, v.l. for utphika, q.v. 

utpinda, nt., condiment, relish (going with food): 
Mvy 5765. So, apparently, Chin, and Jap., also BR, 
Zuspeise; Tib. sbags pa, or nos pa, which are not clear 
to me. 

(utprasayati, mocks; rare in Skt., see pw 7.386 s.v. 
root as plus ut-pra; but cf. Skt. utprasa, utprasana: 
Divy 17.11 (prose) tvam apy asmakam utprasayasi; Siks 
266.10 utprasyamanasya, pres. pple. pass., of one that 
is mocked .) 

utplava, m. (cf. Pali uplavati, uppilavati; and see 
the foil, items), joy: Mvy 7693 (Mironov utyavah, clearly 
nonsense; Tib. dgah yal yal, extreme joy (?); Chin, and 
Jap. joy); Siks 183.6 manasa utplavah, in a list of syno- 
nyms for joy and gladness. 

utplava (m. ; = Pali ubbilapa, v.l. uppilava, ‘which 
is probably the correct reading,’ PTSD ; cf. prec. and next 
three), joy: Siks 126.12 mana-utplava-karl (vac). 

utplavaka, adj. (to utplavayati, q.v.), deceiving: 
Bbh 23.2 paresam utplavakam vicitrabhutagunakhyanam. 

utplavana (nt.) and °na (connected with utplava, 
utplava, qq.v.), joy: Dbh 12.9 prlti-bahula utplavana- 
bahula; 24.16 manautplavana-kari manahprahladanakarl. 

utplavayati (cf. utplavaka; in this sense seems un- 
recorded except in BHS; perhaps caus. to Pali uplavati, 
uppilavati, rejoices [cf. utplava, utplava, and prec.], 
caus. makes happy [for insufficient reasons], so wheedles; 
or else belongs to Pali uplapeti, immerses, ducks in water, 
and so tricks, gets the better of), seduces, leads astray: SP 
111.1 (vs) yathapi balah puruso bhaveta utplavito balaja- 
nena santah, in parable of the prodigal son; Kern seduced, 
confirmed by Tib. bslus. 

? utpharati (cf. Skt. utphalati, recorded in this 
sense, pw), jumps up: Mv ii.249.16 (prose) (tato vanaro 
tasya SuSumarasya) grivato utpharitva (so, or uspliar 0 , 
mss.; Senart ' upphar 0 ; but not causative; prob. read 
utpharitva, or upphar 0 ?) tarn udumbaram prakranto. 

utphika, Mvy 9542 (so Mironov), or utpika (m. or 
nt. ?), 9541 (and v.l. Mironov), n. of a disease; Tib. either 
glo bahi (of the lungs), or mgohi (of the head), glog pa (on 
which see rajata; ulcer*! cancer ?). Chin, apparently a 
disease characterized by insanity. See also uvyadha. 

utsaktikd, perhaps attitude of head thrown back or 
held up stiffly: Mvy 8542 notsaktikaya, instr. (of monk’s 
behavior); °ka-krta, one who is in that attitude, Mvy 
8608. In the former, Tib. mgo mi (g)zar, with the head 
not stiff or abruptly straight, so also in the latter except 
that mgo, head, is lacking; Chin. acc. to Ting’s Diet. 
with robe inside-out. 

1 utsanga- (-pada, or -carana), see ucchankha-. 

2 utsanga, nt. or m. (var. ucchanga), a high number 
= 100 vivahas: LV 76.20 f. utsangenotsangam, by myriads; 
148.1 °gam, n. sg., cited from LV by Mvy 7961 as ucchan- 
gam; but Mvy 8012 utsangah (Mironov same both times); 
Tib. phan, or pah, sten — lap-top; Mv ii.421.16 (hiranya)- 
suvarnasya utsangam krtva; iii.405.6 °varnasya utsanga- 
Satani dattva. Cf. mahotsanga. 

utsajati (if not a misprint, MIndic for utsrjati; cf. 
sajati which supports this), abandons: Gv 481.25 (vs) 
utsajitva (ger. ; final a m.c.) amaropamam grham. 

utsada, m., and adj. (see also ucchada, °daka; = 
Pali ussada, used in all mgs. here recorded), (1) elevation , 
prominence, protuberance, swelling, esp. one of 7 such on 
the hands, feet, shoulders, and back of the neck of a 
mahapurusa, constituting the 16th of the 32 laksana, 
q.v. (and cf. Pali sattussada): Bbh 375.20 saptotsadakayah 
(Bhvr.), saptasyotsadah kaye jatah, dvau hastayor dvau 
padayoh dvav amsayor eko grivayam; cf. the list Gv 
400.9-11, ...two amsakutayoh, one prsthato grivayam; 
Mv i.226.19 utsadah, subst. ; in Bhvr. cpd. saptotsadah 
Gv 400.8; Mvy 250; LV 105.18; 430.18; °dam; acc., Gv 
128.1 ;. saptotsadanga RP 47.9; and in other lists of 
laksana, q.v.; (2) addition, supplement, in connection or 
composition with naraka, hell, one of the 16 supplementary 
hells which belong to each major hell (mahanaraka; = 
Pali ussada-niraya, not well defined PTSD): Mv i.5.1 
astasu mahanarakesu pratyeka-sodaSotsadesu; 1.7.3 kuna- 
pato mukta (n. pi.) narakotsada (abl. sg.); i.8.12 astasu 
mahanarakesu sodaSotsadesu, and i. 244. 19 same; i.9.11 
pratyekasoda£otsada; iii.454.10 (asta mahanaraka...) 
pratyekam sodasotsada; (3) adj., abundant, and n. abun- 
dance (distinction between the two often not clear; gener- 
ally used in prior or posterior part of cpds. where either 
could be assumed); certainly adj. in Bbh 379.19 prabhute- 
notsadena vKadenannapanena (3 synonymous adj., see 
visada) ; Divy 646.16 utsadannapano bhavati, has abundant 
food and drink; MSV i.36.18 naty-utsadamamsa tanugatri, 
of not excessive flesh, slender-bodied; KP 111.2 (prose) 
utsada-patraclvaradharanataya (an [akasa-] -paligodha, 
q.v., for an ascetic); 111.5 (vs) tatotsadam civarapatra- 
dliaranam (Tib. lhag par, surpassing, modifying dharanam) ; 
Siks 56.6 yadi . . . labha utsado bhavet, if the profit should 
be abundant (but Bendall and Rouse, should amount to a 
surplus); doubtless subst. in Gv 495.16 (bodhicittam . . .) 
utsadabhutam aksayajnanataya, it is an abundant store . . . ; 
but 2d ed. utsa-bhutam, spring, source; in most of the 
rest adj. seems simpler, but subst. possible: Mv ii.319.21 
(vs) utsada-praptam (here perhaps better subst., attained 
to abundance, sc. of creatures, viz. of the followers of Mara, 
as following marana koti . . . shows; not reduction of 
utsadakuSalapraptam with Senart i.372 note); utsada- 
kusala-samcayo Mv i.249.18; 251.12; ii.177.14; abstract 
in -tva, §iks 248.5 (yasya, sc. tejodhatoh) cotsadatvaj 
jvarito jvarita iti samkhyam gacchati, and thru the abun- 
dance of which a feverish man comes to be called feverish; 
Siks 107.1 (vs) pradosa vardhenti vitarka utsada (adj. 
with vitarka, or subst. in comp, with it? Bendall and 
Rouse the latter, but text prints as two words!); Bbh 
252.16 kasayotsada-kala-tam, condition of time abundant 
in kasaya; 16-17 niskasayanutsadakasaya-kala-tam (. . . 
free from, or not abundant in, kasaya) ; Mv i.61.3-4 (sattva. . .) 
utsadalola (so Senart em., mss. all corrupt; but read 
°lobha, proved by Vism.) utsadadosa utsadamoha, cf. 
Pali Vism. i.103.19 (satta . . .) lobhussada dosussada 
mohussada, having abundant (Pali, abundant in, or having 
abundance of) lobha, dosa, moha; SP 170.1 (vs) apaya- 
bhumls (so all Nep. mss.) tada utsadasi, the stages of 
misfortune were then superabundant; LV 276.21 utsada- 
manimuktivaidury asankha£ilapravadaraj ataj atarupyam 
(? v.l. °rupam; sc. lokadhatum) ; RP 35.11 (vs) asamyata 
uddhata unnata£ ca, agaurava manina labha-utsada 




(cpd.) . . . sudura te tadrsa agrabodhaye (either abounding 
in profit or having abundance of profit). Peculiar is saptot- 
sada in Divy 620.13 (Utkatam nama dronamukham pari- 
bhunkte sma) saptotsadam satrnakasthodakam dhanya- 
sahagatam . . . brahmadeyam, and 620.28-621.1, similarly, 
with sa-saptotsadam; a close parallel in Pali, DN i.87.(6-)7 
Ukkattham aj jhavasati sattussadam (comm. i. 245. 20 sattehi 
ussadam, ussannam bahujanam akinnamanussam . . . 
anekasattasamakinnam ca) satinakatthodakam sadhan- 
nam . . . brahmadeyyam; cf. also Pv comm. 221.11 sattus- 
sadan ti papakarihi sattehi ussannam (this, in line 16, 
— uparupari nicitam). It seems clear that this sattussada 
in Pali = Skt. *sattvotsada, abounding in living creatures. 
It seems to have been falsely Sktized in Divy (which, 
or its source, obviously followed closely a M Indie original 
very close to the Pali of DN) to saptotsada, because the 
adapter knew familiarly this cpd. as one of the 32 laksana 
(above, 1). Presumably he thought it meant here containing 
seven elevations of some sort, but I see no use in speculating 
further as to his intentions. 

utsadana, nt. (= utsidana; with mg. 1 cf. Skt. 
utsldati; with mg. 2 cf. prec. and an-utsanna), (1) coming 
to grief , ruin: sthale utsadanam MSV i.49.10, 17 (in 2 
above read utsatsyati for utpat°); (2.) superfluous abun- 
dance , excess , in °na-dharmakam (bhaktam) Divy 307.23, 
27, of food offered to monks and not fully used by them, 
of the nature of excess (pw 7.323 zum Wegraumen bestimmt). 
For Mvy 6781 utsadanam = Tib. dril ba {rolling, in sense 
of rubbing down , massage ; so Skt.), Minayev and Mironov 
read utsadanam, apparently a faulty reading. 

utsanna ( = Pali ussanna), excessive; see an-u°. Cf. 
prec. 2. 

utsarana, nt., ascent , marching up, in Mvy 4485 
pipilikotsaranam = Tib. grog rna gyen du hdzeg pa, 
ants marching up hill (a term used in logic). 

utsarpita, adj. (ppp. of ud plus srp, caus.), app. 
laid by as balance , left over (from a sum of money): Divy 
23.11 aparam utsarpitam; 16 (nasmabhih kimeid uddha- 
rikrtam) kim tv aparam utsarpitam tisthati, (we have not 
incurred any debt,) but the rest remains put aside as left 

utsaryati (semi-M Indie for utsaryate, § 3.34, pass, 
of utsarayati, also Skt., q.v.), is put aside , is violated: 
Mv ii.92.18 katham tu utsaryati dharmaSastram. 

utsavika, adj. (Skt. utsava plus ika), pertaining to 
festivals: Mv ii.84.20 vastra ca utsavika, holiday clothes; 
iii.177.17 vyayakarmena (em.) utsavikena, matters of 
expense due to festivals . 

utsahana-t£ (to Skt. utsahati; cf. next), fortitude , 
persistent energy, endurance: SsP 1461.11 (a Bodhisattva 
resolves to endure infinite torments in hells to bring 
creatures to enlightenment: evam yavat sarvasattvanam) 
krte yaty utsahanata aparikhedah (are the two last words 
a cpd.? lack of weariness in fortitude , endurance ?). 

utsahan£ (to Skt. utsahati; but perhaps better read 
uts&han£, to caus. utsahayati, encouragement ), enthusiasm , 
energy (?): Divy 490.5 kim nv ayam utsahana-vineyah 
ahosvid avasadana-(q.v.)-vineyah. 

uts&raka, m. or f. pi., n. of a class of malevolent 
superhuman beings: Mmk 17.5; foil, by mahotsaraka(h) ; 
in a long list of demons etc. 

utsarana, nt. (to next with -ana), acc. to N. Dutt 
(In trod, xxii) — sivarhana; it seems, at any rate, to mean 
removal of religious disabilities from a monk, cf. the 
following osarana (206.16): MSV ii.206.12, 14. 

utsarayati (specialized mg. of caus. of Skt. utsarati; 
see also utsaryati), frees (from religious disabilities), see 
prec.: MSV ii.206.13-16; Tib. seems to be cited as smon 
(zhig), which I cannot interpret; ib. 113.13 (see Corrigenda), 
cf. osaray 0 115.2 etc. See (v)osarayati. 

utsShana (nt.; cf. utsahana, and next), inspiration, 

the making energetic : in title of SP chap. 26, samantabha- 
drotsahana-parivarta, SP 483.5, 7. 

utsahani (cf. prec. and next), in Divy 654.27 either 
noun, energy , or adj. with utir, energetic or inspired , 
inspiring: °ny utir aprativanih (qq.v.) smrtya sampraja- 
nyenapramadato (see samprajanya) yogah karaniyah. 

utsahayati (caus. to utsahati), (1) considers (lit. 
makes) capable: LV 100.16 (prose) te sarve . . . maha- 
prajapatim gautamim utsahayanti sma, they all considered 
M.G. capable (of tending the Bodhisattva); (2) tests the 
capacity of: Bhlk 15b. 2 karmakarikaya . . . utsahayitavya: 
utsahase tvam, etc., she is to be tested as to her capacity 
by the karmakarika (nun, saying): Are you capable . . . 

utsicati (Skt. utsincati not in this sense; — Pali 
ussincati; §28.12), bales out , exhausts: Mv ii.90.15 (prose) 
etam samudram utsicami (mss., Senart em. utsincami), 
17 (prose) utsicami (kept by Senart) mahodadhim; 91.1 
(prose) utsicitum (inf.; mss. unsic°, Senart em. utsinc 0 ); 
92.6 (vs) mss. unsici, °cim (opt. 1 sg. ; Senart em. utsimei, 
which this time seems required by meter) mahasamu- 

utsista, ppp. (hyper-Skt. for ucchista, § 2.19), (some- 
thing) left over: Siks 125.4 raha utsistam krtvanutsista- 
haresv adadatah pretagatih pathyate; 139.14 utsistasyapy 
asucer na dosah. 

utsidana (nt., quasi-M Indie formation from utsldati 
plus ana; unrecorded; = utsadana 1 and 2; cf. samsl- 
dana), (1) destruction (of a ship, on land, sthale, i. e. by 
running aground in shipwreck): Divy 229.23 sthala utsi- 
danabhayam; (2) °na-dharma = (2) utsadana-dharmaka, 
of the nature of superfluity : MPS 7.2. 

[utsukya, error for aut°, in Divy 601.21 gamanayot- 
sukyamana, read °yaut°.] 

?utsukha = Skt. utsuka, longing, desirous: Gv 
330.25 ity utsukhesu (so also 2d ed.). Perhaps error; but 
cf. Geiger 40.1 ; Pischel p. 148, middle. 

utsudhi (f. ?), n. sg. °dhih, (1) Mvy 1789 = Tib. 
spro ba, joy;' so Mironov (v.l. both edd. utsrcitah); (2) Mvy 
7683 = Tib. mthan pa (?not in Tib. Dictt.; perhaps == 
hthan pa, firmness, but Chin, dbscurity, confusion, hence 
Mvy Kyoto ed. suggests em. unmudhih). Probably = 
utsodhi, q.v.; both firmness and joy are meanings of Skt. 
utsaha, from the same root. 

[utsrcita? v.l. for utsudhi, q.v.: °tah Mvy 1789.] 
utsrjana (cf. Skt. utsarjana; semi-MIndic formation 
in -ana on the pres. Skt. utsrjati), letting loose, letting fly 
(pennants, in the wind): Gv 163.3 utsrjana-nanaratna- 
dhvaja-patakam, with various . . . pennants for flying (in 
the wind). See also anutsrjanata. 

utsrjyate = Skt. utsrjati, abandons: Mvy 2558 = 
Tib. gton ba. 

utsrta, adj. (hyper-Skt., § 2.19, for Pali ussita, Skt. 
ucchrita, for which utsrta is recorded rarely, at least as 
v.l., in Skt.; cf. ucchrta), high: Mv ii.239.18 °ta-dhvajam 
(note in 240.8 ucchrita-dhvaja, of the same entity); Mmk 
407.9, read dvau-m-utsrtau (text °mrsrtau), and 419.12 
dvi-m-utsrtai(h) . . . tri-m-utsrtaih (in all with hiatus- 
bridging m). 

utsodhi, f. (?m. ; = Pali ussojhi; cf. also utshdhi; 
in mg. = Skt. utsaha), exertion, strenuosity: Gv 109.11 
(prose) bodhisattvanam °dhir ajayate. 

utskhalati, or (semi-MIndic) utkhalati, trips , stum- 
bles: ppp. °lita, as active, Mv iii.223.19 (prose) brahmana- 
grhapatika nigamajanapada utkhalita (so Senart with 1 
ms.; v.l. uskha°, intending utskha 0 ). 

utstirya (ger. to *ut-str), wiping away (tears): MPS 
31.71 (see Waldschmidt's n. 3). 

[Udaka, see Uddaka.] 

udaka-candra, m., (1) ihe moon in water , as symbol 
of deceptive and unsubstantial things: Mvy 2814 (among 
svnonyms for may a); also uda-candra, daka(-candra), 



U day in 

qq.v. ; no such form noted elsewhere; (2) n. of a former 
Buddha: Sukh 6.1. 

UdakaniSrita, m. pi., n. or ep. of a class of nagas, 
who are wardens (raksa) of the Trayastrim£a gods: Divy 
218.8 ff. 

udakaprasada (nt.? cf. next), a kind of jewel: Gv 
495.1 (prose) °da-moniratna-. 

udakaprasadaka, nt., = prec. : °ka-maniratna~ Gv 
53.2, 3; °kam (n. sg.) mahamaniratnam 498.14. 

Udakaplotika, n. of an upasaka at Kitagiri: MSV 
iii.18.12 f. 

udaka-bhrama, m. (cf. Skt. bhrama^ perhaps a 
conduit , Schmidt, Nachtr.), gutter for waste water (from 
a bathroom): Mvy 9290 = Tib. gtor (stor) khun; Mv 
ii.167.5 udakabhramena varanasim nagaram praviSitva. 
Cf. L6vi, Karmav p. 269. 

udaka-mani, m. ( = Pali °manika), water-pot: 0 manin 
pratisthapya Divy 64.26; 81.12; 183.16; 284.27; 507*8; 
MSV i.79.14; °manayah pratisthapitah Divy 306.23. 

udaka-raksasa, m. (Pali °rakkhasa), water-ogre , who 
lives in water and devours bathers: tatra ca udakahrade 
udakaraksaso (mss. °sa) prativasati punar-punah janam 
snapayantam mareti Mv ii.77.17 (and in foil, lines); 
satkayadrsty-udakaraksasa-grhitah Dbh 28.25. Also daka- 
raksasa; see s.v. daka. 

udaka-vaha (= Pali °vahaka), flood: Mv iii. 303,10 
°ha-bhayam va, in a list of dangers to a caravan. 

udaka-satika (= Pali °satika), water-garment , to 
be worn while bathing (= varsa-satl): MSV ii.84.11 ; 
85.19 ff. 

udaka-samvasa, n. of a gem which keeps people 
from dying in the water: Gv 498.16 tad yatha kulaputro- 
dakasamvasamaniratnavabaddhe (read °ddho?) kaivarta 
udake na mryate (so text). 

udaka-hara, m., °harl, f.; °hari(m), see under 2 
hara, -hari, and cf. uda-haraka. 

udagra, (1) adj. (= Pali udagga; not in this sense 
in Skt. or Pkt.), joyful , delighted : esp. often in formula, 
tusta udagra attamanah pramuditah prltisaumanasya- 
jatah, SP 60.1; Mvy 292*9-33 (udagrah 2930); RP 47.18; 
Suv 9.7; Gv 99.15, etc.; plurals, SP 69.7; also with vari- 
ations, hrstatustah udagra etc. Divy 297.15; hrsta abhusi 
udagra pramudita pritisaumanasyajata Mv ii.163.19; in 
Av (e. g. i.4.1) repeatedly in the form (hrstatustapramu- 
dita) udagrapritisaumanasyajata; (hrsta-)tustodgraprlti- 
saumanasyajata Karmav 28.27; (tusta) udagrah Suv 
191.3; hrsta udagrah SP 190.8 (vs); miscellaneous,, SP 
214.4; LV 41.17; 47.1*5; 271.19; 361.8; Mv i.83.7; 219.7 = 
ii.21.9; ii.397.18; iii.143.1; Dbh.g. 18(354). 3; udagra-citta 
SP 56.6; 197.3; LV 392.3; Mv i.247.6; (2) noun, prob. nt. 
(cf. Pali odagya), joy: Mv ii.171.1 na ca te paSyami abhi- 
ratim (so read with mss.; Senart em. °tam) na udagram; 
Mv ii.147.5 and 148.5 udagram anubhavahi, experience 
joy\ = farewell 1; cf. also udagrl. The adj. also occurs in 
senses recorded in Skt.; intense , Bbh 11.11 udagra-pratata- 

[Udagragdmin, read Udayagdmin, q.v.] 
udagri (cf. udagra), joy , in °gri-bahula Dbh 12.10, 
preceded by pramodya-, prasada-, priti-, utplavana- 
bahula, and foil, by u§I- (q.v.), utsaha-b 0 . Is the fern, 
form due to attraction to the surrounding fern, stems? 

uda-candra = udaka-c 0 and daka-c°, qq.v. : °dra- 
sama imi kamagunah LV 174.5 (vs), cited Siks 204.15, 
reading dakacandranibha. 

?ud-aficati ( = Skt. °cayati), makes (voice) resound: 
perh. to be read in LV 394.18, see s.v. aftja(s). 

udapasi, aor. 3 sg., originated , was produced , for Skt. 
ud-apadi, Mv i.248.7 etc. (only in Mv; see § 32.60 for list 
of occurrences; sometimes written udupasi in mss.). 

udaya (m., as in Skt.), (1) with vyaya (cf. Pali khan- 
dhanam udayavyaya or udayabbaya, as cpd. ; see also 

samudayastamgama), arising and passing away (of 
skandhas): SP 69.16 (vs) (dharmacakram . . .) skan- 

dhanam udayam vyayam, (the wheel of the law . . .) 
which is (consists of) the (doctrine of the) arising and 
passing away of the skandhas (wrongly Burnouf, not quite 
rightly Kern); (2) n. of a mleccha king: Mmk 622.1. 

Udayagami(n), n. of a former Buddha: n. sg. °mih, 
Mv i.138.7 (so Index; text Udagra 0 , apparently misprint). 

Udayana, (1) n. of Suddhodana's purohita (father of 
Udayin 1): LV 121.1; (2) n. of naga: Mvy 3324. (Also 
n. of the well-known king of Vatsa, as in Skt., Mv ii.2.12; 
cf. next.) 

Udayanavatsarajapariprccha, n. of a work: Siks 

Udayin, see Udayin. 

Udayibhadra (in Pali Udayibhadda), n. of a son of 
AjataSatru: Divy 369.10. In the same line he is called 
Udayin (n. sg. °yl); prob. read Udayibhadra. 

Udarya, n. of a yaksinl: MSV i.xviii.17. 

[udaSvin, read udaSvit (Skt., see BR), a mixture of 
buttermilk and water: MSV ii.34.8; 35.1.] 

uda-haraka, adj. or subst. m. (= Pali id.; Skt. 
uda-hara; see s.v. haraka), carrying ( one who carries ) 
water: Av ii.69.10. 

Udagata (v.l. Udaragata) n. of a former Buddha: 
Mv i.137.8. 

Udattakirti (v.l. Udanta 0 ), n. of a former Buddha: 
Mv 1.138.11. 

Udattavarna (by em. ; mss. Udanta 0 ), n. of a former 
Buddha: Mv i.137.15. 

Udattavastra (v.l. Udanta 0 ), n. of a former Buddha: 
Mv i.139.13. 

udana, m. or nt. (= Pali id.; with acc. pron. usually 
imam, sometimes idam), a solemn but joyous utterance (acc. 
to PTSD sometimes a sorrowful one in Pali), usually but 
not always having religious bearings; almost always in 
modulation of phrase imam (less often idam, as LV 350.21 ; 
Mv ii. 286.1 ; or omitted) udanam udanayati (usually with 
sma after verb), very common: LV 103.13; 159.14; 380.15; 
Lank 2.15; Mv iii.254.13; Divy 558.1; 3 pi. udanayanti 
LV 31.5; Divy 163.28; aor. udanaye Mv i.351.13;